Innovations in Biotechnology and Medical Sciences

Punjab farmers create Bio-Enzymes from Kinnow


From UPSC perspective, the following things are important :

Prelims level: Bio-Enzymes

Mains level: Not Much

Some farmers in Punjab, especially in the Kinnow belt, have started making Bio-Enzymes (BEs) from this waste fruit — peel and ‘D’ grade, very small kinnows.

What is a Kinnow?

  • The ‘Kinnow’ is a high yield citrus fruit cultivated extensively in the wider Punjab region of India and Pakistan.
  • It is a year-long duration crop and the main harvesting period is from November-end to March.
  • It looks similar to orange but is smaller in size.

Agricultural significance of Kinnows

  • Fallen fruit is a major challenge for kinnow farmers in the state as one needs to dig up small pits to bury them, otherwise the fallen fruit rot and invite a fly attack on the healthy fruit still on the plants.
  • But now, some farmers are using this waste kinnow to improve the pH level and soil fertility of their land by making BEs from this waste fruit.

What are Bio-Enzymes?

  • Chemically, the Bio Enzymes are a mixture of complex organic substances such as proteins, salts and other materials that are by-products of the bacteria/yeast.
  • They produced through fermentation of organic waste including various fruits, vegetable peels and flowers, by mixing in sugar, jaggery/molasses and water.
  • BE’s also have a lot of usage in our daily lives. They can be used as natural cleansers.

Benefits offered by BEs

  • BEs have a lot of good microbes and one of the major methods which helps overall improvement of our ecology.
  • It helps in mitigating the imbalance occurred due to overuse of chemicals, in our soil, air and water.
  • In a state like Punjab where water table is depleting fast and water contamination is also major issue, BEs can bring the soil back to life.
  • It helps in better water recharging and also stops the contamination of water by improving the health of soil.


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