From UPSC perspective, the following things are important :
Prelims level : NAIP
Mains level : Paper 3- Use of technology to increase milk production in India
The article highlights the issues facing the dairy sector and explains the utility of IVF technology for crossbreeding.
Importance of dairy sector
- The dairy sector assumes significance on account two reasons:
- 1) It has to do with the socio-cultural affinity towards cows and dairy products in large parts of the country.
- 2) As an industry, it employs more than 70 million farmers.
- Need of the hour is for us to identify ways in which we can enhance the return on investment for our farmers.
India’s journey from milk deficit country to one of surplus
- Initiated in 1970, Operation Flood transformed India into one of the largest milk producers.
- The per capita availability of milk in 2018-19 was 394 grams per day as against the world average of 302 grams.
- Today with an annual production of 187.75 million tonnes India accounts for about 22% of the world’s milk production.
- However, India is yet to join the ranks of major milk exporting nations, as much of what we produce is directed towards meeting domestic demands.
Making India milk exporting nation
- Indigenous cows produce 3.01kgs of milk per cow per day, while the yield of exotic crossbred cows is 7.95kgs.
- Crossbreeding has taken off in a big way because of the advancements in reproductive technologies like In vitro fertilization (IVF), embryo transfer process, and artificial insemination.
- Out of these processes, IVF and artificial insemination have proven to be the most popular and effective methods.
- The NAIP (Nationwide Artificial Insemination Programme) Phase-I was launched in September 2019.
- Every animal in the programme was assigned a 12-digit unique identification number under the Pashu Aadhar scheme.
- NAIP Phase-II was initiated on 1 August 2020 with an allocation of ₹1,090 crore in 604 districts covering 50,000 animals per district and is on track to be completed by the 31 May 2021.
- Under the programme, 9.06 crore artificial inseminations will be performed and is expected to lead to the birth of 1.5 crore high yielding female calves.
- Consequently, 18 million tonnes of additional milk will be produced as average productivity will be enhanced from 1,861kg per animal per year to 3,000kg per animal per year.
- Artificial insemination (AI) technology has been the most used method in India, but its success hinges upon accuracy in heat detection and timely insemination.
- And this is where In Vitro Fertilization (IVF) technology will prove to be more effective.
In keeping with our ethos of ‘Jai Kisan, Jai Vigyan’ the marriage of rural farming with the latest innovations in technology will usher in unprecedented transformation in our dairy industry.