From UPSC perspective, the following things are important :
Prelims level : Pollution caused due to Poultry Industry
Mains level : Agricultural emission
Small and marginal poultry farmers in India will now have to take measures similar to their bigger counterparts to prevent environmental pollution, according to new guidelines issued recently by Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB).
What are the new guidelines?
- Consent to Operate: The new guidelines state that for establishing and operating a medium-sized poultry farm of 25,000-100,000 birds, a farmer will have to obtain a certificate of Consent. Permission will be valid for 15 years.
- Designated Authority: This will have to be taken from the State Pollution Control Board or Committee under the Water Act, 1974, and the Air Act, 1981. The Animal Husbandry Department will be responsible for implementing the guidelines at the state and district level.
- Location: A farm should be set up 500 metres away from a residential area, 100 metres from rivers, lakes, canals, and drinking water sources, 100 metres from national highways, and 10-15 metres from village footpaths and rural roads.
(B) Operational directives
- Ventilated farms: The guidelines state that the poultry farm should have a ventilated room to reduce the gaseous pollution from the birds.
- Wastewater management: Also, care should be taken so that poultry feces do not mix with running water or any other pesticide.
- Manure generation: Farmers of small- and medium-sized poultry farms will have to arrange for manure. After use, the water from a poultry farm must be collected in a tank. The guidelines suggest using it in horticulture.
- Disposal of deads: Emphasis has also been given to the daily removal of birds that die, through burial, without harming the environment. Burial should be done three metres above the groundwater level.
(C) Large/ Small Farmer
The new guidelines have defined who is a ‘large’ or ‘small’ poultry farmer in India.
- Those who have 5,000-25,000 birds are small farmers.
- Those who have more than 25,000 and less than 100,000 birds are medium farmers.
- Those who have more than 100,000 birds are large farmers.
Why need such regulation?
- Poultry, hatchery and piggery were considered ‘green’ by the Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB) in its guidelines of 2015.
- This meant they were exempt from the air, water, and environmental protection laws.
- Gaseous emissions and waste are major problems in poultry farming.
- The feces of poultry birds emit gaseous ammonia, hydrogen sulfide, and methane, all of which produce odors.
Poultry sector of India
- According to the 20th Livestock Census 2020, there are 851.8 million poultry birds in India.
- About 30 percent (250 million) of this is ‘backyard poultry’ or small and marginal farmers.
- According to the 19th Livestock Census, the number of such farmers is about 30 million.
- Chickens, turkeys, ducks, geese, etc, are reared in poultry farms for meat and eggs. Chickens that are reared for eggs are called ‘laying hens’ or ‘layers’. Those reared for meat are called ‘broilers’.
According to the 20th Livestock Census, Tamil Nadu (120 million), Andhra Pradesh (107 million), Telangana (79 million), West Bengal (77 million), Maharashtra (74 million), Karnataka (59 million crores), Assam (46 million) and Kerala (29 million) have the highest poultry populations.
Try answering this PYQ:
Consider the following statements:
- Agricultural soils release nitrogen oxides into environment.
- Cattle release ammonia into environment.
- Poultry industry releases reactive nitrogen compounds into environment.
Which of the statements given above is/are correct?
(a) 1 and 3 only
(b) 2 and 3 only
(c) 2 only
(d) 1, 2 and 3
Post your answers here.