From UPSC perspective, the following things are important :
Prelims level : Banni Buffalo, IVF
Mains level : Not Much
With the birth of first IVF calf of a Buffalo breed namely Banni in the country, India’s Ovum Pick-Up (OPU) – IVF work has reached to next level.
- Banni buffaloes are also known as “Kutchi” or “Kundi”.
- The breeding tract includes the Banni area of Kutchchh district of Gujarat.
- The breed is maintained mostly by Maldharis under locally adapted typical extensive production system in its breeding tract.
What makes them unique?
- Banni buffaloes are trained to graze on Banni grassland during night and brought to the villages in the morning for milking.
- This traditional system of buffalo rearing has been adapted to avoid the heat stress and high temperature of the day.
- It has unique qualities of adaptation such as the ability to survive water scarcity conditions, to cover long distances during periods of drought and disease resistance.
Indigenous buffalo breeds in India
|S. No.||Breed||Breeding state|
|3||Bhadawari||Uttar Pradesh and Madhya Pradesh|
|6||Gojri||Himachal Pradesh and Punjab|
|12||Murrah||Haryana and Delhi|
Back2Basics: In-vitro fertilization (IVF)
- IVF is a type of assisted reproductive technology used for infertility treatment and gestational surrogacy.
- A fertilised egg may be implanted into a surrogate’s uterus, and the resulting child is genetically unrelated to the surrogate.
- Some countries have banned or otherwise regulate the availability of IVF treatment, giving rise to fertility tourism.
- Restrictions on the availability of IVF include costs and age, in order for a woman to carry a healthy pregnancy to term.
- IVF is generally not used until less invasive or expensive options have failed or been determined unlikely to work.
- IVF is a process of fertilization where an egg is combined with sperm outside the body, in vitro (“in glass”).
- The process involves monitoring and stimulating a female ovulatory process, removing an ovum or ova (egg or eggs) from the female ovaries and letting sperm fertilise them in a liquid in a laboratory.
- After the fertilised egg (zygote) undergoes embryo culture for 2–6 days, it is implanted in the same or another female uterus, with the intention of establishing a successful pregnancy.