A constitution is a set of rules through which a country or state operates.
Some countries have unwritten constitutions which means there is no formal constitution written in one particular document. Their constitutional rules are originated from a number of sources.
Britain sources its constitution from a number of important statutes, or laws, as well as principles decided in legal cases and conventions. New Zealand and Israel are two other countries that do not have formal written constitutions.
Other nations have formal written constitutions in which the structure of government is defined and the respective powers of the nation and the states are written in one single document. These systems may also include unwritten conventions and constitutional law which can inform how the constitution is interpreted.Australia, India and the United States are examples of countries with a written constitution.
Australia, India and the United States are examples of countries with a written constitution.
Some constitutions may be modified without any special process. The documents that make up the New Zealand Constitution may be amended simply by a majority vote of its Parliament.In other
In other countries, a special procedure is adopted before their constitution can be changed. Australia has a constitution which requires a referendum in order to change it.
Indian Constitution has many sources that include the imaginative ambitions of the nationalist leaders, the actual working of the Government of India Act, 1935, and the experience gained from the genuine working of some of the Constitutions of significant countries of the world.
Its sources include not only the sources upon which the founding fathers of our Constitution drew but also the developmental sources such as the judicial decisions, constitutional amendments, constitutional practices and others.
Importance of Constitution
The role of a Constitution is to make certain that the government operates efficiently and in a fair and responsible manner. It does this in three ways:
- It holds the government to the law.
- It provides the distinction of power so that no one part of the government is any more powerful than another.
It provides a series of checks and balances so that when laws are made or amended, the government follows the correct procedure to pass a Bill.
Constitution of India-At a glance
The Indian Constitution is inimitable in its contents and spirit. India, also called Bharat, is a Union of States. It is an Independent Socialist Secular Democratic Republic with a parliamentary system of government.
The Republic is governed in terms of the Constitution of India which was accepted by the Constituent Assembly on 26th November, 1949 and came into force on 26th January, 1950.
The Constitution offers for a Parliamentary form of government which is federal in structure with certain unitary characteristics.
The constitutional head of the Executive of the Union is the President. As per Article 79 of the Constitution of India, the council of the Parliament of the Union consists of the President and two Houses known as the Council of States (Rajya Sabha) and the House of the People (Lok Sabha).
Article 74(1) of the Constitution provides that there shall be a Council of Ministers with the Prime Minister as its head to help and advise the President, who shall exercise his/her functions in accordance with the advice.
The real executive power is vested in the Council of Ministers with the Prime Minister as its head.