Animal Husbandry, Dairy & Fisheries Sector – Pashudhan Sanjivani, E- Pashudhan Haat, etc

Animal Husbandry, Dairy & Fisheries Sector – Pashudhan Sanjivani, E- Pashudhan Haat, etc

Things to do, food for thoughtop-ed snap


From UPSC perspective, the following things are important :

Prelims level : Essential Services Maintenance Act.

Mains level : Paper 3- Managing the agriculture and livestock sector.


Amid lockdown, we need an action plan to manage our agriculture, livestock sectors.

Need for an immediate action plan to manage the agriculture and livestock sector

  • The country produces around 52 crore litres of milk daily.
  • There are also 80 crore-odd live poultry, both broilers and layers, at any given time, supplying meat and eggs to consumers.
  • Link with the other producers: These birds and animals, in turn, support the livelihoods of poultry and dairy farmers, as well as those producing maize, soybean, mustard, groundnut, cotton and other coarse grains that are ingredients for livestock feed.
  • It is the government’s responsibility to ensure that farmers are able to keep their animals alive and market the crop that has been, or will be, harvested during the lockdown period.
  • We need an immediate action plan to manage our agriculture and livestock sectors in the interest of both producers and consumers.

Issue of implementation

  • Ensuring free movements: The first thing is to ensure free movement of farm produce, livestock feed and veterinary medicines.
  • Implementing the already taken decision: It is obvious that not all issues can be addressed overnight. But the minimum the government can do is to ensure ground-level implementation of already-taken decisions.
  • The problem of implementation: Many essential services, for instance, were kept out of the purview of the lockdown. Food, feed and agricultural inputs have been specifically notified as essential services.
  • But there are several problems at the level of implementation that are coming to notice.
  • The Centre has issued various directives/notifications, many of them brief and general in nature.
  • Many of these have either not reached the local authorities and police personnel or are not clearly worded. As a result, the smooth movement of essential items has been affected.
  • There are also reports of conflict between the police and citizens, including people involved in the transportation and delivery of food as well as inputs to farms.

Suggestions for improving the implementation issue

  • Issue a single notification: The Centre must issue a single notification relating to food items in a standard format and uniform language so that all ambiguities are removed.
  • This needs to be finalised after consultations with the stakeholders and the state governments can release it to officials working at the grassroots.
  • The focus should be to address the problems arising from restrictions on the transport — between and within states — of agri-produce and inputs related to them.
  • Invoke the ESMA: Another suggestion is that the Essential Services Maintenance Act (ESMA) be invoked for the delivery of all essential services relating to food to prevent disruption of supplies.

Suggestions to prevent post-lockdown chaos

  • What will happen after the lockdown ends? Many plants are now shut or working at low capacity utilisation. Consumption by hotels and other institutions, too, is low. Nor is any export or import happening. But once the lockdown ends, there will be a rush to procure raw material, trucks and rail rakes.
  • Smooth recovery: Smooth recovery from the lockdown is as important as managing supplies during the lockdown.
  • Here are a few suggestions to ensure that the common man does not have to suffer hardships during and after the lockdown:
  • First– Place all food items, agri-inputs, packaging material and transport services under ESMA for a six-month period to prevent profiteering.
  • The MRP that was applicable in February should remain till October.
  • In the case of farm produce, it helps that we are looking at a bumper crop, which makes it all the more necessary to ensure its smooth marketing.
  • Second-Suspend APMC (agricultural produce market committee) laws for the next six months.
  • Traders with APMC licence are bound to act as cartels during rush hour, which will hurt both farmers and consumers.
  • Third-ESMA should apply to all utilities and transport services. State governments can make exemptions on a case to case basis: These exemptions should be subject to public scrutiny under the Right to Information Act.
  • The government should announce the above measures well in advance.


The government must start planning now to prevent post-lockdown chaos, especially profiteering in the event of shortages. Smooth recovery from the lockdown is as important as managing supplies during the lockdown.


Animal Husbandry, Dairy & Fisheries Sector – Pashudhan Sanjivani, E- Pashudhan Haat, etc

[pib] Potential Fishing Zone (PFZ) AdvisoriesPIB


From UPSC perspective, the following things are important :

Prelims level : PFZ

Mains level : Application based initiaitives by ISRO

The Indian National Centre for Ocean Information Services (INCOIS), Hyderabad has reported that Oceansat Satellite data from ISRO are used to prepare the PFZ advisories on the potential rich fishing areas and provide to the sea faring fishermen in all states.

Potential Fishing Zone (PFZ)

  • This is the first advisory service started by INCOIS. The backbone of this service is the real-time data for ocean color and SST provided by the OCEANSAT and NOAA respectively.
  • This service was started because there was a need to identify the potential fishing zones to help the fishermen to get better catch while they were at the sea.
  • This service was started by the Ministry of Earth Sciences with the help of the Department of Space and several institutions under the Ministry of Agriculture.

How it works?

  • This service makes use of parameters such as sea surface temperature and chlorophyll content provided by NOAA-AVHRR and Oceancolor satellites.
  • Features such as oceanic fronts, Meandering Patterns, Eddies, Rings, Up Welling areas etc. are identified sites for fish accumulation.
  • These features can easily be identified from Sea Surface Temperature and Chlorophyll data.
  • The availability of Chlorophyll from OCEANSAT and MOdDIS has further enriched these advisories in the recent years.
  • Hence, PFZ advisories have helped the fishing community to locate the fishing zones with accuracy.

Special advisories for fisherman

  • Another feature of PFZ service is the generation of species-specific advisory to enable the fishermen folk to distinguish between the exploited and under-exploited species in the potential fishing zones.
  • This enables them to have sustainable fishery management by targeting only the under-exploited species in the fishing zones.
  • This approach enables them to avoid fishing the over-exploited species over and over again.
Animal Husbandry, Dairy & Fisheries Sector – Pashudhan Sanjivani, E- Pashudhan Haat, etc

SUTRA PIC India ProgrammeGovt. Schemes


From UPSC perspective, the following things are important :

Prelims level : SUTRA PIC

Mains level : Protecting indigenous breed of bovines


The government has unveiled SUTRA PIC programme to research on ‘indigenous’ cows.


  • SUTRA PIC stands for Scientific Utilization Through Research Augmentation-Prime Products from Indigenous Cows.
  • To be funded by multiple scientific ministries, the initiative, SUTRA PIC, is led by the Department of Science and Technology (DST).
  • It has the Department of Biotechnology, the CSIR, the Ministry for AYUSH (Ayurveda, Unani, Siddha, Homoeopathy) among others and the Indian Council of Medical Research as partners.
  • It has five themes:
  1. Uniqueness of Indigenous Cows,
  2. Prime-products from Indigenous Cows for Medicine and Health,
  3. Prime-products from Indigenous Cows for Agricultural Applications,
  4. Prime-products from Indigenous Cows for Food and Nutrition,
  5. Prime-products from indigenous cows-based utility items

Aims and objectives

The proposals under this theme aim to:

  • perform scientific research on the complete characterization of milk and milk products derived from Indian indigenous cows;
  • scientific research on nutritional and therapeutic properties of curd and ghee prepared from indigenous breeds of cows by traditional methods;
  • development of standards for traditionally processed dairy products of Indian-origin cow

Other facts

  • In 2017, SEED constituted a National Steering Committee (NSC) for ‘Scientific Validation and Research on Panchgavya (SVAROP)’.
  • Panchgavya is an Ayurvedic panacea and is a mixture of five (pancha) products of the cow (gavya) — milk, curd, ghee, dung and urine.
  • Its proponents believe it can cure, or treat a wide range of ailments.
Animal Husbandry, Dairy & Fisheries Sector – Pashudhan Sanjivani, E- Pashudhan Haat, etc

[pib] ‘Apiary on Wheels’ InitiativePIB


From UPSC perspective, the following things are important :

Prelims level : ‘Apiary on Wheels’, Apiculture

Mains level : Apiculture sector of India

‘Apiary on Wheels’ was recently flagged off today by the Union Minister of MSME.

‘Apiary on Wheels’

  • It is a unique concept designed by KVIC for the easy upkeep and migration of Bee Boxes having live Bee colonies.
  • It is a platform which can carry 20 Bee Boxes from one place to another without any difficulty.
  • It is like an attachment which can be easily connected with a Tractor or a Trolley and may be pulled to any suitable destination.
  • Specially, in summers, the beekeepers usually adopted crude methods to feed the bees and many bees used to die in the process.
  • This concept of migration, cooling with the help of solar panels and sugar drips with zero risk to the lives of bees, will prevent any damages to the bee boxes or bee colonies and help produce quality honey.

How it works?

  • Two large wheels on either side of the Apiary and 4 separate compartments with independent doors, having 5 bee boxes each help the platform to remain intact without disturbing the live bee colonies.
  • It is also connected with a solar panel system which automatically triggers a fan inside the compartment as soon as the temperature reaches 35 degree centigrade or above.
Animal Husbandry, Dairy & Fisheries Sector – Pashudhan Sanjivani, E- Pashudhan Haat, etc

[pib] National Programme for Bovine Breeding and Dairy DevelopmentPIB


From UPSC perspective, the following things are important :

Prelims level : National Programme for Bovine Breeding and Dairy Development

Mains level : Dairy sector of India

  • The Minister of State for Fisheries, Animal Husbandry and Dairying has provided certain information in Parliament regarding the ongoing National Programme for Cattle and Buffalo Breeding.
  • The scheme is subsumed under Rashtriya Gokul Mission since December 2014.

National Programme for Bovine Breeding and Dairy Development

  • The NPBBDD has been formulated by merging four ongoing schemes of the Department of Animal Husbandry, Dairying and Fisheries in the dairy sector.
  • It was launched in Feb 2014.
  • This merger has been done to integrate milk production and dairying activities in a scientific and holistic manner to meet the increasing demand for milk in the country.

Components of the scheme

NPBBDD has the following three components.

  • National Programme for Bovine Breeding (NPBB)
  • National Programme for Dairy Development (NPDD) and
  • Rashtriya Gokul Mission.

Differences between all these schemes:

1) National Programme for Bovine Breeding

It aims-

  • To arrange quality Artificial Insemination services at farmers’ doorstep
  • To bring all breedable females under organized breeding through Artificial Insemination or natural service using germplasm of high genetic merits

2) National Programme for Dairy Development

It aims-

  • To create and strengthen infrastructure for the production of quality milk including cold chain infrastructure linking the farmer to the consumer
  • To strengthen dairy cooperative societies/Producers Companies at the village level
  • To increase milk production by providing technical input services like cattle-feed, and mineral mixture etc.

3) Rashtriya Gokul Mission

It aims-

  • To undertake breed improvement programme for indigenous cattle breeds so as to improve the genetic makeup and increase the stock.
  • To enhance milk production and productivity of indigenous bovines.
  • To upgrade non-descript cattle using elite indigenous breeds like Gir, Sahiwal, Rathi, Deoni, Tharparkar, Red Sindhi.
Animal Husbandry, Dairy & Fisheries Sector – Pashudhan Sanjivani, E- Pashudhan Haat, etc

[pib] Classical Swine Fever (CSF) Cell Culture VaccinePIB


From UPSC perspective, the following things are important :

Prelims level : About the Vaccine

Mains level : Animal husbandary sector of India

Department of Agricultural Research and Education (DARE) released the Classical Swine Fever Vaccine (IVRI-CSF-BS) Technology developed by ICAR -Indian Veterinary Research Institute (IVRI).

About the Vaccine

  • CSF is one of the most important diseases of pigs causing high mortality with annual loss of approx. Rs.4.299 billion.
  • A lapinized CSF vaccine (Weybridge strain, UK) is being used in India since 1964 for controlling the disease.
  • The vaccine is produced by sacrificing large numbers of rabbits for each batch.
  • In order to do away sacrificing of rabbits and increase the productivity, IVRI had earlier developed a cell culture CSF vaccine by adapting the lapinized vaccine virus in cell culture.
  • The vaccine virus has very high titre and lakhs of doses can be produced very easily in cell culture and country’s requirement can be easily fulfilled using this new vaccine.
Animal Husbandry, Dairy & Fisheries Sector – Pashudhan Sanjivani, E- Pashudhan Haat, etc

Sexed semen in Cattle breedingPrelims Only


From UPSC perspective, the following things are important :

Prelims level : Sexed Semen

Mains level : Livestocks breeding and their challenges

The Union Ministry for Animal Husbandry, Dairying and Fisheries is planning to provide dairy farmers with ‘sexed semen’ for cattle for as cheap as Rs 100 per straw by 2020.

What is Sexed Semen?

  • Sexed semen is specially processed semen of bulls from which ‘Y’ chromosomes in sperm cells — which lead to the birth of a male calf — are either removed through a ‘sorting’ process or killed.
  • Semen which has only ‘X’ chromosomes can only ensure that a female calf is born.

Technology behind

  • The reproduction system of cattle is similar to humans.
  • Cows carry XX chromosomes while bull semen carries both X and Y.
  • If the egg fertilises with an ‘X’ chromosome, a female calf is born and if with ‘Y’, a male is born.
  • There are two techniques to produce sexed semen: One is the ‘sorting process’ in which ‘X’ and ‘Y’ chromosomes are separated. ‘X’ are retained and ‘Y’ discarded.
  • The other is in which ‘Y’ chromosomes are altogether killed.

Why is this method being used?

  • Considered a financial burden, male calves are either killed or abandoned on the roads by farmers as they do not give milk.
  • This had led to an increasing number of cattle roaming the streets, which has caused fatal road accidents as well.
  • Cows are also abandoned when they stop giving milk.
  • If a commercial farmer owns a hundred cows and even fifty of them give birth to male calves, he cannot afford to raise them. They become a burden.

Success rate of the sexed semen

  • The guarantee of a female calf being born is never 100 per cent. It can be up to 90 per cent.
  • In 10 per cent cases, a male calf might be born despite using sexed semen because even after sorting/killing, some Y chromosomes may pass.
Animal Husbandry, Dairy & Fisheries Sector – Pashudhan Sanjivani, E- Pashudhan Haat, etc

[pib] Nationwide Artificial Insemination Programme (NAIP)PIB


From UPSC perspective, the following things are important :

Prelims level : Pashu Aadhaar

Mains level : Bovine productivity in India

The Nationwide Artificial Insemination Programme (N.A.I.P) which was recently launched by PM covering 600 chosen districts including aspirational districts as identified by NITI Aayog.

Nationwide Artificial Insemination Programme

  • The NAIP is a campaign mode genetic upgradation program covering all breeds of bovines to enhance the milk production using low cost breeding technology.
  • It aims for improving genetic merit of milch animals with high quality seed.
  • The gestation period for getting the benefits from the AI bovine is approximately 3 years.

A mission mode project

  • The aim of the program is to inseminate over 1 crore bovines in 6 months.
  • The rate of Artificial Insemination is continuously increasing and has reached an average of 25,000 animals per day so far.
  • 8 Lakh Artificial Inseminations has been performed under this programme benefitting more than 3.7 lakh farmers as on 29th November, 2019.

Pashu Aadhaar

  • The NAIP also aims to ear-tag them with ‘PashuAadhaar’ which is a unique identification provided to the animals.
  • This will enable the Government to identify and track the animals uniquely with all details such as the breed, age, gender and owner details.
  • Every cow and buffalo under AI will be tagged and can be tracked through the Information Network on Animal Productivity and Health (INAPH) Database.
Animal Husbandry, Dairy & Fisheries Sector – Pashudhan Sanjivani, E- Pashudhan Haat, etc

20th Livestock CensusPriority 1


From UPSC perspective, the following things are important :

Prelims level : 20th Livestock Census

Mains level : State of livestocks in India

  • The Department of Animal Husbandry & Dairying released the results of the latest livestock census, which provides headcount data of domesticated animals in the country.

Livestock Census

  • Under the livestock census, various species of animals possessed by households, household enterprises or non-household enterprises and institutions are counted at site — both in rural and urban areas.
  • In other words, it covers all domesticated animals in a given period of time.
  • India has been conducting livestock censuses periodically since 1919-20. The last livestock census was conducted in 2012.
  • This is the 20th one, started in October 2018. For the first time data has been collected online through tablet computers.

Which animals and birds are counted in this census?

  • The census tracks the population of various species of domesticated animals such as cattle, buffalo, mithun, yak, sheep, goat, pig, horse, pony, mule, donkey camel, dog, rabbit and elephant and poultry birds (fowl, duck, emu, turkeys, quail and other poultry birds).

What are the population trends for different kinds of cattle?

  • While the overall cattle population has increased by 0.8 per cent between 2012-19, the population of indigenous cattle has come down by 6 per cent — from 151 million to 142.11 million.
  • However, this pace of decline is much slower than the 9 per cent decline between 2007 and 2012.
  • In contrast, the population of the total exotic/crossbred cattle has increased by almost 27 per cent to 50.42 million in 2019.

How do the data show an eastward shift of cattle, as mentioned earlier?

  • West Bengal has emerged as the state with the largest number of cattle in 2019 followed by Uttar Pradesh, and Madhya Pradesh.
  • In 2012, Uttar Pradesh had the largest number of cattle but this population has come down by almost 4 per cent since.
  • The cattle population is also down in Madhya Pradesh (4.42%), Maharashtra (10.07%) and Odisha (15.01%).
  • States that registered the maximum increases between 2012 and 2019 were West Bengal (15.18%), Bihar (25.18%) and Jharkhand (28.16%).

What are the implications of the decline in the numbers of indigenous cattle?

  • Due to continuous fall in productivity, indigenous breeds of cattle have become liabilities for farmers, forcing them to desert the unproductive cows.
  • Farmers find other animals such as buffaloes, goats and sheep much more productive.
  • Unlike cows, if these animals become unproductive, they can be sold and slaughtered for further processing.
  • Experts believe this could have long term health and environmental impacts because the milk of indigenous breed has higher nutritional value than that of crossbreeds.
  • Moreover, there is a danger of losing these indigenous breeds, which have been developed and sustained by generations from time immemorial.
Animal Husbandry, Dairy & Fisheries Sector – Pashudhan Sanjivani, E- Pashudhan Haat, etc

India declared free of Avian InfluenzaPriority 1


From UPSC perspective, the following things are important :

Prelims level : Avian flu

Mains level : Zoonotic diseases and their prevention

  • India has been declared free of Avian Influenza (H5N1).
  • The status will last only till another outbreak is reported. India was last declared free of the disease in 2017.

How H5N1 affects humans?

  • Avian Influenza was first reported from Hongkong in 1997. Since then, there have been many outbreaks across the world. India too has had multiple outbreaks since 2005.
  • The symptoms of an H5N1 infection in humans include mild upper respiratory tract infection (fever and cough), early sputum production and rapid progression to severe pneumonia.
  • It can lead to sepsis with shock, acute respiratory distress syndrome and even death.

Significance of the declaration

  • This declaration is important not just from the poultry industry standpoint, but also because humans can contact the disease from animals though the pathogen is not capable of sustained human-to-human transmission.
  • Humans can be infected with avian, swine and other zoonotic influenza viruses, such as avian influenza virus subtypes A(H5N1), A(H7N9), and A(H9N2) and swine influenza virus subtypes A(H1N1), A(H1N2) and A(H3N2),” says WHO.
Animal Husbandry, Dairy & Fisheries Sector – Pashudhan Sanjivani, E- Pashudhan Haat, etc

[pib] National Animal Disease Control ProgrammePIB


From UPSC perspective, the following things are important :

Prelims level : FMD

Mains level : About the initiative

  • Prime Minister will be launching National Animal Disease Control Programme for Foot and Mouth Disease and Brucellosis today.

National Animal Disease Control Programme

  • The programme for Foot and Mouth Disease and Brucellosis is a 100% centrally funded programme, with a total outlay of Rs.12,652 crore from 2019 to 2024.
  • It aims to control Foot and Mouth Disease and Brucellosis by 2025 with vaccination and eventual eradication by 2030.

 About FMDs

  • Foot and mouth disease (FMD) is a severe, highly contagious viral disease of livestock that has a significant economic impact.
  • The disease affects cattle, swine, sheep, goats and other cloven-hoofed ruminants.
  • Intensively reared animals are more susceptible to the disease than traditional breeds.
  • The disease is rarely fatal in adult animals, but there is often high mortality in young animals due to myocarditis or, when the dam is infected by the disease, lack of milk.
  • FMD is characterised by fever and blister-like sores on the tongue and lips, in the mouth, on the teats and between the hooves.
  • The disease causes severe production losses, and while the majority of affected animals recover, the disease often leaves them weakened and debilitated.
  • FMD is found in all excretions and secretions from infected animals. Notably, these animals breathe out a large amount of aerosolised virus, which can infect other animals via the respiratory or oral routes.
  • The virus may be present in milk and semen for up to 4 days before the animal shows clinical signs of disease.
Animal Husbandry, Dairy & Fisheries Sector – Pashudhan Sanjivani, E- Pashudhan Haat, etc

[op-ed snap] Marine Fisheries Bill addresses a regulatory void. It needs cooperative federalismop-ed snap


From UPSC perspective, the following things are important :

Prelims level : Nothing much

Mains level : Marine fisheries bill


A Marine Fisheries Regulation and Management (MFRM) Bill 2019 is in the public domain for discussion.


  1. Under the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS) and the World Trade Organisation (WTO) agreements, India has obligations to frame laws. 
  2. The annual fishery potential of the country’s EEZ is about 5 million tonnes. 


  1. Under UNCLOS, the sea and resources in the water and the seabed are classified into three zones — the internal waters (IW), the territorial sea (TS) and the exclusive economic zone (EEZ). 
  2. The IW is on the landward side of the baseline including gulfs and small bays. Coastal states treat IW like land. 
  3. TS extends outwards to 12 nautical miles from the baseline — coastal nations enjoy sovereignty over airspace, sea, seabed, and subsoil and all living and non-living resources therein. 
  4. EEZ extends outwards to 200 nautical miles from the baseline. Coastal nations have sovereign rights for exploration, exploiting, conserving and managing all the natural resources therein.
  5. Since fisheries is a state subject, fishing in the IW and TS come within the purview of the states concerned. 
  6. Other activities in the TS and activities, including fishing beyond the TS up to the limit of the EEZ, are in the Union list. 
  7. No Central government, so far, has framed laws covering the entire EEZ. 
  8. The Bill attempts to make up for this. 


  1. The Bill is also a response to discussions on fisheries’ subsidies at the WTO since the Doha Round of 2001. 
  2. India has been defending the rights of developing nations for special and differential treatment. 
  3. Developed countries contend that nations without laws to manage fisheries in their respective EEZs are not serious about unregulated fishing. 
  4. MFRM Bill is India’s response to such sentiments.

Provisions – analysis


  1. The Bill prohibits fishing by foreign fishing vessels, thus nationalising our EEZ. 
  2. Bigger vessels registered and licensed under state departments will need a permit to fish. This is a welcome measure to manage the fishing sector.
  3. The Bill respects the jurisdiction of our coastal states over the TS.
  4. It proposes social security for fish workers and calls for the protection of life at sea during severe weather events. 


  1. An Indian fishing vessel that wants to fish in the EEZ, outside the TS, must obtain a permit. This requirement has been contested by small-scale operators.
  2. There is a faulty assumption that only large-scale vessels fish outside the TS. Thousands of small-scale fishing crafts regularly venture into such areas.
  3. It is not congruent with important regional fishery agreements. It is incomplete compared to the regulations in other coastal nations. 

Way ahead

  1. Exemption clauses to safeguard the livelihoods of small scale fishermen should be incorporated in the Bill.
  2. State governments, fisher associations and the fishing industry representatives should argue for greater “cooperative federalism”.
  3. Cooperative governance between them over different territories (IW, TS, and EEZ) is key to the sustainable management of marine fisheries.
  4. Fisheries should now ideally go into the Concurrent List. 
  5. Small-scale fish workers should demand to make the entire IW and TS completely free of trawling using the FAO/UN Small-Scale Fisheries. 


The Doha Development Round or Doha Development Agenda is the trade-negotiation round of WTO which commenced in 2001. Its objective was to lower trade barriers around the world and facilitate increased global trade.

Animal Husbandry, Dairy & Fisheries Sector – Pashudhan Sanjivani, E- Pashudhan Haat, etc

Now, also an Aadhaar card for cattle and buffaloesGovt. Schemes


From UPSC perspective, the following things are important :

Prelims level : Pashu Aadhaar

Mains level : Animal husbandry and using technology


India has the world’s largest livestock population and is also its biggest milk producer. A giant database relating to livestock information is currently being created in India. It issues an animal UID or Pashu Aadhaar to the animals. So far, nearly 22.3 million cows and buffaloes have been assigned UIDs. 


  1. The nodal agency and repository for this – Information Network for Animal Productivity and Health or INAPH is the National Dairy Development Board (NDDB).
  2. The similarities with Aadhaar are:
    1. INAPH too assigns a unique random identification number to each animal
    2. It captures a host of data and information useful for the effective and scientific management of India’s livestock resources
    3. It will be the biggest global database of animals when fully captured
  3. The first phase of the INAPH project would cover the country’s 94 million-odd productive “in milk” female cow and buffalo population.
  4. It covers all indigenous, nondescript, crossbred as well as exotic milch animals.
  5. The exercise will subsequently be extended to all bovines, including males, calves and heifers, old and stray animals.
  6. Each animal will be provided a thermoplastic polyurethane ear tag bearing a 12-digit UID.
  7. The data being captured includes the species, breed and pedigree of the particular animal, information relating to its calving, milk production, artificial insemination (AI), vaccination and feeding/nutrition history.

Challenges so far

  1. Low productivity, poor animal health, the prevalence of economically debilitating diseases, and genome selection based on non-scientific and anecdotal methods


  1. Enable proper identification of animals and traceability of their products, be it milk or meat
  2. Farmers, processors, animal husbandry department officials and healthcare professionals can devise appropriate strategies for livestock management
  3. A major cause of zoonotic diseases and challenges in addressing them today is the absence of animal identification and traceability mechanisms
  4. If our dairy and livestock industry has to meet internationally-accepted sanitary and phytosanitary standards, a robust and comprehensive animal information system that allows traceability of products to their source is sine qua non
  5. The products obtained from healthy or premium animals can be separated from those originating from diseased or nondescript ones
  6. Leverage this data for scientific and risk-based management of animals to deliver better health and reproduction outcomes, enhanced productivity and improved livestock product quality.
  7. The information through INAPH, including the ancestry and production performance of animals, would help identify healthy and productive livestock for breeding, rejuvenation of weaker ones, plan for better nutritional management and systematically manage diseases.
  8. The data can be used to select disease-free, high genetic merit bulls and fertile cows for breeding indigenous breeds that are low on productivity

Step ahead than identity

  1. Artificial Insemination has so far met with limited success in terms of boosting overall animal productivity. One reason is the use of not-so-good quality semen from low genetic merit bulls. The poor records of AI status of most cows or the donor bulls is a caus. AI programme will get a shot in the arm with more reliable data on the insemination history of each animal.
  2. More efficient nutrition management through ration balancing can be achieved based on information on the feeding status of each animal.
  3. The entire chain, from inputs (AI/breeding, vaccination, feed and fodder, and nutrition) to output (milk and meat) can be managed to assure enhanced animal productivity and improved product quality.

The database should be seen as a significant step in heralding the next White Revolution and making livestock a vehicle of rural prosperity.

Animal Husbandry, Dairy & Fisheries Sector – Pashudhan Sanjivani, E- Pashudhan Haat, etc

Antibiotic Colistin banned in animal food industryPrelims OnlyPriority 1


From UPSC perspective, the following things are important :

Prelims level : Colistin

Mains level : AMR and its hazards in India

  • The Ministry of Health and Family Welfare has issued an order prohibiting the manufacture, sale and distribution of colistin and its formulations for food-producing animals, poultry, aqua farming and animal feed supplements.

What is Colistin?

  • According to the WHO, Colistin is a “reserve” antibiotic, which means it is supposed to be considered a “last-resort” option in treatment and used only in the most severe circumstances, when all other alternatives have failed.
  • However, this strong antibiotic has been “highly misused” in India’s livestock industry to prevent diseases and as promote growth of such animals.
  • Medical professionals have been alarmed by the number of patients who have exhibited resistance to the drug.
  • Most are not aware of the presence of colistin, since it comes mixed in the feed. A bulk of colistin (nearly 95%) is imported from China.

Alarm for India

  • A 2017 global study on antibiotic use in farm animals projected the consumption of antibiotics through animal sources to nearly double during 2013-2030.
  • This means India’s AMR problem is expected to worsen due to the consumption of antibiotics through animal sources.
  • The study ranked India the fourth largest consumer of antibiotics in food animals globally after China, the United States and Brazil.
Animal Husbandry, Dairy & Fisheries Sector – Pashudhan Sanjivani, E- Pashudhan Haat, etc

Sahiwal CattlePrelims Only


From UPSC perspective, the following things are important :

Prelims level : Sahiwal breed of Cattles

Mains level : Not Much

  • The Sahiwal migrated to Kenya around 80 years ago from the Subcontinent and is now considered as the backbone of the Kenya’s milk production.
  • The breed is the main source of earning for many dairy farmers and is also helping adaption in the face of climate change.

Sahiwal Cattle

  • The British, who ruled both British India (today’s India, Pakistan and Bangladesh) as well as Kenya, brought the Sahiwal breed to Kenya in the 1930s for increasing milk production to help their army.
  • The origin of the Sahiwal is the similarly named town (known in the British Era as Montgomery) in today’s Pakistani province of Punjab.
  • It is commonly of a reddish dun colour, with more of a dark brownish colour around the hump and the neck.
  • Also, during the 1930s, the British introduced the Red Sindhi breed of cow in Tanganyika, their colony to the south of Kenya (today’s Tanzania).
  • According to the International Livestock Research Institute, the present Sahiwal cattle in Kenya are descendants of some 60 bulls and 12 cows imported between 1939 and 1963.
Animal Husbandry, Dairy & Fisheries Sector – Pashudhan Sanjivani, E- Pashudhan Haat, etc

[pib] Establishment of ‘Gokul Grams’ Under Rashtriya Gokul MissionGovt. SchemesPIB


From UPSC perspective, the following things are important :

Prelims level : Rashtriya Gokul Mission

Mains level : Promoting indigenous breeds for animal husbandry

  • Funds have been mobilized under Rashtriya Gokul Mission (RGM) for setting up of 21 Gokul Grams as Integrated Cattle Development Centres.

About Rashtriya Gokul Mission

  • The RGM has been launched by the Government for conservation and development of indigenous breeds in a focused and scientific manner.
  • The mission envisages establishment of integrated cattle development centres „Gokul Grams to develop indigenous breeds including upto 40% nondescript breeds.
  • Rashtriya Gokul Mission is a focussed project under National Programme for Bovine Breeding and Dairy Development, with an outlay of Rs 500 crore during for three years from 2014-15 to 2016-17.


  1. Development and conservation of indigenous breeds
  2. Breed improvement programme for indigenous cattle breeds to improve their genetic makeup and increase the stock;
  3. Enhancement of milk production and productivity;
  4. Upgradation of nondescript cattle using elite indigenous breeds like Gir, Sahiwal, Rathi, Deoni, Tharparkar, Red Sindhi and
  5. Distribution of disease free high genetic merit bulls for natural service.

Implementing Agency:

  • Rashtriya Gokul Mission is being implemented through “State Implementing Agencies (SIA) viz Livestock Development Boards.
  • All Agencies having a role in indigenous cattle development are “Participating Agencies” like CFSPTI, CCBFs, ICAR, Universities, Colleges, NGO‟s, Cooperative Societies.

Gokul Gram

  • These are Indigenous Cattle Centres and will act as Centres for development of Indigenous Breeds.
  • They’ll be established- a) in native breeding tracts and b) near metropolitan cities for housing the urban cattle.
  • A dependable source for supply of high genetic breeding stock to the farmers in the breeding tract.
  • Self sustaining and will generate economic resources from sale of milk, organic manure, vermi-composting, urine distillates, and production of electricity from bio gas for in house consumption and sale of animal products.
  • Also function as state of the art in situ training centre for Farmers, Breeders.

For additional readings, navigate to the page:

Rashtriya Gokul Mission

Animal Husbandry, Dairy & Fisheries Sector – Pashudhan Sanjivani, E- Pashudhan Haat, etc

Explained: One Health PhilosophyExplainedPriority 1


From UPSC perspective, the following things are important :

Prelims level : One Health Concept

Mains level : Livestock health issues

Frequent Outbreaks of Zoonotic Diseases

  • Not so long ago, the widespread prevalence of avian influenza in poultry, or bird flu as it commonly became known, created nationwide panic resulting in the culling of millions of poultry birds.
  • It was concern for human health that prompted the extreme reaction and subsequent establishment of protocols; containment of avian influenza is managed quite effectively now.
  • Similarly in 2003, SARS or Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome emanated suddenly in China and vanished soon.

Followed by hues and panic

  • These outbreaks culminated emergency response that included extreme measures like travel bans and restrictions.
  • In both cases, panic spread much faster than the virus.
  • Besides drawing a response from governments, these events also brought forth the hitherto forgotten philosophy of One Health.
  • This idea recognizes inter-connectivity among human health, the health of animals, and the environment.

The One Health concept

  • The World Organization of Animal Health, commonly known as OIE (an abbreviation of its French title), summarizes the One Health concept.
  • It says that as “human health and animal health are interdependent and bound to the health of the ecosystems in which they exist”.
  • Circa 400 BC, Hippocrates in his treatise On Airs, Waters and Places had urged physicians that all aspects of patients’ lives need to be considered including their environment; disease was a result of imbalance between man and environment.
  • So One Health is not a new concept, though it is of late that it has been formalized in health governance systems.

Why rise in such outbreaks?

  • As human populations expand, it results in greater contact with domestic and wild animals, providing more opportunities for diseases to pass from one to the other.
  • Climate change, deforestation and intensive farming further disrupt environment characteristics, while increased trade and travel result in closer and more frequent interaction, thus increasing the possibility of transmission of diseases.
  • According to the OIE, 60% of existing human infectious diseases are zoonotic i.e. they are transmitted from animals to humans; 75% of emerging infectious human diseases have an animal origin.
  • Of the five new human diseases appearing every year, three originate in animals. If this is not scary enough, 80% biological agents with potential bio-terrorist use are zoonotic pathogens.
  • It is estimated that zoonotic diseases account for nearly two billion cases per year resulting in more than two million deaths — more than from HIV/AIDS and diarrhoea.
  • One-fifth of premature deaths in poor countries are attributed to diseases transmitted from animals to humans.

Urgent care needed

  • Humans require a regular diet of animal protein.
  • This calls for strict health surveillance to incorporate domestic animals, livestock and poultry too.
  • Thus, loss of food animals on account of poor health or disease too becomes a public health issue even though there may be no disease transmission, and we lose 20% of our animals this way.

 India: The forerunner of global health

  • The WHO was set up in 1948 to, among other objectives; promote cooperation to control human diseases.
  • India, a founding member, also hosted the first meeting of WHO’s South East Asia Regional Committee in October that year.
  • The cooperation and collaboration among nations to control and contain animal diseases is a sine qua non for achieving the WHO objectives.
  • This has been recognised as early as in 1924 when OIE was established to fight animal diseases at the global level.
  • India has been at the forefront of both these apex bodies, though for different reasons.

India is at the forefront

  • The size of India’s human and animal populations is almost the same; 121 crore people (2011 Census) and 125.5 crore livestock and poultry.
  • A network of 1.90 lakh health institutions in the government sector form the backbone of health governance, supported by a large number of private facilities.
  • On the other hand, only 65,000 veterinary institutions tend to the health needs of 125.5 crore animals; and this includes 28,000 mobile dispensaries and first aid centres with bare minimum facilities.

Need for a robust animal health system

  • Private sector presence in veterinary services is close to being nonexistent.
  • Unlike a physician, a veterinarian is always on a house call on account of the logistic challenge of transporting livestock to the hospital, unless they are domestic pets.
  • There could not be a stronger case for reinventing the entire animal husbandry sector to be able to reach every livestock farmer, not only for disease treatment but for prevention and surveillance to minimize the threat to human health.
  • Early detection at animal source can prevent disease transmission to humans and introduction of pathogens into the food chain. So a robust animal health system is the first and a crucial step in human health.

Way Forward

  • Developing countries like India have much greater stake in strong One Health systems on account of agricultural systems resulting in uncomfortably close proximity of animals and humans.
  • This builds a strong case for strengthening veterinary institutions and services.
  • The most effective and economical approach is to control zoonotic pathogens at their animal source.
  • It calls not only for close collaboration at local, regional and global levels among veterinary, health and environmental governance, but also for greater investment in animal health infrastructure.
Animal Husbandry, Dairy & Fisheries Sector – Pashudhan Sanjivani, E- Pashudhan Haat, etc

[op-ed snap] A new India for farmersMains Onlyop-ed snap


From UPSC perspective, the following things are important :

Prelims level : Nothing Much

Mains level : These hard times are asking for innovative ways to secure farmers livelihoods.


After half a century, India is under a major locust attack from breeding grounds in Balochistan, Pakistan. Other international tidings are also not favourable for Indian farmers. In 2014, crude prices had hit rock bottom and the government received a bonanza of a few lakh crore. Circumstances have changed today: India’s finances are in a perilous state and we face the spectre of a drought.

1.US-China trade dispute – The escalation of the US-China trade dispute is pushing the world towards a prolonged economic stagnation.

2.Crude prices – President Donald Trump is also engineering a conflict in the strait of Hormuz to jack up crude prices.

3.Pressure on India to import US agriculture commodities  – In the aftermath of the imposition of duties on US agriculture produce by China, there are fears that the US government will pressure India to import US agriculture commodities like livestock feed, chicken and milk products — and, the country will succumb to such pressure.

4.Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership (RCEP) – On the eastern front, the commerce ministry is all prepared to sign the Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership (RCEP), which will commit the country to become a gateway for Asian agriculture imports. We are also being sucked into a similar treaty with the EU.

5.Climate change and GDP-led policy – But now all these combine with a system that fails to value climate change-related externalities. Besides, they also persist with the GDP-led policy modelling. All this is literally killing us.

  • The government’s inflation-targeting priorities obviate all possibilities of it passing all of the escalating costs (diesel, LPG, food) to the consumers.
  • The complexities in MSP procurement and fertiliser prices will compound the morass of stagnating food prices.
7.PM Kisan –
  • “PM Kisan” is a wonderful initiative of the government, but there is an apprehension that it may be funded by withdrawing resources from existing agriculture initiatives and programmes.
  • Farmers have shown repeatedly that they are easily distracted from livelihood issues. They must now be prepared for a precarious future.


Vision for government

  •  Governments, notorious for rolling out policies that can’t be implemented, generate truckloads of paperwork but are loathe to document failure.
  • Till such time the system doesn’t record failure and establish accountability, framing new policies would be like playing a game of dice.
  • Case Study – For example, the policy on food parks has failed and private investments in the agriculture value chain remain elusive. The bureaucracy, having only dealt in food shortages, is clueless on how to respond to food surpluses and fluctuations while farmers have been quick to respond to market signals. This has created new problems, which lead to unprecedented number of farmer agitations and suicides.

Ways to improve farmer livelihoods

  • To improve farmer livelihoods, it’s absolutely essential to quickly resolve issues of the animal husbandry sector.
  • Incidentally, 80 per cent of the stray cattle on the roads today are Holstein, Jersey and basically crossbreeds.
  • A clear distinction can be made between these foreign breeds and the pure desi .This is how the New India can be visualised.
Animal Husbandry, Dairy & Fisheries Sector – Pashudhan Sanjivani, E- Pashudhan Haat, etc

Ongole Cattle BreedPrelims OnlyStates in News


From UPSC perspective, the following things are important :

Prelims level : Ongole Cattle

Mains level : Promoting indigenous breeds for animal husbandry

  • The Vice-President has stressed for promoting Ongole cattle breed in a recent speech.

Ongole Cattle

  • Ongole cattle are an indigenous cattle breed that originates from Prakasam District in the state of Andhra Pradesh.
  • The breed derives its name from the place the breed originates from, Ongole.
  • The Ongole breed of cattle Bos Indicus, has a great demand as it is said to possess resistance to both foot and mouth disease and mad cow disease.

What’s so special about this breed?

  • Cattle breeders use the fighting ability of the bulls to choose the right stock for breeding in terms of purity and strength.
  • Ongole cattle are known for their toughness, rapid growth rate, and natural tolerance to tropical heat and disease resistance.
  • It was perhaps the first Indian breed of cattle to gain worldwide recognition.

Global Prominence

  • Ongole bulls have gone as far as America, the Netherlands, Malaysia, Brazil, Argentina, Colombia, Mexico, Paraguay, Indonesia, West Indies, Australia, Fiji, Mauritius, Indo-China and Philippines.
  • The Brahmana bull in America is an off-breed of the Ongole.
  • The population of Ongole off-breed in Brazil is said to number several million.
  • The famous Santa Gertrudis breed developed in Texas, USA have Ongole blood.
  • It has gained global prominence, particularly in Brazil which imported barely hundred animals and produced multiple superior breeds like the world famous Zebu.

Used for Bull Fights

  • These cattle are commonly used in bull fights in Mexico and some parts of East Africa due to their strength and aggressiveness.
  • They also participate in traditional bull fights in Andhra Pradesh and Tamil Nadu.
Animal Husbandry, Dairy & Fisheries Sector – Pashudhan Sanjivani, E- Pashudhan Haat, etc

Livestock CensusPriority 1


From UPSC perspective, the following things are important :

Prelims level : Livestock Census

Mains level : Role of livestocks in India’s agricultural sector

  • India has the world’s second largest human population at 121 crore and it leads the world in livestock population at 125.5 crore.
  • The 20th round of the Livestock Census is to be held very soon.

Livestock Census in India

  • The importance of a livestock census was first recognised in 1919, 47 years after human counting was started in 1872.
  • It is held by Animal Husbandry Statistics Division under Min. of Agriculture and Farmers welfare.
  • It is conducted quinquennially (every five years).
  • The ongoing 20th round of the Livestock Census involves about 50,000 enumerators and 10,000 supervisors.

What data is being captured?

  • The current round is counting a larger number of species besides the regular cattle such as mithun, yak, sheep, goats, pigs, horses, mules, donkeys, camels, dogs, rabbits, elephants and poultry birds.
  • It is counting stray and abandoned animals as well.
  • The data being captured includes the breed of each animal along with sex, age, productivity, use etc.
  • This exercise extends to other animals such as horses, pigs, mules, camels and poultry too.
  • Supplementary data on the owners of livestock are also being collected and compiled. These include information on occupation, income, landholding, education etc. to support holistic planning.

Why count livestock?

  • Livestock is not only an integral part of the agriculture economy supporting the rural livelihood but also a rudimentary element of our socio-cultural milieu.
  • Our cultural heritage endows great importance to owning and rearing livestock as an inseparable part of an inclusive universe.
  • Accurate, reliable data therefore become the sine qua non for planning and development of the sector — and counting sheep or any other animal becomes the foundation for a peaceful growth.

To be held digitally

  • To streamline the process and eliminate error, the ongoing 20th Livestock Census is harnessing the technological innovations of the digital age.
  • There is complete elimination of paper, which has been replaced with tablet computers.
  • The 50,000-odd enumerators are capturing the multiple parameters of the Census data on computer tablets and uploading it to the server after online validation by the supervisor, resulting in real-time compilation and updating.
  • The National Informatics Centre has developed the Android-based mobile application with various features of data entry module.
  • The software is not only enabling simultaneous monitoring of the operations but also developing various analytical reports that are useful for a dynamic planning process for an equally dynamic livestock sector.


  • The feeder livestock is counted by no permanent administrative institution, a process that lacks bare resources.
  • The Census becomes a burden and goes unnoticed as general awareness about it stays low, especially in urban areas.
Animal Husbandry, Dairy & Fisheries Sector – Pashudhan Sanjivani, E- Pashudhan Haat, etc

[pib] National Cow CommissionPIB


Mains Paper 3: Agriculture | Economics of animal-rearing

From UPSC perspective, the following things are important:

Prelims level: Mandate of the National Cow Commission

Mains level: Various issues associated with animal rearing and role of animals in the agricultural sector in India


  • The Union Cabinet has approved the proposal for establishment of National Cow Commission (Rashtriya Kamdhenu Aayog) for Conservation protection and development of cows and their progeny.

Rashtriya Kamdhenu Aayog

  1. The commission will work in collaboration with other government institutions working on research in the fields such as breeding and rearing of cows, organic manure and biogas.
  2. The commission will be tasked with providing a framework for cow conservation and development programmes.
  3. The setting up of Aayog will lead to conservation, protection and development of cattle population in the country including development and conservation of indigenous breeds.
  4. It will result in increased growth of livestock sector which is more inclusive, benefitting women, and small and marginal farmers.


The creation of this Aayog will provide the policy framework and direction to the cow conservation and development programmes in the country and for ensuring proper implementation of laws with respect to the welfare of cows.

Animal Husbandry, Dairy & Fisheries Sector – Pashudhan Sanjivani, E- Pashudhan Haat, etc

A paper sensor that can detect freshness of milkPriority 1


Mains Paper 3: Science & Technology | Achievement of Indians in science & technology

From UPSC perspective, the following things are important:

Prelims level: ALP test

Mains level: Working and utility of the quality test


  • Scientists at IIT Guwahati have developed a simple paper kit that can test freshness of milk and tell how well it has been pasteurized.

Why such move?

  1. Milk is highly perishable and prone to action of enzymes and microorganisms inherently present in it.
  2. Although pasteurization, freezing and preservation using additives are widely used to prevent spoilage, perishability of milk is still a concern.
  3. There is no easy way to know if milk is fresh or stale or how effective is the pasteurization.
  4. Being a widely consumed food, the safety of milk is of prime concern to consumers.
  5. Tests used in dairies and dairy industries are time consuming and need sophisticated equipment like spectrophotometers.
  6. The new detection kit could make testing easy and fast.

Paper Kit

  1. A milk enzyme, Alkaline Phosphatase (ALP), is considered to be an indicator of milk quality because its presence even after pasteurization indicates presence of microbes that may not have been rendered inactive with pasteurization.
  2. Researchers used ordinary filter paper to prepare the detector.
  3. The filter paper was cut into small discs using office punch and impregnated with chemical probes that preferentially react with ALP.
  4. The ‘probes’ used are antibodies that specifically bind to ALP.
  5. When ALP comes into contact with the probe, it turns white paper disc into a coloured one.

How it works?

  1. The paper discs are soaked in 4-carboxybenzene diazonium solution and then chemically treated to expose-COOH groups on the diazonium.
  2. The -COOH groups then attach to NH2 groups on anti-ALP probe molecules.
  3. Thus the anti-ALP probes are fixed on paper.
  4. When a drop of milk is poured on the tiny paper disc, the ALP in milk reacts with probes, resulting in change of colour.
  5. The colour change on paper discs is then photographed by a smartphone camera and images processed to obtain corresponding colour values.
  6. These values are then compared with standard data stored in the phone.  Thus not only the presence of ALP could be detected but the amount of it in milk could also be measured.
Animal Husbandry, Dairy & Fisheries Sector – Pashudhan Sanjivani, E- Pashudhan Haat, etc

[pib] Creation of Fisheries and Aquaculture Infrastructure Development Fund (FIDF)PIB


Mains Paper 3: Economy| Economics of animal-rearing

From UPSC perspective, the following things are important:

Prelims level: Particulars of the FIDF

Mains level: Credit facilities for Fisheries and Aquaculture development in India



The Cabinet Committee on Economic Affairs has given its approval for creation of special Fisheries and Aquaculture Infrastructure Development Fund (FIDF).

Fisheries and Aquaculture Infrastructure Development Fund (FIDF)

  1. FIDF would provide concessional finance to State Governments / UTs and State entities, cooperatives, individuals and entrepreneurs etc., for taking up of the identified investment activities of fisheries development.
  2. Under FIDF, loan lending will be over a period of five years from 2018-19 to 2022-23 and maximum repayment will be over a period of 12 years inclusive of moratorium of two years on repayment of principal.
  3. National Bank for Agriculture and Rural Development (NABARD), National Cooperatives Development Corporation (NCDC) and all scheduled Banks shall be the nodal Loaning Entities.

Features of the FIDF

  1. Creation of fisheries infrastructure facilities both in marine and Inland fisheries sectors.
  2. To augment fish production to achieve its target of 15 million tonne by 2020 set under the Blue Revolution; and to achieve a sustainable growth of 8% -9% thereafter to reach the fish production to the level of about 20 MMT by 2022-23.
  3. Employment opportunities to over 9.40 lakh fishers/fishermen/fisherfolk and other entrepreneurs in fishing and allied activities.
  4. To attract private investment in creation and management of fisheries infrastructure facilities.
  5. Adoption of new technologies.
Animal Husbandry, Dairy & Fisheries Sector – Pashudhan Sanjivani, E- Pashudhan Haat, etc

Antibiotics to grow farm animals raise superbug risk


Mains Paper 3: Agriculture | Economics of animal-rearing

From UPSC perspective, the following things are important:

Prelims level: Neftin –T, Colistin

Mains level: Hazard of drug-resistant diseases to human due to excessive and unregulated  use of antibiotics in India.



  1. The world’s biggest animal drugs company has been accused of double standards and of exposing consumers in India to “higher levels of risk” by selling globally banned.
  2. Zoetis the largest producer of veterinary medicines is supplying Indian farmers with antibiotics to help their animals grow faster.
  3. The practice increases the prevalence of resistant bacteria that can infect humans and cause deadly and untreatable infections.

Neftin -T

  1. Zoetis is selling Neftin-T in India which contains the antibiotic Tylosin.
  2. Zoetis recommends feeding Neftin-T to chickens to improve weight gain and FCR (feed conversion rate).
  3. Tylosin is not only critically important to animal health but it has been banned for use as a growth promoter in the EU.
  4. It is because of fears of resistance to erythromycin, which is used to treat chest infections and other human diseases.
  5. WHO classes erythromycin as critically important to human health.

Exposed double standard of US

  1. Zoetis publicly supported new laws in the U.S. banning this abuse of antibiotics.
  2. However it continues to sell antibiotics directly to Indian farmers with claims on the company’s Indian website that they will make animals grow bigger and faster.
  3. It is blatantly clear that Zoetis is using a double standard in the way it is willing to expose consumers in India to higher levels of risk than in the US.
  4. This is not currently against Indian law although the government has called ban as regulation and enforcement are more lax.

Banned Worldwide

  1. The practice of using antibiotics to make animals grow faster was banned completely in the EU in 2006.
  2. Zoetis products faced the ban last year for its products in US.

Health hazards of antibiotics

  1. The unnecessary use of antibiotics in human medicine and agriculture, such as their use to make animals grow faster rather than treat disease, are major contributors to growing levels of resistant bacteria.
  2. It is estimated 1,00,000 babies a year in the country die from infections from resistant bugs.
  3. Worldwide they’re believed to kill 7,00,000 people, according to a British government-commissioned review in 2016.
  4. WHO has called antibiotic resistance one of the greatest threats to public health.

Limitations of other allowed antibiotics

  1. Colistin is often used to treat seriously ill people with infections that have become resistant to almost all other drugs.
  2. It is deemed one of the highest priority, critically important antibiotics by WHO.
  3. But the recent discovery of a colistin-resistant gene that can pass between bacteria is conferring resistance to bugs.
  4. Hence it is more likely to accelerate the spread of resistance through colistin which is further boosted by the rampant use by livestock farmers.

Need for urgent regulation

  1. Maharashtra has ruled all animal drug stores should stop selling antibiotics to farmers without a prescription, after a court order.
  2. But in other states, no such regulations are in place.
  3. Animals reared for meat in the major emerging economies of Brazil, Russia, India, China and South Africa is expected to consume double the amount of antibiotics in 2030 than they did in 2010.
  4. This needs urgent attention of policy makers as a simple ban will not suffice.
Animal Husbandry, Dairy & Fisheries Sector – Pashudhan Sanjivani, E- Pashudhan Haat, etc

[pib] Dairy Processing & Infrastructure Development Fund (DIDF)PIBPrelims OnlyPriority 1


Mains Paper 3: Agriculture | Economics of animal-rearing

From UPSC perspective, the following things are important:

Prelims level: National Action Plan Vision 2022, DIDF, Rashtriya Gokul Mission and various initiatives under RGM.

Mains level: Doubling Farmers income through Dairy entrepreneurship



  1. Union Minister of Agriculture and Farmers’ Welfare has inaugurated the Dairy Processing & Infrastructure Development Fund (DIDF).
  2. Vast opportunities exist today for dairy entrepreneurs and in order to concretize these opportunities and help double the income of dairy farmers, huge outlay is needed to operationalize the National Action Plan (Vision-2022).

Dairy Processing & Infrastructure Development Fund (DIDF)

  1. As announced in Union Budget 2017-18, the Department of Animal Husbandry, Dairying and Fisheries (DADF) started the DIDF with an outlay of Rs 10881 crore.
  2. Under this scheme, milk cooperatives will be provided financial assistance of Rs 8004 crore in the form of a loan at 6.5% interest, which will be reimbursed over a period of 10 years.
  3. Additional milk processing capacity of 126 lakh litre per day, milk drying capacity of 210 MT per day, milk chilling capacity of 140 lakh litre per day shall be created.
  4. The government has also given a provision of interest subsidy on loans.
  5. With this scheme, 95, 00,000 farmers in about 50,000 villages will be benefitted.
  6. In addition to this, many skilled, semi-skilled and unskilled workers will get employment, directly and indirectly.

Implementing National Dairy Plan Phase-I Scheme

  1. Implementation of the World Bank-funded National Dairy Plan Phase-I scheme is also being done by the NDDB through the state government’s cooperative milk organizations/milk federations.
  2. On the other hand, the implementation of the National Programme for Dairy Development (NPDD) is being done by the state’s cooperative/milk federations.
  3. Under this scheme special assistance was given for the development of cooperative milk committees, incentives to increase the number of milk producers and increase processing and refrigeration capacity.

Revitalizing the Rashtriya Gokul Mission

  1. The ministry has said that in order to increase production, under the Rashtriya Gokul Mission, 10 semen centers have been identified for the production of Sex Sorted Semen for the production of more female animals.
  2. Also, 20 Embryo Transfer Technology (ETT) centers are being set up for the production of high genetic merit bulls of indigenous bovine breeds.
  3. Besides, INDUSCHIP has been developed for genomic selection of indigenous breeds and 6000 dairy animals have been genetically evaluated using INDUSCHIP.
  4. Under the flagship scheme 20 Gokul Grams are also being established.
  5. Apart from this, for the conservation of indigenous breeds, two National Kamdhenu Breeding Centres, one in Andhra Pradesh at Chintaladevi and other in Madhya Pradesh at Itarsi are being established.

e-Pashuhaat portal

  1. The e-Pashuhaat portal is a landmark initiative, launched in 2016.
  2. It is playing an important role in connecting breeders and farmers.


National Action Plan Vision 2022

  1. The Department of Animal Husbandry, Dairying and Fisheries (DAHDF) is working on a National Action Plan Vision 2022
  2. Under the plan, suitable provisions are being made to build additional milk processing infrastructure for processing additional volume of milk(expected on account of higher milk production and meeting the increased demand for value-added products).
Animal Husbandry, Dairy & Fisheries Sector – Pashudhan Sanjivani, E- Pashudhan Haat, etc

[pib] Central Silk Board Notifies Recently Developed Races of Silk Worm SeedPIBPrelims Only


Mains Paper 3: Agriculture | Major crops cropping patterns in various parts of the country

From UPSC perspective, the following things are important:

Prelims level: Names of breeds mentioned in the newscard and their agro-climatic conditions

Mains level: Promoting Sericulture in India



  1. Central Silk Board (CSB) has notified recently developed races of silkworm seed of mulberry and Vanya silk for increasing the productivity of cocoons and to increase the income of the farmers engaged in sericulture.
  2. Silk worm breeds for specific agro-climatic condition are essential for increasing the productivity of cocoons.

Tropical Tasar Silkworm (BDR-10)

  1. It is a race developed by the CSB has 21% more productivity than the traditional Daba
  2. Farmers can get upto 52 kg cocoons per 100 disease free layings (dfls).
  3. This silkworm breed will help the tribal farmers of Jharkhand, Chattishgarh, Odisha, West Bengal, Andhra Pradesh, Maharastra, Madhya Pradesh, Bihar, Telangana and Uttar Pradesh.

Multivoltine x Bivoltine Mulberry hybrid(PM x FC2)

  1. This race of silkworm can produce 60 kg per 100 Dfls and the race is better than earlier race PM x CSR.
  2. Due to high quality silk and significant egg recovery, this race is suitable for the farmers of Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, Telangana and Maharastra.

Eri Silkworm (C2)

  1. This race has been found better than local breed and it can produce 247 numbers of Eri cocoons per 100 Dfls.
  2. This race is suitable for the farmers in Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Bihar, Maharastra, Madhya Pradesh, Manipur, Meghalaya, Mizoram, Nagaland, Odisha, Sikkim, Uttar Pradesh, Uttarakhand and West Bengal.


Central Silk Board

  1. Central Silk Board (CSB) is a Statutory body established in 1948 by an Act of Parliament.
  2. Nodal Agency: Ministry of Textiles, Government of India.
  3. It is engaged in applied research developing new breeds of races of silkworm seed and conducts extensive field trial before commercial use in the field.
Animal Husbandry, Dairy & Fisheries Sector – Pashudhan Sanjivani, E- Pashudhan Haat, etc

Uttarakhand HC declares animals to be ‘legal persons’Priority 1States in News


Mains Paper 3: Agriculture | Economics of animal-rearing

From UPSC perspective, the following things are important:

Prelims level: Particulars of the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals Act, Particulars of the Judgement

Mains level: The newscard highlights the directives issued by Judiciary to prevent cruelty against animals.



  1. The order came on a public interest lawsuit seeking restrictions on the movement of horse-drawn carts between Indian and Nepal through Banbasa.
  2. It was also prayed for in the PIL that there should be provisions for vaccination, medical checkup of the horses for suspected infections before entering into the Indian Territory from Nepal and for regulating traffic in the border areas.

To prevent cruelty against animals

  1. In a unique ruling, the Uttarakhand High Court accorded the status of “legal person or entity” to animals in the State, saying “they have a distinct persona with corresponding rights, duties and liabilities of a living person.”
  2. A Division Bench bestowed the unique status on animal kingdom while issuing a series of directions to prevent cruelty against animals.
  3. The bench said that to protect and promote the greater welfare of animals including avian and aquatic, animals are required to be conferred with the status of legal entity/ legal person.
  4. The entire animal kingdom, including avian and aquatic ones, are declared as legal entities having a distinct persona with corresponding rights, duties and liabilities of a living person.

Guidelines issued by the bench

  1. The court also declared all Uttarakhand natives the guardians of animals and endowed them with the duty to ensure their welfare and protection.
  2. The Bench also gave directions ranging from the amount of load allowed to be pulled by various animals in accordance with the kind of carriage being pulled to the number of riders per carriage.
  3. Further banning the use of spike or other sharp tackle or equipment on the animal, the court also directed the State government to ensure that if the temperature exceeds 37°C or drops below 5°C, no person be permitted to keep in harness any animal used for the purpose of drawing vehicles.
  4. The court also went into the aspect of animal safety, highlighting the need for fluorescent reflectors in carriages and animals, certificates of unladen weight of vehicles, compulsory shelter of suitable size for horses, bullocks and stray cattle and a direction to the veterinary doctors of Uttarakhand to treat any stray animals brought to them or by visiting them.
  5. The court said as the carts driven by animals have no mechanical devices, animal-drawn carriages have to be given Right of Way over other vehicles.

Two Types of Persons

  1. In common law jurisprudence, there are two types of persons — natural persons or human beings and artificial person, which are also known as juristic persons, juridical entity or a legal person other than a natural person.
  2. Legal or juristic persons are created by law and recognized as a legal entity, having a distinct identity, legal personality and besides duties and rights.
  3. They include private business firm or entity, non-governmental or government organizations, trusts and societies, besides others.


Prevention of Cruelty to Animals Act, 1960

  1. The Prevention of Cruelty to Animals Act is an Act of the Parliament of India enacted in 1960 to prevent the infliction of unnecessary pain or suffering on animals and to amend the laws relating to the prevention of cruelty to animals.
  2. The Act further recognizes slaughter for food. Section 11 of the Act does not categorize slaughter of animals for food as cruelty.
  3. It makes a specific exemption for “destruction of any animal as food for mankind unless such destruction or preparation was accompanied by the infliction of unnecessary pain or suffering.
  4. As per the provisions of the law, the government of India formed the Animal Welfare Board of India.
Animal Husbandry, Dairy & Fisheries Sector – Pashudhan Sanjivani, E- Pashudhan Haat, etc

Dairy in Doldrums: Turning milk crisis into an international ‘gift’ opportunityPriority 1


Mains Paper 3: Agriculture | Transport & marketing of agricultural produce & issues & related constraints

From UPSC perspective, the following things are important:

Prelims level: White Revolution, National Dairy Development Board

Mains level: Declining prices og milk and other agri commodities and measures required to arrest the slide in prices


Recent incidents of milk spilling

  1. Early this month, the media was awash with images of farmers throwing vegetables and pouring milk on the roads
  2. The primary motivation behind them was falling producer realizations

White Revolution

  1. The White Revolution in India happened thanks to a fundamental technological innovation in 1956
  2. That was when Amul, for the first time in the world, manufactured powder from buffalo milk
  3. The breakthrough enabled the dairy cooperative in Gujarat’s Kaira district to accept all the milk that its farmer-members poured, especially during the ‘flush’ winter months when production by buffaloes rose one-and-a-half times or more
  4. The powder plant guaranteed that all the milk poured by farmers got procured, making dairying a sustainable income-generating activity

Effect on industry

  1. Technological and processing innovations such as the above, along with organized procurement and marketing of milk, gave an impetus to India’s dairy industry
  2. Milk production rose from 20 million tonnes (mt) in 1960-61 to 53.9 mt by 1990-91
  3. It has grown even more after liberalization, reaching 165.4 mt in 2016-17
  4. Milk is today the country’s biggest agricultural ‘crop’, with its output value in 2014-15 even exceeding that of all cereals and pulses put together

Why a slowdown in recent years?

  1. The last 3-4 years have seen India reel under a skimmed milk powder (SMP) glut
  2. In the pre-powder days, the problem was of a seasonal surplus of milk with farmers
  3. Now, it is of a structural surplus of the powder itself with the dairies
  4. The collapse of exports has to do with global prices
  5. After peaking at $ 5,000-$ 5,200 per tonne in April 2013, international SMP prices have fallen to $ 1,800-$ 2,000 levels (Almost one third)

Factors responsible for the global crash

  1. A bursting of the Chinese import bubble in 2013, after whey protein concentrate consignments from the New Zealand dairy giant Fonterra tested positive for Clostridium botulinum bacteria
  2. The Russian embargo on western food imports as a retaliation to sanctions that followed tensions in Ukraine in 2014
  3. The European Union dismantling a three-decade-old milk production quota regime in 2015

Risks this year and beyond

  1. Every year of not exporting one lakh tonnes of SMP has  meant the accumulation of stocks with dairies, forcing them, in turn, to slash both milk procurement and prices paid to farmers
  2. The situation will be more serious after October when the next flush season starts
  3. The very innovation that triggered the White Revolution — milk powder production — is ironically threatening to burn the barn down

Possible solutions

  1. A subsidy of up to 20 percent on SMP exports can be given
  2. The government can also procure SMP stocks from our dairies at a subsidized  price and “gift” these to low-income, milk-deficit nations, thereby spreading goodwill and cementing India’s international relations
  3. This job can be entrusted to the National Dairy Development Board, which can also provide the technical assistance to establish dairy plants and procurement infrastructure in these countries

Impact of these measures

  1. A programme on the above lines will cost Rs 2,000 crore-2,500 crore annually, which is a pittance compared to the Centre’s budgeted food subsidy of Rs 169,323 crore for 2018-19
  2. By providing an external market for our surplus powder, it will help arrest the current slide in prices and incomes of dairy farmers here
Animal Husbandry, Dairy & Fisheries Sector – Pashudhan Sanjivani, E- Pashudhan Haat, etc

Government dilutes rules on cattle sale in animal market


Mains Paper 3: Agriculture | Economics of animal-rearing

From UPSC perspective, the following things are important:

Prelims level: Prevention of Cruelty to Animals in Animal Markets Rules, 2018, Transport of Animals Rules 1978, Prevention of Cruelty to Animals (Transport of Animals on Foot) Rules 2001

Mains level: Various issues associated with animal rearing and role of animals in the agricultural sector in India

Changes in cattle sale rules

  1. The Centre has modified ‘The Prevention of Cruelty to Animals (Regulation of Livestock Markets) Rules, 2017‘ notified last year on the sale of livestock by removing the ‘slaughter’ word
  2. It has also watered down clauses on preventing cruelty and rules for markets in border areas
  3. The 2017 rules have been replaced with draft rules called Prevention of Cruelty to Animals in Animal Markets Rules, 2018
  4. The 2018 rules govern welfare of animals in the markets

New Provisions

  1. The new rules provide for constitution of prevention of cruelty to animals committee which would certify new animal markets, maintain record of animal sales and ensure good living conditions in markets
  2. Any committee which has an international border in its jurisdictional area shall ensure that no animal market in its jurisdiction is the source of transport of animals across any international border except in accordance with the Transport of Animals Rules 1978 and the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals (Transport of Animals on Foot) Rules 2001
Animal Husbandry, Dairy & Fisheries Sector – Pashudhan Sanjivani, E- Pashudhan Haat, etc

Govt. bans imports of hormone oxytocin


Mains Paper 3: Agriculture | Economics of animal-rearing

From UPSC perspective, the following things are important:

Prelims level: Hormone oxytocin

Mains level: Livestock sector in India & issues related to it


Stopping misuse in livestock industry

  1. The Union government has banned imports of the hormone oxytocin to stop its misuse in the livestock industry
  2. The government has decided to rely on domestic production to satisfy requirements of the hormone

Why such move?

  1. This is because it causes hormonal imbalances and shortens the lives of milch animals
  2. The drug makes them barren sooner



  1. Oxytocin is a powerful hormone that acts as a neurotransmitter in the brain
  2. It regulates social interaction and sexual reproduction, playing a role in behaviors from maternal-infant bonding and milk release to empathy, generosity, and orgasm
  3. It is also an antidote to depressive feelings
  4. The hormone plays a huge role in all pair bonding
Animal Husbandry, Dairy & Fisheries Sector – Pashudhan Sanjivani, E- Pashudhan Haat, etc

[pib] Shri Radha Mohan Singh launches e-pashuhaat portal. What’s that?Govt. SchemesPIB

  1. What? For the first time in the world under the scheme National Mission on Bovine Productivity ‘e-pashuhaat’ portal has been developed for connecting breeders and farmers regarding availability of bovine germplasm.
  2. Through the portal breeders/farmers can sell and purchase breeding stock, information on all forms of germplasm including semen, embryos and live animals with all the agencies and stake holders in the country has been uploaded on the portal.
  3. India has the largest bovine population in the world. But most of the indigenous have low genetic potential for milk production and are suited for draught animal power.
  4. Current Shortcomings in Animals Trade Market: No authentic organised market & Difficult to get quality- disease free high genetic merit germ plasm.
Animal Husbandry, Dairy & Fisheries Sector – Pashudhan Sanjivani, E- Pashudhan Haat, etc

Centre plans livestock insurance scheme on the lines of PMFBY

  1. News: The central Govt is planning to come out with a scheme for livestock insurance similar to that of PM Fasal Bima Yojana
  2. It would provide protection to growers in case of livestock lost due to drought, floods, cyclones or any other natural calamities, including epidemics
  3. The premium has been proposed to be kept at 1-2% per animal with the Centre and state Govt bearing the rest

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