Economic Indicators and Various Reports On It- GDP, FD, EODB, WIR etc

State of the economy — temper the euphoria


From UPSC perspective, the following things are important :

Prelims level : Projected GDP Growth

Mains level : economic success after the COVID-19 pandemic


Central idea

The article highlights India’s economic challenges, including concerns about post-COVID recovery sustainability, vulnerabilities to geopolitical shifts, a growing dependency on Chinese imports, and a decline in industrial growth rates. The central idea revolves around acknowledging these challenges and the imperative for strategic interventions to ensure long-term economic resilience and growth

Key Highlights

  • GDP Growth and Recovery: India’s GDP projected to grow by 6.3% in 2023-24, showcasing post-COVID recovery. Positive signs of resilience, but concerns persist about employment quality and inflation.
  • Geopolitical Shifts and Vulnerabilities: Globalization ended in 2022-23, exposing India to geopolitical vulnerabilities. Calls for a reevaluation of economic strategies to navigate changing global dynamics.
  • Trade Deficit with China: India grapples with a soaring trade deficit with China. Strategic threat due to dependency on Chinese imports; calls for diversification.
  • Industrial Woes and Growth Rates: Industrial growth rates, especially in capital goods, have regressed. Decline in key sectors signals a threat to overall economic stability.
  • Public Sector Investment: Public sector investment appears stagnant despite reported growth. Doubts about credibility underscore the need for transparent reporting.
  • Social Development Challenges: India’s Human Development Index (HDI) ranking has slipped. Recognition of challenges in social development, prompting a need for improved strategies.


  • Sustainability Concerns Post-COVID Recovery: Quality and sustainability of post-COVID recovery raise concerns, necessitating comprehensive strategies.
  • Vulnerabilities to Geopolitical Shifts: Geopolitical vulnerabilities impact India’s economic stability, demanding adaptation of economic policies.
  • Dependency on Chinese Imports: Rising trade deficit with China poses economic frailty, urging the urgent need to diversify imports.
  • Decline in Industrial Growth: Regression in industrial growth rates, especially in capital goods, requiring targeted interventions for revitalization.

Key Phrases and Terms for making mains answer value added

  • Post-COVID Resilience: Short-term economic success after the COVID-19 pandemic.
  • Geopolitical Realignment: Recognition of shifts in global dynamics impacting India’s economic strategies.
  • Trade Deficit Dynamics: China’s influence on India’s economic vulnerabilities due to a soaring trade deficit.
  • Industrial Regression: Decline in growth rates, especially in capital goods, signaling industrial challenges.
  • Credibility of Public Sector Investment: Doubts raised about the accuracy of reported public sector investment growth..

Analysis of the article in balanced way for mains score improvement

  • Short-Term Success vs. Long-Term Resilience: Balancing short-term GDP growth with the need for sustainable and inclusive recovery.
  • Adapting to Geopolitical Realities: Necessity to adapt economic policies to navigate geopolitical shifts and ensure stability.
  • Diversification for Economic Stability: Addressing the trade deficit challenge by diversifying imports and promoting self-reliance.
  • Revitalizing Key Sectors for Growth: Targeted interventions required to revitalize industrial growth, especially in crucial sectors.

Key Data and Facts

  • Projected GDP Growth (2023-24):3%
  • Trade Deficit with China: Strategic Threat
  • Industrial Growth Decline: Capital Goods
  • HDI Ranking (2021): Decline

The Way Forward

  • Sustainable and Inclusive Growth: Develop comprehensive strategies for sustained and inclusive growth post-COVID.
  • Adaptive Economic Policies: Adapt economic policies to navigate evolving global dynamics and ensure stability.
  • Diversification and Self-Reliance: Diversify imports and boost domestic production for economic self-reliance.
  • Targeted Interventions for Industrial Revitalization: Implement targeted interventions to revitalize key industrial sectors and stimulate overall economic growth.

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