From UPSC perspective, the following things are important :
Prelims level : Computer Tomography (CT) and its working
Mains level : NA
The first computed tomography image – a CT scan – of the human brain was made 50 years ago, on Oct. 1, 1971.
A few months back, almost all of us have heard about the High-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) scan being conducted on our relatives for diagnosing the damage of lungs caused due to the Wuhan Virus.
About Computer Tomography (CT)
- A CT scan is a medical imaging technique used in radiology to get detailed images of the body noninvasively for diagnostic purposes.
- The multiple X-ray measurements taken from different angles are then processed on a computer using reconstruction algorithms to produce tomographic (cross-sectional) images (virtual “slices”) of a body.
How does it work?
- They use a narrow X-ray beam that circles around one part of your body. This provides a series of images from many different angles.
- A computer uses this information to create a cross-sectional picture. Like one piece in a loaf of bread, this two-dimensional (2D) scan shows a “slice” of the inside of your body.
- This process is repeated to produce a number of slices.
- The computer stacks these scans one on top of the other to create a detailed image of your organs, bones, or blood vessels.
- For example, a surgeon may use this type of scan to look at all sides of a tumor to prepare for an operation.
- Since its development in the 1970s, CT has proven to be a versatile imaging technique.
- While CT is most prominently used in diagnostic medicine, it also may be used to form images of non-living objects.
- The 1979 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine was awarded jointly to South African-American physicist Allan M. Cormack and British electrical engineer Godfrey N. Hounsfield “for the development of computer-assisted tomography”.
- CT scans use X-rays, which produce ionizing radiation.
- Such radiation may damage your DNA and lead to cancer.
- The risk increases with every CT scan we get.
- Ionizing radiation may be more harmful in children.