Agricultural Sector and Marketing Reforms – eNAM, Model APMC Act, Eco Survey Reco, etc.

Turmeric Cultivation in India


From UPSC perspective, the following things are important :

Prelims level : Turmeric

Mains level : Not Much

Turmeric (Curcuma longa), native to India, has been studied extensively for its effects against viral diseases in recent decades, but the COVID-19 pandemic has renewed interest.

About Turmeric

  • Turmeric (Curcuma longa) is used as a condiment, dye, drug and cosmetic in addition to its use in religious ceremonies.
  • India is a leading producer and exporter of turmeric in the world.
  • The top five turmeric-producing states of India in 2020-21 are Telangana, Maharashtra, Karnataka, Tamil Nadu and Andhra Pradesh.

Climate and Soil

  • Turmeric can be grown in diverse tropical conditions from sea level to 1500 m above sea level.
  • It requires a temperature range of 20-35 C with an annual rainfall of 1500 mm or more, under rainfed or irrigated conditions.
  • Though it can be grown on different types of soils, it thrives best in well-drained sandy or clay loam soils with a pH range of 4.5-7.5 with good organic status.


  • A number of cultivars are available in the country and are known mostly by the name of locality where they are cultivated.
  • Some of the popular cultivars are Duggirala, Tekkurpet, Sugandham, Amalapuram, Erode local, Salem, Alleppey, Moovattupuzha and Lakdong.

Preparation of land

  • The land is prepared with the receipt of early monsoon showers.
  • The soil is brought to a fine tilth by giving about four deep ploughings.
  • Planting is also done by forming ridges and furrows.


  • Whole or split mother and finger rhizomes are used for planting and well-developed healthy and disease-free rhizomes are to be selected.

Why turmeric?

  • Post pandemic, turmeric is one of the fastest-growing dietary supplements.
  • The global curcumin market, valued at $58.4 million in 2019, is expected to witness a growth of 12.7 percent by 2027.
  • As the world’s largest producer, consumer and exporter of turmeric, India stands to gain from this.

Global standing

  • India produces 78 per cent of the world’s turmeric.
  • The country’s turmeric production saw a near consistent growth since Independence till 2010-11 after which it started fluctuating.
  • The pandemic has given a boost to the crop, with the production witnessing a rise of 23 per cent.
  • Though the production and export of turmeric has risen, farmers have not benefitted from its pricing.

Try this PYQ from CSP 2020:

With reference to the current trends in the cultivation of sugarcane in India, consider the following statements:

  1. A substantial saving in seed material is made when ‘bud chip settlings are raised in a nursery and transplanted in the main field.
  2. When direct planting of setts is done, the germination percentage is better with single-budded setts as compared to setts with many buds.
  3. If bad weather conditions prevail when setts are directly planted, single-budded setts have better survival as compared to large setts.
  4. Sugarcane can be cultivated using settlings prepared from tissue culture.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

(a) 1 and 2 only

(b) 3 only

(c) 1 and 4 only

(d) 2,3 and 4 only


Post your answers here.
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