Agricultural Sector and Marketing Reforms – eNAM, Model APMC Act, Eco Survey Reco, etc.

Indonesia’s Palm Oil Crisis


From UPSC perspective, the following things are important :

Prelims level: Global edible oil crunch

Mains level: Read the attached story

The world’s largest producer and exporter of palm oil, Indonesia, is facing domestic shortages, leading to price controls and export curbs.

What is the news?

  • It’s rare for any country that is the largest producer and exporter of a product to experience domestic shortages of the same product.
  • Consumers are unable to access or paying through the nose for a commodity in which their country is the preeminent producer and exporter.

What is Oil Palm?

  • Palm oil is an edible vegetable oil derived from the mesocarp of the fruit of the oil palms.
  • The oil is used in food manufacturing, in beauty products, and as biofuel.

Palm oil production in Indonesia

  • Its palm oil production for 2021-22 (October-September) at 45.5 million tonnes (mt).
  • That’s almost 60% of the total global output and way ahead of the next bigger producer: Malaysia (18.7 mt).
  • It is also the world’s No. 1 exporter of the commodity, at 29 mt, followed by Malaysia (16.22 mt).

Do you know?

14,000 IDR is less than $1 or Rs 74! See the extent of depreciation one currency can undergo!

Have you ever heard of the Zimbabwean hyperinflation of 2009? One literally had to pay a heap of cash to buy a piece of bread!

Why in headlines?

  • Indonesia has seen domestic prices of branded cooking oil spiral, from around 14,000 Indonesian rupiah (IDR) to 22,000 IDR per litre between March 2021 and March 2022.
  • Much recently, the government imposed a ceiling on retail prices at 14,000 IDR.
  • This led to the product disappearing from supermarket shelves, amid reports of hoarding and consumers standing in long queues for hours to get a pack or two.

India’s imports of palm oil (in lakh tonnes)

Plausible factors

(1) Ongoing War

  • The possible reason has to do supply disruptions — manmade and natural — in other cooking oils, especially sunflower and soyabean.
  • Ukraine and Russia together account for nearly 80% of the global trade in sunflower oil, quite comparable to the 90% share of Indonesia and Malaysia in palm.
  • Russia’s invasion of Ukraine has resulted in port closures and exporters avoiding Black Sea shipping routes.
  • Sanctions against Russia have further curtailed trade in sunflower oil, the world’s third most exported vegetable oil after palm and soybean.

(2) Diversion for Bio-Fuels

  • Another factor is linked to petroleum, more specifically the use of palm oil as a bio-fuel.
  • The Indonesian government has, since 2020, made 30% blending of diesel with palm oil mandatory as part of a plan to slash fossil fuel imports.
  • Palm oil getting increasingly diverted for bio-diesel is leaving less quantity available, both for the domestic cooking oil and export market.

Impact on India

  • India is the world’s biggest vegetable oils importer.
  • Out of its annual imports of 14-15 mt, the lion’s share is of palm oil (8-9 mt), followed by soyabean (3-3.5 mt) and sunflower (2.5).
  • Indonesia has been India’s top supplier of palm oil, though it was overtaken by Malaysia in 2021-22 (see above table).
  • The restrictions on exports, even in the form of levy, take into cognizance Indonesia’s higher population (27.5 crores, against Malaysia’s 3.25 crore) as well as its ambitious biofuel program.
  • To that extent, the world – more so, the bigger importer India – will have to get used to lower supplies from Indonesia.


Answer this PYQ from CSP 2019:


Q.Among the agricultural commodities imported by India, which one of the following accounts for the highest imports in terms of value in the last five years?

(a) Spices

(b) Fresh fruits

(c) Pulses

(d) Vegetable oils


Post your answers here.
Please leave a feedback on thisx


UPSC 2022 countdown has begun! Get your personal guidance plan now! (Click here)


Get an IAS/IPS ranker as your 1: 1 personal mentor for UPSC 2024

Attend Now

Notify of
Newest Most Voted
Inline Feedbacks
View all comments
User Avatar
2 years ago
Post your answers here." Read more »


User Avatar
2 years ago
Post your answers here." Read more »


User Avatar
2 years ago



Join us across Social Media platforms.

💥Mentorship New Batch Launch
💥Mentorship New Batch Launch