Genetically Modified (GM) crops – cotton, mustards, etc.

International Treaty on Plant Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture (ITPGRFA)


From UPSC perspective, the following things are important :

Prelims level: ITPGRFA

Mains level: NA

Central Idea

  • In a global seminar organized by the International Treaty on Plant Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture (ITPGRFA) and the Food and Agriculture Organisation (FAO), President of India underscored the importance of safeguarding farmers’ rights.


Objective Conservation and sustainable use of plant genetic resources for food and agriculture.
Enactment Year 2001
Key Principles Conservation, Access and Benefit-Sharing, Farmers’ Rights.
Coverage Multilateral system covering 64 vital crop species.
Implementation Encourages signatory countries to integrate treaty provisions into national legislation.
Monitoring Establishes a system for monitoring treaty implementation and reporting.
Global Impact Contributes to preserving agricultural biodiversity, sustainable agriculture, and equitable access to genetic resources.
India’s Role India actively participates and supports the treaty, providing rights to farmers for unbranded seeds and registering their varieties, serving as a model for the world.

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