From UPSC perspective, the following things are important :
Prelims level : NOTP
Mains level : Organ transplantation in India
The Government of India is implementing National Organ Transplant Programme (NOTP) to promote organ donation and transplantation across all States/Union Territories (UTs).
National Organ Transplant Programme (NOTP)
- In 2019, the GoI implemented the NOTP for promoting deceased organ donation.
- Organ donation in India is regulated by the Transplantation of Human Organs and Tissues Act, 1994.
Types of Organ Donations
- The law allows both deceased and living donors to donate their organs.
- It also identifies brain death as a form of death.
- Living donors must be over 18 years of age and are limited to donating only to their immediate blood relatives or, in some special cases, out of affection and attachment towards the recipient.
(1) Deceased donors:
- They may donate six life-saving organs: kidneys, liver, heart, lungs, pancreas, and intestine.
- Uterus transplant is also performed, but it is not regarded as a life-saving organ.
- Organs and tissues from a person declared legally dead can be donated after consent from the family has been obtained.
- Brainstem death is also recognized as a form of death in India, as in many other countries.
- After a natural cardiac death, organs that can be donated are cornea, bone, skin, and blood vessels, whereas after brainstem death about 37 different organs and tissues can be donated, including the above six life-saving organs
(2) Living donors:
They are permitted to donate the following:
- one of their kidneys
- portion of pancreas
- part of the liver
Features of the NOTP
- Under the NOTP a National Level Tissue Bank (Biomaterial Centre) for storing tissues has been established at National Organ and Tissue Transplant Organization (NOTTO), New Delhi.
- Further, under the NOTP, a provision has also been made for providing financial support to the States for setting up of Bio- material centre.
- As of now a Regional Bio-material centre has been established at Regional Organ and Tissue Transplant Organization (ROTTO), Chennai, Tamil Nadu.
More moves for facilitation: Green Corridors
- Studies have suggested that the chances of transplantation being successful are enhanced by reducing the time delay between harvest and transplant of the organ.
- Therefore, the transportation of the organ is a critical factor. For this purpose, “green corridors” have been created in many parts of India.
- A “green corridor” refers to a route that is cleared out for an ambulance carrying the harvested organs to ensure its delivery at the destination in the shortest time possible.
National Organ and Tissue Transplant Organization (NOTTO) is a national level organization set up under the Directorate General of Health Services, Ministry of Health and Family Welfare.
- National Human Organ and Tissue Removal and Storage Network
- National Biomaterial Centre (National Tissue Bank)
[I] National Human Organ and Tissue Removal and Storage Network
- This has been mandated as per the Transplantation of Human Organs (Amendment) Act 2011.
- The network will be established initially for Delhi and gradually expanded to include other States and Regions of the country.
- Thus, this division of the NOTTO is the nodal networking agency for Delhi and shall network for Procurement Allocation and Distribution of Organs and Tissues in Delhi.
- It functions as apex centre for All India activities of coordination and networking for procurement and distribution of Organs and Tissues and registry of Organs and Tissues Donation and Transplantation in the country.
[II] National Biomaterial Centre (National Tissue Bank)
- The Transplantation of Human Organs (Amendment) Act 2011 has included the component of tissue donation and registration of tissue Banks.
- It becomes imperative under the changed circumstances to establish National level Tissue Bank to fulfill the demands of tissue transplantation including activities for procurement, storage and fulfil distribution of biomaterials.
- The main thrust & objective of establishing the centre is to fill up the gap between ‘Demand’ and ‘Supply’ as well as ‘Quality Assurance’ in the availability of various tissues.
The centre will take care of the following Tissue allografts:
- Bone and bone products
- Skin graft
- Heart valves and vessels