Innovations in Sciences, IT, Computers, Robotics and Nanotechnology

National Quantum Mission: Unlocking India’s Potential in Quantum Technology


From UPSC perspective, the following things are important :

Prelims level: Quantum technology applications , National Quantum Mission,

Mains level: National Quantum Mission, prospect, challenges and way ahead

National Quantum Mission

Central Idea

  • India’s focus on developing a strong technology base is gaining momentum with the upcoming National Quantum Mission. This mission holds the potential to revolutionize various sectors, including defense, energy, environment, healthcare, and civil applications.

All you need to know about National Quantum Mission

  • The National Quantum Mission is an ambitious initiative undertaken by the Government of India to propel the country’s advancements in the field of quantum technology.
  • It adopts a project-driven multi-disciplinary approach, fostering fundamental discoveries, imaginative engineering, and entrepreneurial initiatives.
  • Leveraging India’s evolving scientific infrastructure and aligning with national mandates, the mission aims to accelerate research, capacity building, and collaboration across institutions.

The objectives of the National Quantum Mission

  1. Developing indigenous quantum technologies and infrastructure.
  2. Promoting collaboration between academia, industry, and research institutions.
  3. Building a strong ecosystem for research and development in quantum technology.
  4. Creating a skilled workforce in quantum science and technology.
  5. Accelerating the commercialization and adoption of quantum-based products and services.

Key aspects of the mission

  1. Quantum Computing: Advancing quantum computing capabilities for solving complex problems and enhancing computational efficiency.
  2. Quantum Communication: Developing secure and high-speed quantum communication networks to safeguard sensitive information.
  3. Quantum Sensing: Utilizing quantum principles for ultra-precise measurements in fields such as navigation, imaging, and environmental monitoring.
  4. Quantum Metrology: Enhancing measurement accuracy by exploiting quantum properties, leading to advancements in metrology and standards.
  5. Quantum Materials and Devices: Investigating and harnessing the unique properties of quantum materials to develop advanced devices for diverse applications.

Facts for prelims

Nobel Prize in Physics 2022

  • The Nobel Prize in Physics 2022 was awarded jointly to Alain Aspect, John F. Clauser and Anton Zeilinger for experiments with entangled photons, establishing the violation of Bell inequalities and pioneering quantum information science.
  • The Nobel Prize in Physics 2022 recognizes the groundbreaking work of these three physicists, who have demonstrated the power of entanglement to revolutionize our understanding of the universe.
  • Entanglement is a phenomenon in quantum mechanics that occurs when two particles are linked together in such a way that they share the same fate, even when they are separated by a large distance.
  • This seemingly magical connection has profound implications for our understanding of reality, and it has led to the development of new technologies such as quantum computers and quantum cryptography.

The Significance of Quantum Devices

  • Enabling Quantum Computing: Quantum computers rely on quantum devices, such as qubits, to perform quantum computations. These devices can represent and manipulate quantum information, allowing for parallel processing and exponential speed-up in solving complex problems.
  • Facilitating Quantum Communication: Quantum devices enable the generation, manipulation, and detection of quantum states, which are used for secure transmission of information. Devices like quantum transmitters, receivers, and entangled photon sources are vital components in quantum communication protocols such as quantum key distribution (QKD).
  • Enhancing Quantum Sensing and Metrology: Quantum devices enable precise measurements of physical quantities, such as magnetic fields, gravitational waves, and temperature, with exceptional sensitivity and accuracy. Quantum sensors based on devices like superconducting quantum interference devices (SQUIDs) and atomic magnetometers have the potential to revolutionize fields like navigation, medical diagnostics, and environmental monitoring.
  • Supporting Quantum Cryptography: Quantum devices are integral to the field of quantum cryptography, which focuses on secure communication based on quantum principles. Devices like single-photon detectors, quantum random number generators, and quantum key distribution systems are used to implement cryptographic protocols that offer provable security based on the laws of quantum mechanics.
  • Driving Fundamental Research: Quantum devices are essential tools for studying fundamental phenomena in quantum physics. They allow researchers to manipulate and control quantum systems, observe quantum behaviors, and conduct experiments to validate quantum theories.

Challenges for India’s National Quantum Mission

  • Research and Development: Quantum technology is a complex and rapidly evolving field, requiring extensive research and development efforts. Developing cutting-edge quantum technologies and pushing the boundaries of scientific knowledge pose challenges in terms of funding, expertise, and access to advanced infrastructure and equipment.
  • Skilled Workforce: Quantum technology demands a highly skilled workforce with expertise in quantum physics, engineering, and related disciplines. Developing and retaining a talented pool of researchers, scientists, and engineers proficient in quantum technologies is a challenge, as it requires specialized training programs, educational initiatives, and collaboration between academia and industry.
  • Infrastructure and Resources: Quantum technology requires advanced infrastructure, including specialized laboratories, fabrication facilities, and high-performance computing resources. Establishing and maintaining such infrastructure is a challenge, as it requires substantial investments and ongoing upgrades to keep pace with advancements in the field.
  • International Competition: The development of quantum technology is a global race, with several countries investing heavily in research and development. India faces competition from other nations that have made significant progress in quantum technology, such as the United States, China, and European countries. Maintaining a competitive edge and staying at the forefront of quantum advancements is a challenge.
  • Standardization and Interoperability: Quantum technology is still in its nascent stage, and there is a lack of standardized protocols and frameworks. Achieving interoperability among different quantum systems and ensuring compatibility across platforms is a challenge.
  • Funding and Resource Allocation: Adequate funding is critical for the success of the National Quantum Mission. Securing sustained funding and effective resource allocation, both from government sources and private investments, is a challenge.
  • Ethical and Societal Implications: Quantum technology raises ethical, legal, and societal considerations. The development and application of quantum technologies, such as quantum computing and cryptography, may have significant societal implications, including data privacy, cybersecurity, and societal disruption. Addressing these concerns and establishing ethical frameworks and guidelines is a challenge.
  • Collaboration and Partnerships: Quantum technology development requires collaboration among academia, research institutions, industry, and government bodies. Building effective partnerships, fostering knowledge sharing, and promoting collaboration across different sectors and organizations is a challenge.

Way forward

  • Robust Funding: Ensure sustained and adequate funding for the mission to support research, development, infrastructure building, and talent acquisition. Establish funding mechanisms that prioritize quantum technology initiatives and encourage public-private partnerships to leverage industry expertise and resources.
  • Research Collaboration: Foster collaboration between academia, research institutions, and industry both domestically and internationally. Encourage knowledge sharing, joint research projects, and technology transfer to accelerate the development of quantum technologies.
  • Skill Development: Focus on capacity building and skill development programs to nurture a skilled workforce in quantum science, engineering, and technology. Establish training initiatives, educational programs, and centers of excellence to develop talent and expertise in the field.
  • Infrastructure Development: Invest in state-of-the-art infrastructure, including specialized laboratories, testing facilities, and computational resources. Ensure the availability of advanced equipment and resources across different regions of the country to support research and development activities.
  • Regulatory Frameworks: Establish robust regulatory frameworks and policies to address legal, ethical, and security concerns related to quantum technology. Collaborate with international organizations and experts to develop best practices and standards for responsible development and deployment of quantum technology.
  • Industry Engagement: Encourage industry participation and engagement in quantum technology initiatives. Foster innovation ecosystems, provide support mechanisms for startups and entrepreneurs, and promote collaboration between academia and industry for technology commercialization.
  • International Collaboration: Strengthen international collaborations and partnerships in quantum technology. Establish networks with leading global institutions and organizations to exchange knowledge, share resources, and collaborate on research projects.
  • Public Awareness and Outreach: Increase public awareness about the potential of quantum technology and its impact on various sectors. Conduct outreach programs, public lectures, and awareness campaigns to engage and educate the public about the benefits and applications of quantum technology.

Concept box from civilsdaily

Understand in simple words


  • Quantum refers to the smallest possible unit of something. It is the fundamental building block or unit of energy, matter, or information in the field of physics.
  • Quantum is often associated with the principles of quantum mechanics, which is a branch of physics that describes how particles and energy behave at the atomic and subatomic levels.

Quantum technology:

  • Quantum technology is the application of the principles of quantum mechanics to develop new technologies that harness the unique properties of quantum particles.
  • It involves manipulating and controlling these particles to perform tasks that are not possible with classical technology.
  • Quantum technology takes advantage of phenomena like superposition and entanglement, which allow particles to exist in multiple states simultaneously or become interconnected regardless of distance. These properties enable quantum systems to store and process information in ways that surpass the capabilities of classical systems.


  • The National Quantum Mission’s focus on quantum materials and devices marks a significant step towards India’s technological advancements. Through strategic investments, collaborative research, and an efficient R&D ecosystem, India can harness the power of quantum technology, propel innovation, and achieve self-reliance across multiple sectors. The mission’s success will position India as a global leader in quantum materials and devices, shaping a brighter future for the country.

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