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  1. Saravana Uportal

    Can anybody give reliable source to read about India’s refugee policy?

    1. Rohit Pande

      This article predates our interest in UPSC 😉

      But still, google gives it a pristine top rank among the search –

  2. Saravana Uportal

    While there are many doors kept closed worldwide, Does India’ “open door policy” towards refugees seem emotional and endangers national security?

    1. Rohit Pande

      This should help understand the conflict!

      Of course there would be the endangerment to national security and issues like that. But we have been a nation which has accepted the persecuted. The first time I read something like this was in Vivekananda’s Chicago address.

      1. Saravana Uportal

        Thanks Rohit!

Rohingya issue of great magnitude, state has big role: Supreme Court

Image source


Mains Paper 3: Internal Security | Role of external state & non-state actors in creating challenges to internal security

From UPSC perspective, the following things are important:

Prelims level: Rohingyas, their origin country

Mains level: Rising problem of illegal migrants and solutions to it


SC view on Rohingya issue

  1. The Supreme Court said that the Rohingya refugee problem was of a “great magnitude”
  2. The state would have to play a “big role” in striking a balance between national interests and human rights while dealing with the contentious issue
  3. During the hearing, the bench observed that aspects of national security, economic interests, labour interests as also protection of children, women, sick and innocent persons would come up while dealing with the matter
  4. The bench said there cannot be an “iota of doubt” that humanitarian issue is involved, but it also has to keep in mind the national interest
  5. The top court also said that “constitutional ethos makes us lean sympathetically towards humanitarian issues.”
  6. The role of the state in such a situation has to be multipronged

Rohingyas in India

  1. The Rohingyas, who fled to India after violence in the Western Rakhine State of Myanmar, have settled in Jammu, Hyderabad, Haryana, Uttar Pradesh, Delhi-NCR and Rajasthan

Rohingyas to be deported

  1. Government has decided to deport Rohingya refugees back to Myanmar
  2. In a communication to all states, the union home ministry had said the rise of terrorism in last few decades has become a serious concern for most nations as illegal migrants are prone to get recruited by terrorist organizations
  3. It had directed the state governments to set up a task force at district level to identify and deport illegally- staying foreign nationals
  4. The apex court has decided to give a detailed and “holistic hearing” from November 21 on the government’s decision

SC suggestion to government on deporting Rohingyas

  1. A bench headed by Chief Justice Dipak Misra suggested to the Centre not to deport the Rohingya refugees
  2. Additional Solicitor General (ASG) requested to court that it should not be written in the order as anything coming on record would have international ramifications


On Rohingya refugees’ return, Home Ministry says one thing but MEA said another

Image result for Rohingya refugee crisis

Image source


Mains Paper 2: IR | India and its neighborhood- relations.

From UPSC perspective, the following things are important:

Prelims level: Not Much

Mains level: Rohingya refugee crisis



  • Two Rohingya refugees who have challenged the government’s proposed move to deport them

View of Ministry of Home Affairs

  1. Ministry of Home Affairs informed the Supreme Court that the principle of non-refoulement  was not binding on it since India had not signed the 1951 Refugee Convention.
  2. MHA said though India was a signatory to the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, its scope did not extend to non-refoulement.

View of Ministry of External Affairs

  1. Contrary to the government stand in court, India took a strong position in favour of non-refoulement this year, at an international meet in Geneva convened by the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees
  2. The states agreed that protecting those who are forced to flee and supporting the countries that shelter them are shared international responsibilities, to be borne “more equitably and predictably”.
  3. The UNHCR says it covers all refugees, including those those who flee individual persecution, as well as those fleeing armed conflict or violence associated with one or more of the above-noted grounds.


Principle of Non-refoulement

  1. It is a fundamental principle of international law which forbids a country receiving asylum seekers from returning them to a country in which they would be in likely danger of persecution based on “race, religion, nationality, membership of a particular social group or political opinion”
  2. Unlike political asylum, which applies to those who can prove a well-grounded fear of persecution based on certain category of persons, non-refoulement refers to the generic repatriation of people, including refugees into war zones and other disaster locales.

International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (ICCPR)

  1. The International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights was adopted by the UNGA in 1966.
  2. It guarantees fundamental freedoms including the right to self-determination and free and regular elections.
  3. China is also a signatory but it has never been ratified.
  4. However, though ICCPR is just a treaty for other countries, it is binding in Hong Kong due to the special nature and circumstances surrounding the province

[op-ed snap] Rohingya Muslims being persecuted

  1. Background: Humanitarian crisis in Myanmar after the military crackdown on “Islamist jihadists” in the Rakhine State, home to more than one million Rohingya Muslims
  2. A new wave of migration of Rohingyas to neighbouring countries has begun since then
  3. How: Army denies targeting civilians, but satellite images taken after the start of the crackdown indicate that hundreds of buildings were burnt down
  4. Reports suggest that those who tried to flee the country were shot dead
  5. The migrants are not welcome in Myanmar’s neighbourhood either
  6. Why: Many in the Buddhist-majority country call Rohingyas illegal immigrants from Bangladesh though they have been living in Rakhine for generations
  7. The operation in Rakhine shows the change of government hasn’t brought any meaningful difference to Myanmar’s most disadvantaged sections
  8. The army still remains a powerful institution. It controls the security, defence and border ministries besides wielding considerable economic power

Bangladesh seeks peaceful solution to Rohingya crisis

  1. What: Bangladesh has expressed “great concern” over the ongoing crisis in Myanmar’s Rakhine State
  2. Reason: A military operation against “Islamist jihadists” has triggered a humanitarian emergency
  3. Bangladesh’s has handed a formal letter to Myanmar asking the authorities to intervene so that the Rohingya Muslims fleeing the conflict-zone can return to their homes
  4. Tension has been rife on the Myanmar-Bangladesh border
  5. Militants allegedly linked to Aqa Mul Mujahidin group launched attacks on Myanmar’s border police and the army
  6. The Myanmar Army has since been conducting operations in Rakhine, home for the country’s over a million Rohingya people
  7. The UNHCR on Nov 18 urged Bangladesh to keep its border with Myanmar open for the Rohingyas

MHA to hold meet on Rohingya Muslims

  1. Meeting will be attended by the Principal Secretaries (Home) of Delhi, Uttar Pradesh, Jammu and Kashmir, Assam, West Bengal, Andhra Pradesh and Kerala.
  2. According to MHA estimates, over one lakh Rohingya Muslims have settled in these States.
  3. There are reports suggesting that radical groups may make an attempt to recruit some members of the community, which is a cause of concern.

[cd explains] The Rohingya Conflict


Dhaka plans to relocate Rohingya

Up to 6,000 Rohingya, Bangladeshi migrants stranded

  1. Attacks on members of the religious minority, have in the past 3 years left up to 280 people dead and forced 140,000 others from their homes.
  2. Around 800,000 Muslim Rohingyas live in Burma with around 80% living in the western state of Rakhine.
  3. Most of them have been denied citizenship by the Burmese government.
  4. The United Nations consider the Rohingya one of the world’s most persecuted minorities.

:( We are working on most probable questions. Do check back this section.

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