Modern Indian History-Events and Personalities

[pib] Declaration of World Heritage Sites by UNESCO                 


From UPSC perspective, the following things are important :

Prelims level: World heritage sites in India

Mains level: Not Much

The Ministry of Culture and Tourism has provided some useful information about the World Heritage Sites By UNESCO in India.

We regret for the distorted view of this newscard on the app. Pls refer to the webpage link.

[pib] Declaration of World Heritage Sites by UNESCO                 

World Heritage Sites in India

  • At present, India has 38 World Heritage Properties. All the sites under the Ministry are conserved as per ASI’s Conservation Policy and are in good shape.
  • ‘Dholavira: A Harappan City’ has been submitted for the nomination of World Heritage Site in 2019-2020.
  • Nomination dossiers of ‘Santiniketan, India’ and ‘Sacred Ensemble of Hoysalas’ have been submitted to UNESCO for the year 2021-22 cycle.



Under Protection of Archaeological Survey of India (22)

S.No. Name of Site State
1 Agra Fort (1983) Uttar Pradesh
2 Ajanta Caves (1983) Maharashtra
3 Ellora Caves (1983) Maharashtra
4 Taj Mahal (1983) Uttar Pradesh
5 Group of Monuments at Mahabalipuram (1984) Tamil Nadu
6 Sun Temple, Konark (1984) Odisha
7 Churches and Convents of Goa (1986) Goa
8 FatehpurSikri (1986) Uttar Pradesh
9 Group of Monuments at Hampi (1986) Karnataka
10 Khajuraho, Group of Temples (1986) Madhya Pradesh
11 Elephanta Caves ( 1987) Maharashtra
12 Great Living Chola Temples at Thanjavur, Gangaikondacholapuram and Darasuram (1987 & 2004) Tamil Nadu
13 Group of Monuments at Pattadakal (1987) Karnataka
14 Buddhist Monuments at Sanchi (1989) Madhya Pradesh
15 Humayun’s Tomb, Delhi (1993) Delhi
16 Qutb Minar and its Monuments, Delhi (1993) Delhi
17 Rock Shelters of Bhimbetka (2003) Madhya Pradesh
18 Champaner-Pavagarh Archaeological Park (2004) Gujarat
19 Red Fort Complex, Delhi (2007) Delhi
20 Hill Forts of Rajasthan

  1. Kumbhalgarh, Jaisalmer and Ranthambhore, Amber and Gagron Forts) (2013)

(Amber and Gagron Forts are under protection of Rajasthan State Archaeology and Museums)

21 Rani-ki-Vav (The Queen’s Stepwell) at Patan (2014) Gujarat
22 Archaeological Site of Nalanda Mahavihara (Nalanda University) at Nalanda (2016) Bihar


Under Protection of Ministry of Railways (2)

23. Mountain Railways of India Darjeeling,(1999), Nilgiri (2005), Kalka-Shimla (2008) West Bengal, Tamil Nadu, Himachal Pradesh
24. Chhatrapati Shivaji Terminus (formerly Victoria Terminus) (2004) Maharashtra


Under Protection of Bodhgaya Temple Management Committee (1)

25 Mahabodhi Temple Complex at Bodh Gaya, (2002) Bihar


Under Protection of Rajasthan State Archaeology and Museums (1)

26. The Jantar Mantar, Jaipur (2010) Rajasthan


Under Protection of Chandigarh Administration (1)

27. The Architectural Work of Le Corbusier, an Outstanding Contribution to the Modern Movement (2016) Chandigarh


Under Protection of Ahmedabad Municipal Corporation (1)

28. Historic City of Ahmedabad (2017) Gujarat


Under Protection of Bombay Municipal Corporation (1)

29. Victorian and Art Deco Ensemble of Mumbai (2018) Govt of Maharashtra


Under Protection of Jaipur Municipal Corporation (1)

30. Jaipur City, Rajasthan (2019) Govt of Rajasthan



Under Protection of Ministry of Environment, Forest and Climate Changes

31. Kaziranga National Park (1985) Assam
32. Keoladeo National Park (1985) Rajasthan
33. Manas Wildlife Sanctuary (1985) Assam
34. Sunderbans National Park (1987) West Bengal
35. Nanda Devi and Valley of Flowers National Parks (1988, 2005) Uttarakhand
36. Western Ghats (2012) Karnataka, Kerala, Maharashtra,Tamil Nadu
37 Great Himalayan National Park (2014) Himachal Pradesh



Under Protection of Ministry of Environment, Forest and Climate Changes

38. Khangchendzonga National Park (2016) Sikkim


Back2Basics: UNESCO World Heritage Sites

  • A World Heritage Site is a landmark or area, selected by the UN Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) for having cultural, historical, scientific or other forms of significance, which is legally protected by international treaties.
  • The sites are judged to be important for the collective and preservative interests of humanity.
  • To be selected, a WHS must be an already-classified landmark, unique in some respect as a geographically and historically identifiable place having special cultural or physical significance (such as an ancient ruin or historical structure, building, city, complex, desert, forest, island, lake, monument, mountain, or wilderness area).
  • It may signify a remarkable accomplishment of humanity, and serve as evidence of our intellectual history on the planet.
  • The sites are intended for practical conservation for posterity, which otherwise would be subject to risk from human or animal trespassing, unmonitored/uncontrolled/unrestricted access, or threat from local administrative negligence.
  • The list is maintained by the international World Heritage Program administered by the UNESCO World Heritage Committee, composed of 21 “states parties” that are elected by their General Assembly.

UNESCO World Heritage Committee

  • The World Heritage Committee selects the sites to be listed as UNESCO World Heritage Sites, including the World Heritage List and the List of World Heritage in Danger.
  • It monitors the state of conservation of the World Heritage properties, defines the use of the World Heritage Fund and allocates financial assistance upon requests from States Parties.
  • It is composed of 21 states parties that are elected by the General Assembly of States Parties for a four-year term.
  • India is NOT a member of this Committee.

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