Issues related to Economic growth

Why India should invest in mining


From UPSC perspective, the following things are important :

Prelims level: Hindu Kush region

Mains level: mineral wealth

Why India should invest in mining - The Indian Express - Newshive:  Uncovering the Latest Stories and Breaking News.

Central idea

The article highlights India’s opportunity in the emerging critical minerals market in Afghanistan’s Hindu Kush, emphasizing responsible mining amidst environmental considerations. It connects this opportunity to the global shift towards electric mobility, with the potential for job creation.

Key Highlights:

  • Afghanistan’s Riches: The Hindu Kush region in Afghanistan holds minerals worth a trillion dollars, a potential game-changer.
  • Mobility Shift: Global movement from oil to electric vehicles is escalating demand for critical minerals.
  • Indian Opportunity: Geological hints suggest the possibility of similar mineral wealth in the northern Indian side of the Hindu Kush range.
  • Untapped Potential: India, with vast unexplored land and advancements in deep-sea mining, may have undiscovered mineral riches.


  • Governance and Environmental Concerns: Past issues highlight the need for robust laws to balance environmental concerns with job creation.
  • Political Tensions: Historical discord between the central government and Congress on mining needs resolution for cohesive policies.
  • Legislative Balance: Striking a balance between ecological conservation and job creation requires nuanced legislation.
  • Private Sector Role: Private sector involvement is crucial for capital-intensive mining, demanding careful governance.

Key Phrases for value addition:

  • “Afghanistan: Saudi Arabia of lithium” emphasizes the potential of the Hindu Kush region.
  • “Transition from oil to electric mobility” underlines the global shift and increasing demand for critical minerals.
  • “New Middle East: Hindu Kush mountain range” positions the region as a significant player in the emerging critical minerals market.
  • “Global critical minerals race” highlights the competitive dynamics in securing these resources worldwide.


  • Global Shift: The global transition to electric mobility is a key driver behind the soaring demand for critical minerals.
  • Indian Potential: India, with its untapped resources, is poised to benefit from the increasing global demand for minerals.
  • Balancing Act: Striking a balance between environmental conservation and job creation is essential for sustainable mining practices.
  • Private Sector Significance: In the capital-intensive mining sector, the private sector’s involvement is crucial for efficiency and technological advancements.

Key Data:

  • Trillion-Dollar Potential: Afghanistan’s Hindu Kush region is estimated to hold minerals worth a trillion dollars.
  • Geological Reports: Reports suggest the possibility of untapped mineral deposits in the northern Indian side of the Hindu Kush range.
  • Exploration Status: Less than 10% of India’s landmass has been explored, with only 2% mined.

Way Forward:

  • Legislation: Enforcing robust environmental, labor, and land laws is crucial for responsible and sustainable mining.
  • Private Exploration: Encouraging large-scale private exploration for critical minerals is vital for efficiency and technological advancements.
  • Deep-Sea Prospects: Leveraging emerging deep-sea mining technologies can open new avenues for resource exploration.
  • Balance Priority: Striking a balance between environmental conservation and job creation should be a priority in future mining policies.

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