Innovations in Sciences, IT, Computers, Robotics and Nanotechnology

Innovations in Sciences, IT, Computers, Robotics and Nanotechnology

Genetic Mysteries of Microcephaly: The Role of SASS6 Gene


From UPSC perspective, the following things are important :

Prelims level: Microcephaly, SASS6 Gene, Ile62Thr Mutation

Why in the News?

A gene called SASS6 (Spindle Assembly Abnormal Protein 6) and its variants have been found to play a key role in a developmental process that causes “Microcephaly”.

What is Microcephaly?

  • Microcephaly is a condition where a baby’s head is much smaller than normal.
  • It is associated with a smaller brain, poor motor skills, poor speech, abnormal facial features, and intellectual disabilities.
  • Developmental Roots:
    • The condition is believed to start during the peak phase of brain development in the embryo. Cells that are supposed to become neurons fail to divide normally.
  • Diagnosis:
    • Microcephaly can be diagnosed before birth using foetal ultrasound and MRI.

Role of SASS6 gene 

  • Since 2014, the SASS6 gene and its variants have been linked to microcephaly.

A recent study in China:(On March 19, 2024)

  • The study of a consanguine couple revealed microcephaly and fetal growth issues. Confirming the SASS6 gene’s role in microcephaly, findings suggest embryo survival requires at least one functional gene copy.

The University of Cologne Study (February 2024):

  • Researchers removed all functional SASS6 genes from mouse embryo-derived cells.
  • Even without the genes, cells could make abnormal but passable centrioles (structures needed for cell division).
  • When these cells were prompted to become neurons, the centrioles disappeared, preventing the cells from becoming neurons.

Consanguinity and Genetic Risk of Microcephaly

  • Expert Insight:
    • Researchers explained that over 70% of congenital microcephaly cases come from consanguineous marriages.
    • Such marriages increase the risk of inheriting mutated genes from both parents.
  • Genetic Causes:
    • Mutations in 30 genes cause microcephaly.
    • 10 of these genes create proteins needed for centrioles, which are crucial for cell division.

Ile62Thr Mutation

  • 2004 Discovery: The SASS6 gene was discovered in the roundworm C. elegans, showing its conserved function across animals.
  • Gene Suppression in C. elegans:
    • Suppressing the SASS6 gene halted new centriole assembly, stopping development.
  • 2014 Study on a Pakistani Family: Researchers found four family members with microcephaly due to the Ile62Thr mutation in the SASS6 gene.
  • The Ile62Thr mutation was introduced into the C. elegans SASS6 gene.
  • The mutation alone did not significantly impair centriole function but became deadly when combined with another mutation.
  • In humans, this mutation causes microcephaly due to its impact on centriole function.



[2016]  In the context of the developments in Bioinformatics, the term ‘transcriptome’, sometimes seen in the news, refers to-

(a) a range of enzymes used in genome editing

(b) the full range of mRNA molecules expressed by an organism

(c) the description of the mechanism of gene expression

(d) a mechanism of genetic mutations taking place in cells

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Innovations in Sciences, IT, Computers, Robotics and Nanotechnology

What is 3D Printing and How does it Work?


From UPSC perspective, the following things are important :

Prelims level: 3D Printing; PS4 Engine

Why in the news?

  • The Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) successfully tested a liquid rocket engine made with the help of additive manufacturing technology — commonly known as 3D printing.

3D Printed PS4 Engine

  • The technology helped ISRO bring down the number of parts in the engine from 14 to a single piece.
  • ISRO was able to eliminate 19 weld joints and saved 97% of raw material.
  • It also reduced the overall production time by 60%.

What is 3D printing?

  • 3D printing is a process that uses computer-created design to make three-dimensional objects layer by layer.
  • It is an additive process, in which layers of a material like plastic, composites or bio-materials are built up to construct objects that range in shape, size, rigidity, and colour.
  • Common 3D Printing materials include Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene (ABS), Carbon Fiber Filaments, Conductive Filaments, Metal Filaments etc.

How is 3D printing done?

  • To carry out 3D printing, one needs a personal computer connected to a 3D printer.
  • All they need to do is design a 3D model of the required object on computer-aid design (CAD) software and press ‘print’.
  • The 3D printer does the rest of the job.
  • 3D printers construct the desired object by using a layering method, which is the complete opposite of the subtractive manufacturing processes.

Benefits offered:

3D printing offers several key advantages over traditional manufacturing, including:

  • Complexity without Extra Cost: Allows for intricate designs without increasing production costs.
  • Rapid Prototyping: Speeds up the development process by quickly producing prototypes from digital designs.
  • Customization: Ideal for producing customized or bespoke items in small quantities.
  • Reduced Waste: Generates minimal waste compared to traditional subtractive methods, making it more sustainable.
  • Cost-Effective for Low Volumes: Avoids the need for expensive tooling and molds, beneficial for small production runs.


[2018] “3D printing” has applications in which of the following?

  1. Preparation of confectionery items
  2. Manufacture of bionic ears
  3. Automotive industry
  4. Reconstructive surgeries
  5. Data processing technologies

Select the correct answer using the code given below:

(a) 1, 3 and 4 only

(b) 2, 3 and 5 only

(c) 1 and 4 only

(d) 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5

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Innovations in Sciences, IT, Computers, Robotics and Nanotechnology

Artificial Rain through Cloud Seeding


From UPSC perspective, the following things are important :

Prelims level: Cloud Seeding, Seeding Agents

Why in the news?

The Uttarakhand government faced scrutiny from the Supreme Court following Forest fires that claimed lives in the state.

  • Justices highlighted the inefficacy of relying solely on cloud-seeding or rain gods to address the crisis.

Case Study: Experimenting Artificial Rain in India

  • A recent study published in the Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society (BAMS) highlighted the success of a cloud seeding trial in Maharashtra’s Solapur region, which resulted in an 18% increase in rainfall compared to normal patterns.
  • Scientists from the Indian Institute of Tropical Meteorology in Pune and other institutes conducted this study.
  • The experiment targeted warm convective clouds with a height above zero degrees Celsius, releasing calcium chloride particles to stimulate rainfall.
  • Spanning from 2017 to 2019, the experiment analyzed 276 clouds using advanced tools like automatic rain gauges, radars, radiometers, and aircraft.
  • Glaciogenic seeding, attempted in clouds containing both ice and water, did not significantly impact rainfall at the seeding location, according to the study’s findings.

About Cloud-Seeding

  • Cloud seeding is a weather modification technique aimed at altering precipitation patterns by dispersing substances into clouds to stimulate rainfall or snowfall.
  • It is used to mitigate hail, disperse fog, and either induce precipitation or prevent it from occurring in subsequent days.
  • It involves the dispersal of substances like silver iodide, potassium iodide, dry ice, and hygroscopic materials such as table salt into the atmosphere.
  • Techniques include:
  1. Static seeding: promotes ice particle formation in supercooled clouds, and
  2. Dynamic seeding: enhances convective cloud development through the release of latent heat.
  • Dispersion methods range from aircraft and ground-based generators to newer approaches like drones delivering electric charges or infrared laser pulses.

Limitations: Impact on Environment and Health

  • Concerns persist regarding the potential accumulation of seeding agents in sensitive ecosystems, although detailed studies have shown negligible impacts.
  • The chemicals used, such as silver iodide, may potentially damage the environment and cause health issues like iodine poisoning in high concentrations


[2019] In the context of which of the following do some scientists suggest the use of cirrus cloud thinning technique and the injection of sulphate aerosol into stratosphere?

(a) Creating the artificial rains in some regions

(b) Reducing the frequency and intensity of tropical cyclones

(c) Reducing the adverse effects of solar wind on the Earth

(d) Reducing the global warming

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Innovations in Sciences, IT, Computers, Robotics and Nanotechnology

Why are Indian spices facing the heat? | Explained


From UPSC perspective, the following things are important :

Prelims level: Ethylene Oxide (ETO)

Mains level: Health concerns related to ETO

Why in the News?

Many have announced an investigation into possible contamination of spice mixes sold by top Indian brands like MDH and Everest Masalas.

  • Delhi-based think tank Global Trade Research Initiative (GTRI) in a recent note held, “With nearly $700 million worth of exports to critical markets at stake.”

What is Ethylene Oxide (ETO)?

  • Ethylene oxide is a flammable, colorless gas at temperature above 51.3 F (10.7 C). When used directly in the gaseous form or in non-explosive gaseous mixtures with nitrogen or carbon dioxide, ETO serves as a disinfectant, fumigant, sterilizing agent, and insecticide.
  • ETO has also been reported to be produced from natural sources. In certain plants, ethylene (a natural plant growth regulator) is degraded to ethylene oxide. ETO ia also generated from water – logged soil, manure and sewage sludge.

What are the health concerns?

  • ETO Usage and Contamination: ETO is a prohibited pesticide that is used as a sterilizing agent in the food industry, including spices.
  • Toxicity and Carcinogenicity: Residues of ETO can lead to the formation of toxic and carcinogenic compounds, such as ethylene glycol. Long-term exposure to ethylene oxide is associated with various health risks, including cancers like lymphoma and leukemia.
  • Previous Incidents: Indian-made products, including cough syrups, have been linked to incidents where ethylene glycol contamination resulted in fatalities, particularly among children in countries like Cameroon, Gambia, Indonesia, and Uzbekistan.
  • Regulatory Response: The European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) has banned the use of ETO and has flagged contamination issues in Indian spices in the past. A recent EFSA report highlighted carcinogenic chemicals found in numerous products linked to India.

Which countries have flagged safety of Indian spices?

  • Hong Kong: Suspended the sale of three MDH spice blends and Everest fish curry masala due to high levels of ethylene oxide (ETO).
  • Singapore: Ordered a recall of Everest spice mix, stating that ethylene oxide makes the spices unfit for human consumption and poses a cancer risk.
  • United States: The FDA is aware of the reports and is gathering additional information about the situation.
  • Maldives: The Maldives FDA has suspended the sale of spices produced by Everest and MDH.
  • Australia: Food Standards of Australia and New Zealand is working with international counterparts to understand the issue and determine if further action is required.
  • Bangladesh: Gathering information on companies importing possibly contaminated products and plans to carry out examinations if necessary.

What are the operational challenges faced by the Indian government?

  • Lack of Standardized Protocol System: India’s diverse food landscape, the lack of standardised monitoring and intentional food fraud may prevent manufacturers from efficiently tracing ingredients and assessing potential risks.
  • Lack of Database: Many companies struggle to trace ingredients, especially raw agricultural commodities, due to the lack of standardised recordkeeping and intentional food fraud. This prevents manufacturers from assessing potential risks, compromising the safety of the entire food supply chain.
  • Traceability is particularly challenging for small and medium sized businesses with limited resources.

What steps is Food and Drug Administration (FDA) taking to improve the safety of spices?

  • Food Safety Modernization Act (FSMA): The FSMA rules address both domestically produced and imported foods.
    • For example, the preventive controls rule requires food facilities, including those that manufacture spices, to conduct a hazard analysis, identify hazards reasonably likely to occur, and establish preventive controls for such hazards.
  • Spices Board and its Measures: The Spices Board announced mandatory testing of consignments shipped to Singapore and Hong Kong, and gathering technical details and analytical reports from relevant food and drug agencies.
  • Issuance of Guidelines: A circular dated April 30 contains guidelines to exporters on preventing ETO contamination, developed after discussions with the Indian spice industry.
    • Measures include voluntary testing of ETO during raw and final stages, storing ETO treated products separately, and incorporating critical control points in hazard analysis.

Way forward:

  • Enhanced Regulatory Oversight: Strengthen regulatory bodies such as the Food Safety and Standards Authority of India (FSSAI) to ensure strict adherence to food safety standards and regulations. Implement regular inspections, audits, and enforcement actions to monitor compliance with safety guidelines.
  • Improved Traceability Systems: Develop and implement robust traceability systems across the food supply chain to track the origin and movement of ingredients and products. Utilize technology such as blockchain and RFID tagging to enhance transparency and accountability.

Mains question for practice 

Q Explain the health risks associated with ethylene oxide (ETO) contamination in spices.

Mains PYQ

Q Elaborate the policy taken by the Government of India to meet the challenges of the food processing sector. (UPSC IAS/2019)

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Innovations in Sciences, IT, Computers, Robotics and Nanotechnology

What is Exoatmospheric Interception?


From UPSC perspective, the following things are important :

Prelims level: Exoatmospheric Interception, Iron Dome, Sling of David, Arrow

Mains level: NA

Why in the news?

Israel successfully intercepted an Iranian missile outside Earth’s atmosphere using an Exoatmospheric kill vehicle.

Israeli Air-Defence Systems

Israel’s multi-layered air defence system, including Iron Dome, The Arrow, and David’s Sling, was activated in anticipation of the attack.

  1. IRON DOME: The short-range Iron Dome air defence system was built to intercept the kind of rockets fired by the Hamas in Gaza. Developed by state-owned Rafael Advanced Defense Systems with US backing, it became operational in 2011. Each truck-towed unit fires radar-guided missiles to blow up short-range threats like rockets, mortars and drones in mid-air.
  2. ARROW: The long-range Arrow-2 and Arrow-3 system, developed by Israel with an Iranian missile threat in mind, is designed to intercept ballistic missiles outside the earth’s atmosphere, using a detachable warhead that collides with the target. It operates at an altitude that allows for the safe dispersal of any non-conventional warheads.
  3. DAVID’S SLING: This mid-range system is designed to shoot down ballistic missiles fired from 100 km to 200 km away. Developed and manufactured jointly by Israel’s state-owned Rafael Advanced Defense Systems and the U.S. Raytheon Co, David’s Sling is also designed to intercept aircraft, drones and cruise missiles.

What are Exoatmospheric Missiles?

  • Exoatmospheric missiles, or anti-ballistic missiles (ABMs), operate beyond Earth’s atmosphere to intercept incoming ballistic missiles.
  • They employ advanced sensors and guidance systems to detect, track, and destroy targets in space.
  • Kinetic kill vehicles, like the Exoatmospheric Kill Vehicle (EKV), rely on high-speed collisions to neutralize threats.
  • It travels at hypersonic speed.

Working Mechanism of Exoatmospheric Missiles:

  • The EKV uses a solid rocket booster to propel itself into space.
  • Advanced sensors and onboard computers identify and track incoming threats.
  • Precise maneuvering allows the missile to navigate towards the target.
  • Impact from a high-speed collision eliminates the threat without traditional warheads, enhancing speed and accuracy.


[2018] What is “Terminal High Altitude Area Defense (THAAD)”, sometimes seen in the news?

(a) An Israeli radar system

(b) India’s indigenous anti-missile programme

(c) An American anti-missile system

(d) A defence collaboration between Japan and South Korea

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Innovations in Sciences, IT, Computers, Robotics and Nanotechnology

Air-breathing Magnesium- Copper- Cupric Oxide Fuel Cell


From UPSC perspective, the following things are important :

Prelims level: Magnesium - Copper -Cupric Oxide Fuel Cell

Mains level: NA

Why in the news?

  • Researchers at the University of Kerala have devised an eco-friendly fuel cell that primarily utilizes air and seawater to generate power.

Magnesium – Copper -Cupric Oxide Fuel Cell

  • A semiconducting layer of Cupric Oxide grown over Copper substrate was used in a Magnesium- Sodium Chloride based fuel cell.
  • It breathes air; produces only electricity and heat during its operation and emits pure water.
  • The prototype, measuring 3 cm × 1.5 cm × 1 cm, delivered a voltage of 0.7 V and a current of 0.35 A for a duration of 10 minutes, showcasing the potential for practical application.

What is a Fuel Cell?

  • A fuel cell is an electrochemical cell that converts the chemical energy into electricity of a fuel and an oxidizing agent.
  • It generates electrical energy from fuel through an electrochemical reaction, offering high efficiency and zero emissions.
  • They are an innovative technology poised to revolutionize electricity generation, often referred to as the “battery of the future“.
  • Fuel cells provide high efficiency, low emissions, and can be used in various applications.
  • Note: Any electrochemical cell generates DC (Direct Current) output.

Significance of the Device

  • This innovative fuel cell technology is anticipated to disrupt the market dominance of Lithium-ion batteries, offering a higher power output.
  • Unlike conventional batteries, the Magnesium-based fuel cells utilized in this research operate by utilizing saline water as fuel and extracting oxygen from the surrounding air.



With reference to ‘fuel cells’ in which hydrogen-rich fuel and oxygen are used to generate electricity, consider the following statements :

1.    If pure hydrogen is used as a fuel, the fuel cell emits heat and water as by-products.

2.    Fuel cells can be used for powering buildings and not for small devices like laptop computers.

3.    Fuel cells produce electricity in the form of Alternating Current (AC).

Which of the statements given above is / are correct?

(a) 1 only

(b) 2 and 3 only

(c) 1 and 3 only

(d) 1, 2 and 3

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Innovations in Sciences, IT, Computers, Robotics and Nanotechnology

Nuclear Fusion: KSTAR reaches a temperature of 100 million Celsius


From UPSC perspective, the following things are important :

Prelims level: Tokamak Technology, Nuclear Fusion

Mains level: NA

Why in the news?

  • South Korean scientists at the Korea Institute of Fusion Energy (KFE) achieved a significant milestone by producing temperatures of 100 million Celsius for 48 seconds in the Korea Superconducting Tokamak Advanced Research (KSTAR) fusion reactor.
  • KSTAR maintained the high confinement mode (H-mode) for over 100 seconds, demonstrating stability in plasma conditions crucial for sustained fusion reactions.
  • This is a world record.

What is Tokamak Technology?


  • Scientists utilize a tokamak, a donut-shaped reactor, to heat hydrogen variants to extreme temperatures, creating plasma.
  • This reactor replicates the Sun’s fusion reaction, generating immense heat energy.


What is Nuclear Fusion?

  • Nuclear fusion involves fusion of hydrogen and other light elements to release massive energy, akin to the process that powers the Sun and stars.
  • It is a process where two light atomic nuclei combine to form a heavier nucleus, releasing a large amount of energy in the process.
  • This occurs under extremely high temperatures, typically in the range of tens of millions of degrees Celsius, and pressure, similar to those found in the core of stars.
  • In a tokamak reactor, hydrogen variants are heated to extreme temperatures to create a plasma, mimicking conditions found in the Sun’s core.
  • 1 kg of fusion fuel contains about 10 million times as much energy as a kg of coal, oil or gas.

Significance of KSTAR’s achievements

  • Achieving sustained fusion reactions in laboratory conditions unlocks the potential for unlimited, zero-carbon electricity generation.
  • By extending the duration of high-temperature fusion, scientists aim to sustain plasma temperatures of 100 million degrees for 300 seconds by 2026, pushing the boundaries of fusion research.
  • Progress in fusion research at KSTAR contributes to international efforts, supporting projects like the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) in France.

ITER Project


  • ITER is a unique partnership of nations jointly responsible for the construction, operation, and decommissioning of an experimental fusion facility.
  • It was founded in 2007 and is based at Saint-Paul-lez-Durance, France.
  • ITER being an experimental reactor, it will allow the study of fusion reaction which governs the Sun and other Stars.
  • Nuclear fusion will take place in the form of Plasma in a Tokamak.

ITER is run, funded and designed by 7 members:

  1. European Union (EU)
  2. India
  3. China
  4. Japan
  5. Russia
  6. South Korea
  7. United States

Benefits offered by Nuclear Fusion Energy

  • Clean Energy: Fusion reactions produce minimal radioactive waste compared to nuclear fission, which generates long-lived radioactive waste. Fusion also emits no greenhouse gases, making it an environmentally friendly energy source.
  • Safety and Controlled Nature: Fusion reactions are inherently safer than nuclear fission reactions. Fusion reactors have a lower risk of accidents and do not produce runaway chain reactions like fission reactors.
  • Energy Security: Fusion provides a reliable and secure source of energy, reducing dependence on fossil fuels and volatile energy markets. It offers a sustainable solution to meet global energy demand.
  • High Energy Density: Fusion reactions release a vast amount of energy compared to other energy sources. This high energy density makes fusion power compact and efficient, enabling it to meet large-scale energy needs.
  • Scalability: Fusion reactors can be designed to scale up or down to meet varying energy demands. They can serve as base-load power plants or complement renewable energy sources, providing flexibility in the energy mix.
  • Minimal Environmental Impact: Fusion power plants have a small footprint and do not require large mining operations or fuel transportation, reducing their environmental impact. They also produce no air pollution or carbon emissions during operation.



India is an important member of the ‘International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor’. If this experiment succeeds, what is the immediate advantage for India?

(a) It can use thorium in place of uranium for power generation

(b) It can attain a global role in satellite navigation

(c) It can drastically improve the efficiency of its fission reactors in power generation

(d) It can build fusion reactors for power generation


Practice MCQ:

The Korea Superconducting Tokamak Advanced Research (KSTAR) fusion reactor has recently set a world record. In this regard, consider the following statements:

1.    It produced a temperatures of 100 million Celsius for 48 seconds.

2.    It achieved sustained fusion reactions in laboratory conditions.

Which of the given statements is/are correct?

(a) Only 1

(b) Only 2

(c) Both 1 and 2

(d) Neither 1 nor 2

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Innovations in Sciences, IT, Computers, Robotics and Nanotechnology

How are Semiconductors fabricated? | Explained


From UPSC perspective, the following things are important :

Prelims level: What are semiconductors?

Mains level: Current state of semiconductor fabrication and Semiconductor manufacturing process

Why in the news? 

The binary revolution (0s and 1s) constantly shape the way we interact with technology and with each other daily and the beating heart of this binary revolution is the semiconductor device.

What are semiconductors?

Semiconductors are materials that possess properties intermediate between those of conductors and insulators. They can conduct electricity under certain conditions but not as effectively as conductors, nor do they block it entirely like insulators.

How are semiconductors made?

  • Silicon Wafer Selection: Engineers begin by selecting a silicon wafer as the foundation for the semiconductor.
  • Purification of Silicon: Silicon, sourced from sand, undergoes meticulous purification to achieve ultra-pure levels with impurity levels as low as a few parts per billion.
  • Photolithography Process: A crucial step where the circuit pattern is carved on the wafer using photolithography. The wafer is coated with a light-sensitive material (photoresist), and a mask with small gaps in the circuit pattern shape is used to shine light onto the wafer, eroding parts of the photoresist to acquire the pattern.
  • Chemical and Physical Techniques: After photolithography, engineers use chemical and/or physical techniques to remove uncarved parts of the photoresist, leaving behind the circuit’s structure on the silicon substrate.
  • Doping of Semiconductor: Impurities are deliberately added to specific parts of the semiconductor to alter its electrical properties.
  • Deposition of Thin Layers: Thin layers of materials such as metals or insulators are deposited onto the wafer’s surface to form electrical connections or insulate components.
  • Packaging and Testing: The resulting product undergoes packaging, where individual chips are separated, encapsulated, and tested to ensure functionality and reliability.Finally, the semiconductor chips are integrated into electronic devices.

Need Expertise

    • Need high precision and diverse scientific principle-Each step in semiconductor fabrication demands ultra-high precision and harnesses a blend of diverse scientific principles. For example, to make the most advanced transistors, the photolithography process requires a light source emitting electromagnetic radiation at a wavelength of 13.5 nm.
    • Specializing in specific domains-The semiconductor manufacturing process is characterised by specialisation, leading to an oligopoly controlled by companies specializing in specific domains. For example ASML, a spin-off of Philips, is in fact the sole provider of photolithography machines for cutting-edge semiconductor technology worldwide

Status of India in fabrication – 

    • Bengaluru serves as a hub for chip design, showcasing India’s leading role in this field.Despite its prowess in chip design, India lacks ownership of the intellectual property rights (IPR) necessary to execute these designs.
    • Most IPR for chip designs is retained by parent companies or Arm, limiting India’s autonomy to being a mere user of their products.The situation resembles the McDonald’s business model, where India hosts outlets but lacks ownership of the recipe and supply chain, controlled by a parent company elsewhere.

Significance of semiconductors:

  • Ubiquitous Influence: Semiconductors power various technologies beyond smartphones and computers, including smart air-conditioners, space telescopes, and more.
  • Critical Solutions for Crises: Semiconductors are crucial for addressing 21st-century challenges like artificial intelligence, electric vehicles, space exploration, and personalized healthcare, highlighting their significance for human survival and progress.
  • Innovation and Job Creation: Semiconductor technology facilities foster innovation, create high-paying jobs, and nurture deep-tech start-ups, contributing to advancements in various fields like materials science, computer engineering, and chip design.
  • Geopolitical Significance: Semiconductors have become a focal point of geopolitical interest, with nations competing to establish fabrication facilities and imposing sanctions on others to control access to advanced technology, driving efforts to bolster domestic semiconductor production capabilities.

Challenges related to semiconductor manufacturing in India:

  • Intellectual Property Rights (IPR): India faces limitations due to a lack of ownership of IPR necessary for chip fabrication.
  • Technology Transfer: Despite advancements in chip design, India struggles with technology transfer issues.
  • Infrastructure: Developing semiconductor manufacturing facilities requires significant investment in infrastructure
  • Skilled Workforce: The semiconductor industry demands highly skilled professionals proficient in various aspects of chip design, fabrication, and testing.
  • Regulatory Environment: India’s regulatory environment, including policies related to intellectual property, taxation, and investment, may not be conducive to attracting semiconductor manufacturing investments.

Measures to address challenges related to semiconductor manufacturing in India:

  • Education and training programs:  Offer specialized courses and certifications to equip individuals with the necessary skills for the industry.
  • Policy reforms: Implement policy reforms to create a conducive regulatory environment for semiconductor manufacturing sector.
  • Diversification of suppliers: Encourage diversification of semiconductor supply chains by supporting domestic suppliers and fostering partnerships with global manufacturers
  • Government grants and incentives: Provide financial support and incentives for semiconductor R&D projects
  • Strategic partnerships: Forge strategic partnerships with leading semiconductor-producing countries and organizations to leverage their expertise, share best practices, and facilitate technology transfer and knowledge exchange.

Conclusion: Addressing challenges in semiconductor manufacturing in India requires collaborative efforts, investment in infrastructure and education, regulatory reforms, and strategic partnerships. These measures are vital for India to strengthen its position in the global semiconductor industry.

Mains PYQ-

Q- Account for the present location of iron and steel industries away from the source of raw material, by giving examples. ( 2020 ) 

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7 Ghost Particles pierce through Earth: IceCube Observations


From UPSC perspective, the following things are important :

Prelims level: Neutrinos, IceCube Observatory, Indian Neutrino Observatory (INO), Trident

Mains level: NA

Why in the news

  • Researchers at the IceCube Observatory, buried beneath the Antarctic ice, have identified seven potential instances of elusive “Ghost Particles” or astrophysical Tau Neutrinos as they penetrated through Earth.
  • These neutrinos are pivotal for understanding the cosmic exchanges between Earth and the vast universe.

What are Neutrinos?

  • Neutrinos, often referred to as “ghost particles,” are subatomic particles characterized by their nearly zero mass and lack of electric charge.
  • They traverse through matter with minimal interaction, making their detection extremely challenging.
  • Previously believed to be massless, evidence has emerged indicating that neutrinos possess a very small mass.
  • Neutrinos rank among the most abundant particles in the universe.
  • While neutrinos and electrons behave similarly in terms of nuclear forces, neither of them engages in strong nuclear interactions.
  • However, both participate in weak nuclear interactions.
  • Neutrinos are produced during events such as nuclear fusion in stars like the Sun or nuclear fission in reactors.

Properties of Neutrinos

Electric Charge Electrically Neutral
Mass Extremely Low (Exact Masses Not Known)
Types Electron Neutrino, Muon Neutrino, Tau Neutrino
Interaction Weak Interaction
Speed Close to the Speed of Light
Spin Fermion, Half-Integer Spin
Neutrino Oscillations Neutrinos Change Flavor during Travel
Interactions Very Weak Interaction with Matter
Abundance Among the Most Abundant Particles in the Universe
Cosmic Messengers Can Carry Information from Distant Cosmic Sources


Why Neutrinos are termed “Ghost Particles”?


  • The weak charge and almost imperceptible mass of neutrinos render them exceedingly difficult for scientists’ to detect directly.
  • Due to their rare interactions with other particles, tracking neutrinos proves nearly impossible.

Significance of Neutrino Detection

  • The origins of the abundant neutrino particles remain largely unknown to scientists.
  • There’s a hypothesis suggesting their potential role in the early universe shortly after the Big Bang, yet concrete evidence remains elusive.
  • Understanding neutrinos better holds the promise of unraveling numerous scientific phenomena, including the mysterious origins of cosmic rays, which neutrinos are known to carry.
  • Researchers anticipate that pinpointing the source of neutrinos will aid in explaining the origins of cosmic rays, a puzzle that has perplexed scientists for centuries.

About IceCube Observatory


  • Location: The IceCube Neutrino Observatory is situated near the Amundsen-Scott South Pole Station in Antarctica.
  • Components:
  1. IceCube: The primary detector consists of 5,160 digital optical modules (DOMs) attached to vertical strings frozen into the ice.
  2. IceTop: Located on top of IceCube strings, it serves as a veto and calibration detector for cosmic rays.
  3. DeepCore: A denser subdetector within IceCube that lowers the neutrino energy threshold for studying neutrino oscillations.
  • Construction:
  1. Completed in December 2010 with 86 strings deployed over seven austral summers.
  2. Involved melting holes in the ice to depths of 2,450 meters and deploying sensors connected to cables.
  • Research Goals:
  1. Observing neutrinos from various astrophysical sources to study cosmic phenomena like exploding stars, gamma-ray bursts, and black holes.
  2. Studying cosmic rays interacting with the Earth’s atmosphere to reveal structures not fully understood.
  3. Advancing neutrino astronomy and exploring high-energy processes in the Universe.


Recent Neutrino Observatories in news:


[1] Indian Neutrino Observatory (INO)

  • INO approved in 2015, is a proposed particle physics research mega project.
  • Its objective is to study neutrinos in a 1,200 meter deep cave.
  • The primary objective of the INO Project is to study neutrinos, one of the most abundant fundamental particles, coming from various sources and using an underground Iron calorimeter (ICAL) detector.
  • Its location is decided to be at the Bodi West Hills (BWH) region near Pottipuram village in Theni district of Tamil Nadu (110 km from the temple town of Madurai).

[2] China’s TRIDENT

  • Scheduled for completion in 2030, TRIDENT, aptly nicknamed “Ocean Bell” or “Hai ling” in Chinese.
  • It will be positioned 11,500 feet (3,500 meters) beneath the ocean’s surface in the Western Pacific.
  • It seeks to explore the realm of neutrinos, transient particles that momentarily interact with the deep ocean, emitting faint flashes of light.



(1) In the context of modern scientific research, consider the following statements about ‘IceCube’, a particle detector located at the South Pole, which was recently in the news: (2015)

  1. It is the world’s largest neutrino detector, encompassing a cubic kilometre of ice.
  2. It is a powerful telescope to search for dark matter.
  3. It is buried deep in the ice.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 and 3 only
  3. 1 and 3 only
  4. 1, 2 and 3


(2) India-based Neutrino Observatory is included by the planning commission as a mega-science project under the 11th Five-year plan. In this context, consider the following statements: (2010)

  1. Neutrinos are chargeless elementary particles that travel close to the speed of light.
  2. Neutrinos are created in nuclear reactions of beta decay.
  3. Neutrinos have a negligible, but non-zero mass.
  4. Trillions of Neutrinos pass through the human body every second.

Which of the statements given above are correct?

  1. 1 and 3 only
  2. 1, 2 and 3 only
  3. 2, 3 and 4
  4. 1, 2, 3 and 4

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Innovations in Sciences, IT, Computers, Robotics and Nanotechnology

Celebrating Pi Day: A Tribute to Mathematics


From UPSC perspective, the following things are important :

Prelims level: Pi, Sulbha Sutra

Mains level: NA

In the news

  • March 14, or 3/14, is celebrated globally as Pi Day, paying homage to the mathematical constant Pi (π).

About Pi Day

  • Initiated by: Physicist Larry Shaw of the Exploratorium museum in San Francisco started the tradition in 1988, which has since gained international recognition.
  • UNESCO Designation: In 2019, UNESCO designated Pi Day as the International Day of Mathematics, highlighting its significance in promoting mathematical awareness.

What is Pi?

  • Mathematical Constant: Pi (π) represents the ratio of a circle’s circumference to its diameter, with a value of approximately 3.14.
  • Irrational Number: Pi is an irrational number, with a decimal representation that neither terminates nor repeats.
  • Ancient Approximations: Ancient civilizations, including Babylonians and Egyptians, approximated Pi using geometric methods, laying the foundation for its calculation.
  • Symbol of Beauty: Pi’s infinite and non-repeating decimal digits evoke a sense of wonder and appreciation for the intricacies of mathematics.

Do you know?

  • Baudhayana (800 BC – 740 BC) is said to be the original Mathematician behind the Pythagoras theorem and Calculation of Pi (3.142).
  •  Pythagoras theorem was indeed known much before Pythagoras, and it was Indians who discovered it at least 1000 years before Pythagoras was born!
  • The credit for authoring the earliest Sulbha Sutras goes to him.
  • Aryabhatta, another great Indian mathematician, worked out the accurate value of π to 3.1416. in 499AD.


Evolution of Pi Calculation

  • Archimedes’ Method: Greek polymath Archimedes devised a method to approximate Pi using inscribed and circumscribed polygons, pioneering early calculations.
  • Newton’s Contribution: Isaac Newton revolutionized Pi calculation using calculus, significantly simplifying the process and enabling rapid advancements.
  • Modern Computing: With the aid of modern computers, mathematicians have calculated Pi to trillions of decimal places, facilitating precise scientific calculations.

Practical Significance of Pi

  • Architectural and Engineering Applications: Pi plays a crucial role in designing structures, shaping engineering solutions, and facilitating accurate measurements.
  • Understanding the Universe: Pi’s significance extends to diverse fields, from space exploration to molecular biology, underscoring its universal applicability.
  • Intrinsic Value: Despite its vast decimal expansion, Pi holds intrinsic value as a symbol of mathematical beauty and infinity, inspiring exploration and discovery.

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Innovations in Sciences, IT, Computers, Robotics and Nanotechnology

Synthesis of Gold Nanoparticles from Roen Olmi Mushroom


From UPSC perspective, the following things are important :

Prelims level: Roen Olmi Mushroom

Mains level: NA


In the news

  • Researchers in Goa have successfully synthesized gold nanoparticles from a wild mushroom species known as Roen Olmi, which is widely consumed as a delicacy in the coastal state.

About Roen Olmi Mushroom

  • Species: Roen Olmi belongs to the Termitomyces species and is found growing on termite hills.
  • Local Name: Locally known as “roen olmi” in Goa, it is a popular edible wild mushroom enjoyed by the locals, especially during the monsoon season.
  • Habitat: Endemic to the Western Ghats, Roen Olmi mushrooms thrive in the thick forest cover and high humidity prevalent in the region.
  • Ecological Significance: These mushrooms play a crucial role in forest and grassland ecosystems by converting 50% of dead plant material into nutrient-rich soil. They also possess antioxidant and antimicrobial properties.
  • Cultural and Medicinal Value: Roen Olmi mushrooms are valued not only for their nutritional attributes but also for their ethno-medicinal significance in indigenous communities across Asia and Africa.

Implications and Future Directions

  • Economic Impact: The breakthrough has significant economic implications, especially in the biomedical and biotechnological sectors, where the demand for gold nanoparticles is expected to rise.
  • Environmental Sustainability: Unlike conventional methods that employ toxic chemical agents, the use of Roen Olmi mushrooms offers an eco-friendly approach to mass-producing gold nanoparticles.
  • Local Community Benefits: The researchers advocate for the conservation and sustainable use of this valuable resource, emphasizing the importance of sharing benefits with the local community in accordance with the Nagoya Protocol.

Try this PYQ from CSP 2021

In the nature, which of the following is/are most likely to be found surviving on a surface without soil?​

  1. Fern​
  2. Lichen​
  3. Moss​
  4. Mushroom​

Select the correct answer using the code given below.​

(a) 1 and 4 only​

(b) 2 only​

(c) 2 and 3 only​

(d) 1, 3 and 4 only​


Post your responses here.
Please leave a feedback on thisx

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Innovations in Sciences, IT, Computers, Robotics and Nanotechnology

Room-Temperature Qubits: A Gateway to Affordable Quantum Computing


From UPSC perspective, the following things are important :

Prelims level: Qubits, Quantum Mechanics etc.

Mains level: NA

In the news

  • Quantum computing holds immense potential, yet many systems operate only at extremely low temperatures, making them costly and commercially unfeasible.
  • Researchers are exploring alternative technologies to drive down costs and enhance the commercial viability of quantum computers.

Quantum Computing

  • Quantum computing is a paradigm of computation that utilizes principles from quantum mechanics to process information.
  • In quantum mechanics, particles exhibit wavelike properties, and their behavior is governed by the Schrodinger equation, which describes how these waves behave.

Key Concepts:

  • Wave-Particle Duality: Quantum objects, like electrons and photons, exhibit both particle-like and wave-like properties simultaneously, known as wave-particle duality.
  • Superposition: Objects in quantum science can exist in superposition states, where their quantum state is a combination of multiple states until measured. This concept allows qubits to represent multiple states simultaneously.
  • Quantum States and Qubits: Qubits are the fundamental units of quantum information, representing a two-state quantum system that can be in a superposition of 0 and 1 until measured.
  • Quantum Gates: Quantum computers use quantum gates to manipulate qubits through reversible unitary transformations, enabling complex computations based on algorithms.
  • Entanglement: Quantum entanglement is a unique property where multiple qubits can be correlated in such a way that the state of one qubit is dependent on the state of another, allowing for powerful computational capabilities.

Understanding Qubits and their Fragility

  • Classical vs. Quantum: Similar to classical computers, which rely on bits with two states (0 and 1), quantum computers operate using qubits—physical systems with two quantum states.
  • Unique Feature: Unlike classical bits, qubits can exist not only in one of the two states but also in a superposed state, where they simultaneously hold both states. However, this superposition is fragile and prone to disruption from external interactions.

Challenges in Qubit Implementation

  • Requirement for Identical Qubits: A collection of qubits is necessary for a quantum device, each needing to be identical—a challenge due to manufacturing imperfections.
  • Controllability and Robustness: Qubits must be controllable, allowing manipulation and interaction, while also being robust enough to maintain quantum features at room temperature over extended durations.

Exploring Qubit Systems

  • Diverse Options: Various physical systems serve as qubits, including superconducting junctions, trapped ions, and quantum dots. However, these systems typically require low temperatures or vacuum conditions for operation.
  • High Cost Barrier: The necessity for such conditions renders quantum computers based on these technologies expensive, prompting research into simpler, cost-effective alternatives.

Breakthrough in Room-Temperature Qubits

  • Metal-Organic Framework (MOF): In a recent collaborative study reported in Science Advances, researchers in Japan achieved qubits at room temperature within a metal-organic framework.
  • Composition: The MOF consists of repeated molecular arrangements, with zirconium as the metal component and an organic molecule containing the chromophore pentacene bridging the metal atoms.
  • Singlet Fission Mechanism: Singlet fission, facilitated by interaction between chromophores within the porous MOF networks, generates two triplet excited chromophores from a singlet excited state.
  • Enhanced Stability: The rotation of chromophores within the MOF networks modulates interactions, ensuring long-lived coherence of triplet states even at room temperature.

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Scientists carry out Laser Cooling of Positronium


From UPSC perspective, the following things are important :

Prelims level: AEgIS Initiative , Positronium

Mains level: NA

Why in the News?

  • For the first time, an international team of physicists from the Anti-hydrogen Experiment: Gravity, Interferometry, Spectroscopy (AEgIS) collaboration has achieved a breakthrough by demonstrating the laser cooling of Positronium.

What is Positronium?

  • Positronium comprises a bound electron (e-) and a positron (e+), forming a fundamental atomic system.
  • What are its Properties?
    • Concise (short) life where it annihilates with a half-life of 142 nanoseconds.
    • Its mass is twice the electron mass, and it is considered a pure leptonic atom.
    • Its hydrogen-like system, with halved frequencies for excitation, makes it ideal for attempting laser cooling and performing tests of fundamental physics theories.

About AEgIS Initiative

  • Timeline: The AEgIS experiment was formally accepted by CERN in 2008, with construction and commissioning continuing through 2012-2016.
  • Team: Physicists representing 19 European and one Indian research group from the AEgIS collaboration announced this scientific breakthrough.
  • Experiment Location: The experiment was conducted at the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN) in Geneva, Switzerland.
  • Why this is significant? This experiment serves as a crucial precursor to the formation of anti-hydrogen and the measurement of Earth’s gravitational acceleration on antihydrogen in the AEgIS experiment.

Key Outcomes

  • Temperature Reduction: Laser cooling initially brought Positronium atoms from ~380 Kelvin to ~170 Kelvin.
  • Laser System: A 70-nanosecond pulse of the alexandrite-based laser system was used to demonstrate cooling in one dimension.
  • Frequency Bands: Lasers deployed were either in the deep ultraviolet or infrared frequency bands.

Future Implications

  • Spectroscopic Comparisons: Physicists expect this experiment to pave the way for performing spectroscopic comparisons required for Quantum Electrodynamics (QED).
  • Potential Applications: The experiment allows for high-precision measurements of properties and gravitational behavior of Positronium, offering insights into newer physics and the production of a positronium Bose–Einstein condensate.

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Satyendra Nath Bose and his contributions to the Quantum World


From UPSC perspective, the following things are important :

Prelims level: Quantum Theory, Bose-Einstein Statistics, Bose-Hubbard Model

Mains level: Read the attached story

Satyendra Nath Bose


  • Satyendra Nath Bose emerged in the physics community like a comet in 1924, amidst the turbulence of a quantum revolution.
  • His groundbreaking work filled a significant gap in the emerging quantum theory.

Satyendra Nath Bose: Early Life  

  • Born in Kolkata in 1894, Bose’s mathematical prowess was evident early on.
  • He befriended Meghnad Saha during their time at Presidency College and later collaborated with him at Rajabazar Science College.
  • Amidst the changing landscape of physics marked by Einstein’s theory of relativity and quantum concepts, Bose and Saha contributed significantly to translating and applying new physics concepts.

Notable Contributions

[1] Bose-Einstein Statistics:

  • Bose formulated a new statistical theory in 1924, known as Bose-Einstein statistics, to describe the behavior of particles that obey the laws of quantum mechanics.
  • He derived this statistical distribution for particles with integer spin, which later became fundamental in understanding the behavior of particles now known as bosons.

[2] Bose-Einstein Condensate (BEC):

  • Bose’s work laid the foundation for the concept of Bose-Einstein condensate, a state of matter where particles occupy the same quantum state at low temperatures.
  • In 1995, scientists successfully created a BEC in a dilute gas of alkali atoms, confirming Bose’s theoretical predictions and opening up new avenues for research in quantum physics.

[3] Quantum Theory of Radiation:

  • Bose made significant contributions to the field of quantum theory of radiation.
  • He introduced a quantum mechanical theory to explain the behavior of photons, which was later incorporated into the broader framework of quantum electrodynamics.

[4] Bose-Hubbard Model:

  • Bose’s work also inspired the development of the Bose-Hubbard model, a fundamental model in condensed matter physics.
  • This model describes the behavior of ultra-cold atoms trapped in an optical lattice and has applications in quantum computing and quantum simulation.

[5] Exploring Planck’s Law

  • While teaching at Dhaka University, Bose delved into understanding Planck’s law of black-body radiation, a cornerstone of quantum theory.
  • Bose’s innovative approach eliminated classical physics from the picture, revealing the statistical essence behind Planck’s formula and pioneering the field of quantum statistics.

Legacy and Impact

  • Bose’s work laid the groundwork for understanding fundamental particles, distinguishing between bosons and fermions based on their statistical behavior.
  • Despite publishing sparingly after his groundbreaking discovery, Bose’s contribution to quantum theory remains unparalleled, earning him the status of a scientific comet that illuminated the quantum world.


  • Satyendra Nath Bose’s remarkable insight and contribution to quantum theory reshaped the trajectory of physics.
  • His pioneering work on Bose-Einstein statistics not only filled a crucial gap in the emerging quantum framework but also laid the foundation for subsequent advancements in particle physics and quantum mechanics.

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Innovations in Sciences, IT, Computers, Robotics and Nanotechnology

CSIR-NAL unveils High Altitude Pseudo Satellite (HAPS)


From UPSC perspective, the following things are important :

Prelims level: High Altitude Pseudo Satellite (HAPS)

Mains level: Not Much



  • The National Aerospace Laboratories (NAL) in Bengaluru, India, recently conducted the inaugural test flight of a solar-powered High-Altitude Pseudo Satellite (HAPS) vehicle, marking a significant stride in indigenous HAPS technology.
  • India now joins a select group of nations, including China, South Korea, and the UK, pioneering the development of HAPS for diverse applications.

Test Flight Details of India’s HAPS

  • Prototype Description: NAL’s test featured a small-scale HAPS weighing 23 kilograms, boasting a wingspan of 12 meters.
  • Location: Engineers conducted the successful trial at the Challakere testing facilities in Karnataka state, soaring to an altitude of approximately 3 kilometers and sustaining flight for 8.5 hours.
  • Progress: Despite its scaled-down size, the prototype’s performance exceeded expectations, paving the way for future full-scale models.

HAPS Technology Overview

  • Definition: HAPS represents a class of solar-powered unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) that operate autonomously in the stratosphere.
  • Features: These aircraft incorporate solar cells and batteries, enabling extended flights resembling satellite persistence without the need for costly rocket launches.

Capabilities and Applications

  • Altitude and Endurance: HAPS can autonomously operate at altitudes of 18-20 kilometers for months or even years, offering persistent aerial monitoring and surveillance capabilities.
  • Strategic Uses: These platforms hold potential for applications such as border surveillance, disaster response, and communication network restoration.

Future Development Goals

  • Milestone Objectives: NAL aims to achieve continuous flight for 24 hours in upcoming trials, further validating the aircraft’s energy storage and solar recharging capabilities.
  • Operational Deployment: India anticipates deploying refined HAPS technology for practical defense by 2027 purposes, particularly in border monitoring.

Benefits and Challenges

  • Cost benefits: HAPS operate closer to Earth than satellites and do not require expensive rocket launches for deployment.
  • Flight Duration: Advanced HAPS can remain airborne for months or years with solar cell-powered battery recharging.
  • Advantages: HAPS offer advantages over traditional satellites, including lower deployment costs, modular payloads, and increased flexibility in targeting and redirection.
  • Obstacles: Challenges include navigating minimal stratospheric flight regulations and addressing unpredictable weather conditions at high altitudes.

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Innovations in Sciences, IT, Computers, Robotics and Nanotechnology

Ergosphere: A Unique Feature of Rotating Black Holes


From UPSC perspective, the following things are important :

Prelims level: Ergosphere

Mains level: Not Much



  • Rotating black holes, also known as Kerr black holes, possess a fascinating region called the ergosphere, which sets them apart from their non-rotating counterparts.

Formation of Black Holes

  • Origin: Black holes are born from massive stars that exhaust their nuclear fuel and undergo a supernova explosion. The remaining core collapses under its own gravitational force, forming a black hole.
  • Gravitational Singularity: At the core of a black hole lies a gravitational singularity, a point where the laws of general relativity cease to provide accurate predictions.
  • Event Horizon: Surrounding the singularity is the event horizon, a boundary beyond which nothing, not even light, can escape. It acts as a point of no return for anything entering it.

What is Ergosphere?

  • Ergosphere Description: Beyond the event horizon, rotating black holes feature another unique region known as the ergosphere. This region extends further out from the singularity, creating an additional sphere around the black hole.
  • Name Origins: The term ‘ergosphere’ finds its roots in the Greek word ‘ergon,’ which means ‘work.’ It earned this name due to the intriguing possibility it offers – the extraction of matter and energy from this region.

Characteristics of the Ergosphere

  • Intriguing Property: Unlike the event horizon, objects can enter the ergosphere and potentially escape from it, provided they move at speeds less than that of light.
  • Acceleration Potential: Some scientists have explored the idea of sending objects into the ergosphere to leverage their unique characteristics. Objects within the ergosphere can gain energy and momentum, effectively “borrowing” some of the black hole’s angular momentum.

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Merging Brain Tissue with Electronics in Computing


From UPSC perspective, the following things are important :

Prelims level: Brain Tissues in Computers

Mains level: Read the attached story

Brain Tissue


  • Researchers have achieved a groundbreaking fusion of brain-like tissue with electronics, creating an ‘organoid neural network.’
  • This innovation marks a significant advancement in neuromorphic computing, directly incorporating brain tissue into computer systems.

Brainoware: Brain Tissues in Computers

  • Development Team: A collaborative effort by scientists from Indiana University, the University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati Children’s Hospital Medical Centre, and the University of Florida resulted in this breakthrough.
  • Publication: The study, published on December 11, signifies a convergence of tissue engineering, electrophysiology, and neural computation, expanding the horizons of scientific and engineering disciplines.

Context of Artificial Intelligence (AI)

  • AI’s Foundation: AI relies on artificial neural networks, silicon-based models of the human brain capable of processing vast datasets.
  • Memory and Processing Separation: Conventional AI hardware separates memory and processing units, leading to inefficiencies when transferring data between them.

Introducing Biological Neural Networks

  • Biocomputing Emergence: Scientists are exploring biological neural networks, composed of live brain cells, as an alternative. These networks can combine memory and data processing.
  • Energy Efficiency: Brain cells efficiently store memory and process data without physically segregating these functions.

Organoid Neural Networks

  • Biological Components: Brain organoids, three-dimensional aggregates of brain cells, were used to create an ‘organoid neural network.’
  • Formation: Human pluripotent stem cells were transformed into various brain cells, including neuron progenitor cells, early-stage neurons, mature neurons, and astrocytes.
  • Reservoir Computer: The network was integrated into a reservoir computer, comprising input, reservoir, and output layers.

Brainoware’s Capabilities

  • Predicting Mathematical Functions: Brainoware demonstrated its ability to predict complex mathematical functions like the Henon map.
  • Voice Recognition: The system could identify Japanese vowels pronounced by individuals with a 78% accuracy rate.
  • Efficiency: Brainoware achieved comparable accuracy to artificial neural networks with minimal training requirements.

Promising Insights and Limitations

  • Foundational Insights: The study provides crucial insights into learning mechanisms, neural development, and cognitive aspects of neurodegenerative diseases.
  • Challenges: Brainoware necessitates technical expertise and infrastructure. Organoids exhibit heterogeneous cell mixes and require optimization for uniformity.
  • Ethical Considerations: The fusion of organoids and AI raises ethical questions about consciousness and dignity.

Future Prospects

  • Optimizing Encoding Methods: Future research may focus on improving input encoding methods and maintaining uniformity in organoids for longer experiments.
  • Complex Computing Problems: Researchers aim to tackle more intricate computing challenges.
  • Ethical Discourse: Ethical debates surrounding organoid consciousness and dignity will continue to evolve.


  • The creation of Brainoware and the integration of brain organoids with computing systems represent a pioneering step towards more efficient and ethically-conscious AI systems.
  • This innovative approach may revolutionize computing paradigms while prompting profound ethical considerations.

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Unlocking the Science of E Ink Displays


From UPSC perspective, the following things are important :

Prelims level: E Ink Displays

Mains level: Not Much

E Ink Displays


  • E-readers like the Kindle offer an enjoyable reading experience with their paper-like E Ink displays.
  • Developed at MIT in the 1990s, E Ink technology is now owned by E Ink Corporation.

What is E Ink Displays?

  • Microcapsules and Charges: E Ink displays operate using microcapsules containing positively charged white particles and negatively charged black particles suspended in fluid. By applying electrical charges, these particles rise to the surface, creating text and images.
  • Reflective Light: Unlike LCD and LED displays that require backlighting, E Ink displays reflect ambient light, resembling paper and reducing eye strain during prolonged reading.
  • Energy Efficiency: E Ink’s lack of backlighting results in minimal power consumption, as energy is only used when the image changes. This makes it ideal for devices like e-readers and ensures a long battery life.
  • Outdoor Legibility: E Ink displays offer high contrast and readability even under bright lighting conditions, unlike LCD/LED displays that suffer under sunlight.

Differentiating E Ink from E Paper

  • While often used interchangeably, E Ink and E Paper represent distinct display technologies. E Paper encompasses any screen mimicking real paper.
  •  Whereas E Ink specifically employs microcapsules with white and black particles in a clear fluid.

Applications of E Ink Displays

  • E Ink in E-Readers: E Ink gained popularity in early e-readers like the Amazon Kindle, offering clear text even in bright sunlight. It remains a feature in Kindle and Kobo e-readers today.
  • Brief Stint in Mobile Devices: E Ink briefly appeared in some early cell phones but was eventually replaced by more advanced displays.
  • Revival in Mobile Devices: Some startups are reintroducing E Ink in smartphones, emphasizing reduced screen time and enhanced focus on communication and productivity.
  • Beyond Mobile Devices: E Ink displays are expanding to various urban applications, including bus stop displays and walking direction signs. Restaurants are adopting E Ink menu boards for their matte, glare-free surfaces and readability in diverse lighting conditions.

Pros and Cons  

  • Advantages: E Ink displays excel in low power consumption, making them suitable for devices requiring extended battery life. They also minimize eye strain due to their paper-like visual experience, matte surface, and outdoor readability.
  • Drawbacks: E Ink displays have slower refresh rates compared to LCD and OLED screens, rendering them unsuitable for video or animation. They also have limitations regarding color and resolution and remain relatively expensive for larger sizes.

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