From UPSC perspective, the following things are important :
Prelims level : Persons mentioned in the news, Nobel Prize
Mains level : Not Much
A Norwegian legislator has nominated US President Donald Trump for the 2021 Nobel Peace Prize for his efforts towards furthering peace in the Middle East.
Take a look at the Presidents and Vice-Presidents who have won the Nobel Peace Prize:
These trivial facts are too unlikely to be asked in the CS prelims, but may hold importance for CAPF and other exams.
(1) Theodore Roosevelt (1906)
- Roosevelt, the 26th occupant of the White House (1901-09), was not only the first American president but also the world’s first statesman to win the honour, five years after the Peace Prize was instituted in 1901.
- He was given the prize for negotiating peace between imperial Russia and Japan after the Russo-Japanese War of 1904-05.
- He was also praised for his efforts in resolving a dispute between the US and Mexico through arbitration, and for extending the use of arbitration as a means for settling international disputes.
- At home, Roosevelt launched radical social and economic reform policies and earned a reputation as a “trust buster” for breaking up monopolies.
(2) Woodrow Wilson (1919)
- Wilson (1913-21) was given the award for his efforts in ending World War I, and for being the key architect of the League of Nations– born out of his famous ‘Fourteen Points’.
- Although the League faltered in a few years, it served as a blueprint for the United Nations after World War II.
- At home, Wilson saw the reduction of import duties, started America’s central bank and a national business oversight body, and strengthened anti-monopoly and labour laws.
- In his second term, the US passed its 19th constitutional amendment giving women the right to vote.
(3) Jimmy Carter (2002)
- The 39th President was awarded the Peace Prize “for his decades of untiring effort to find peaceful solutions to international conflicts, to advance democracy and human rights, and to promote economic and social development”.
- During his presidency (1977-81), Carter earned praise for his role in bringing about a peace agreement between Israel and Egypt.
- His later years were more fraught, including foreign policy failures such as the conflict with Iran and the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan, culminating in him losing re-election to the conservative Ronald Reagan in 1980.
- Post his presidency, Carter pursued peace and mediation efforts independently and co-founded the Carter Center, a non-profit that chiefly works to advance human rights.
(4) Barack Obama (2009)
- The country’s 44th President (2009-2017) was given the Nobel Peace Prize “for his extraordinary efforts to strengthen international diplomacy and cooperation between peoples”.
- Cited among Obama’s achievements were his promotion of nuclear non-proliferation, and bringing a “new climate” in international relations.
- Obama donated the full prize money – 10 million Swedish kronor (around $1.4 million) – to charity.
(5) Al Gore (1993-2001)
- Apart from the four Presidents, one Vice President– Al Gore (1993-2001) – has been given the Nobel Peace Prize.
- He shared the honour in 2007 with the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) for their joint efforts to build up and disseminate greater knowledge about man-made climate change.