Tribes in News

PM-JANMAN Scheme for PVTGs


From UPSC perspective, the following things are important :

Prelims level: PM-JANMAN Scheme

Mains level: Not Much

Central Idea

  • The Union Tribal Ministry informed the Rajya Sabha that the population of Particularly Vulnerable Tribal Groups (PVTGs) is not declining, contrary to earlier data.
  • The Pradhan Mantri-Janjati Adivasi Nyaya Maha Abhiyan (PM-JANMAN) aims to provide basic facilities to PVTGs, with a significant budget allocation.

Who are the PVTGs?

  • Definition and Characteristics: PVTGs, formerly known as Primitive Tribal Groups, are identified by criteria like declining population, pre-agrarian technology, economic backwardness, and low literacy.
  • Distribution: Spread across 18 States and Union Territories, India has 75 PVTGs, with the highest numbers in Odisha and Andhra Pradesh.
  • Historical Context: These groups inhabit remote areas and have historically been among the most vulnerable sections of Scheduled Tribes.

PM-JANMAN: Objectives and Funding

  • Mission Goals: The mission, announced earlier in the year, focuses on improving infrastructure and basic amenities in PVTG areas.
  • Budget Allocation: The Cabinet approved a ₹24,000 crore package, with contributions from both the central and state governments.
  • Implementation Strategy: The program involves nine ministries and aims to enhance housing, connectivity, healthcare, education, and economic opportunities in PVTG villages.

Challenges in Implementation

  • Data Gaps: A key challenge is the lack of current and accurate data on PVTG populations and socio-economic conditions.
  • Baseline Surveys: While surveys are being conducted, their results are not yet public, and there has been no separate Census for PVTGs since 1951.
  • Recommendations: The National Advisory Council suggested conducting a specific Census for PVTGs to better understand their needs in education, health, and housing.


  • Critical Need for Accurate Data: Effective implementation of development projects for PVTGs hinges on having reliable data.
  • Holistic Approach: The government’s initiative reflects a comprehensive approach to improving the living standards of PVTGs, addressing various aspects of their well-being.
  • Continued Monitoring and Evaluation: Ongoing assessment and adaptation of strategies will be crucial to ensure the success of these development efforts for PVTGs.

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