Agricultural Sector and Marketing Reforms – eNAM, Model APMC Act, Eco Survey Reco, etc.

Uncertain future in a sea of poppies


From UPSC perspective, the following things are important :

Prelims level: Major Opium-Producing Districts

Mains level: cultural heritage, economic considerations, and global standards for opium farming


Central idea

The article explores the multifaceted challenges arising from the intersection of cultural pride and economic shifts in opium cultivation in India. It delves into concerns surrounding the government’s policy shift, addressing potential impacts on livelihoods, national security, and transparency.

Key Highlights

  • Cultural Significance of Opium Cultivation: Opium farming is a source of cultural pride, termed “agriculture of dignity” in the Mewar region, linking social status to this traditional trade and reflecting generations’ engagement.
  • Government Policy Shift in 2021: In 2021, the government allowed private players to produce Concentrate of Poppy Straw (CPS) alongside traditional opium gum, aiming to boost alkaloid yield and align India with global practices. However, this shift faces resistance from opium farmers.
  • Concerns about Private Players: Opium farmers express worries about the entry of private companies, fearing threats to livelihood, profits, and national security. Farmers argue that private involvement may lead to misuse of opium, increased drug trafficking, and rising costs of life-saving medicines.
  • Impact on Farmers and Traditional Practices: Opium farmers face economic challenges, citing stagnant procurement rates, increased input costs, and reduced poppy seed yield under the new system. The shift to CPS raises concerns about transparency, farmer consultation, and the potential decline in income for traditional opium cultivators.


  • Threat to Livelihood and National Security: Opium farmers fear that private entry may endanger their profession and lead to increased drug-related issues. There is a possibility of drug mafia influence and security threats if alkaloids fall into the wrong hands.
  • Impact of Policy Shift on Farmers: Economic challenges for opium farmers, including reduced poppy seed yield and concerns about transparent practices under CPS. Farmers worry about income loss and express dissatisfaction with the lack of government consultation.
  • Safety and Security of Alkaloids: Opium farmers question the safety and security of alkaloids under private production. Fears that private involvement may compromise the integrity of life-saving medicines made from opium.
  • Division among Farmers and Lack of Transparency: Farmers express concerns about the government creating divisions with two production systems. Calls for transparent policies and farmer involvement, alleging a lack of transparency in the CPS mechanism.

Key Phrases and Terms for answer enrichment

  • Swabhiman ki Kheti (Agriculture of Dignity): Opium cultivation holds cultural pride in the Mewar region, reflecting social status.
  • Afeem and Aulat Barabar (Poppy Plants and Children Deserve Similar Treatment): Highlights the cultural significance of opium, equating it with the care given to children.
  • Concentrate of Poppy Straw (CPS): New method introduced in 2021, allowing private players to extract alkaloids from poppy straw alongside traditional opium gum.
  • Make in India: Farmers question the government’s commitment to “Make in India” while allowing imports of poppy seeds.

Analysis for mains answer

  • Cultural Pride vs. Economic Realities: Opium farming holds cultural significance, but economic challenges, policy shifts, and private entry threaten traditional practices.
  • Balancing Global Practices and Farmer Concerns: The government’s shift to CPS aligns with global norms but faces resistance from farmers concerned about income, transparency, and safety.
  • Security Concerns and Misuse of Opium: Farmers express worries about the potential misuse of opium and security threats, emphasizing the need for strict controls.
  • Need for Transparent Policies and Farmer Involvement: Farmers demand transparency, consultation, and the continuation of traditional practices, expressing dissatisfaction with the current policy.

Key Data and Facts

  • Opium Farmers in India: About 1 lakh farmers across 22 districts in Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan, and Uttar Pradesh have licenses to cultivate opium.
  • Major Opium-Producing Districts: Mandsaur, Neemuch, and Chittorgarh contribute to 80% of India’s opium production.
  • Change in Government Policy (2021): Government policy shift in 2021 allows private players to produce CPS, aiming to boost alkaloid yield.
  • Economic Impact on Farmers: Opium farmers face economic challenges, citing stagnant procurement rates, increased input costs, and reduced poppy seed yield under the new system.

Way forward

  • Policy Review and Farmer Consultation: Conduct a comprehensive review of the opium policy, ensuring active participation and consultation with opium farmers to address their concerns and incorporate their insights into the decision-making process.
  • Transparency Measures: Implement transparent mechanisms in the Concentrate of Poppy Straw (CPS) system, providing clear information on pricing, procurement, and production processes. This ensures accountability and builds trust among farmers.
  • Public-Private Collaboration: Establish a structured collaboration between the government and private entities to leverage expertise and resources. This collaboration should prioritize safeguarding national security, ensuring the integrity of medicinal opium production, and preventing misuse.
  • Diversification and Economic Support: Explore avenues for diversification in agriculture, providing support and incentives for opium farmers to engage in alternative crops. This can mitigate economic challenges and reduce dependency on a single agricultural practice.

As the government’s 2021 policy allows private entry, concerns about livelihoods, security, and transparency emerge. Navigating the way forward requires a delicate balance, harmonizing cultural heritage, economic considerations, and global standards for a sustainable future.

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