Direct Benefits Transfers

[pib] PM-KISAN Scheme Completes Two Years

Note4Students

From UPSC perspective, the following things are important :

Prelims level : PM-KISAN

Mains level : Cash support schemes for farmers

The PM-Kisan scheme, launched with an aim to ensure a life of dignity and prosperity for farmers has completed two years of successful implementation.

PM-KISAN

  • Under this programme, vulnerable landholding farmer families, having cultivable land upto 2 hectares, will be provided direct income support at the rate of Rs. 6,000 per year.
  • This income support will be transferred directly into the bank accounts of beneficiary farmers, in three equal instalments of Rs. 2,000 each.
  • This programme will be entirely funded by the Government of India.

Note: Aadhaar was made optional for availing the first instalment (December 2018 – March 2019). But now it is mandatory.

Exclusion categories

The following categories of beneficiaries of higher economic status shall not be eligible for benefit under the scheme.

  1. All Institutional Landholders
  2. Farmer families in which one or more of its members belong to the following categories
  • Former and present holders of constitutional posts
  • Former and present Ministers/ MP/MLAs/Mayors /Chairpersons of District Panchayats
  • All serving or retired officers and employees of Central/ State Government Ministries (Excluding Multi Tasking Staff /Class IV/Group D employees)
  • All superannuated/retired pensioners whose monthly pension is ₹10,000/-or more (Excluding Multi Tasking Staff / Class IV/Group D employees) of the above category
  • All Persons who paid Income Tax in the last assessment year
  • Professionals like Doctors, Engineers, Lawyers, Chartered Accountants, and Architects registered with Professional bodies and carrying out the profession by undertaking practices.

Do you know?

West Bengal is yet to implement the PM-KISAN scheme while the farmers have completed their registrations!

Telecom and Postal Sector – Spectrum Allocation, Call Drops, Predatory Pricing, etc

Cabinet approves PLI Scheme for telecom

Note4Students

From UPSC perspective, the following things are important :

Prelims level : PLI scheme and various sectors

Mains level : Make in India promotions

The Union Cabinet has approved the production-linked incentive scheme for the telecom sector with an outlay of ₹12,195 crores over five years.

Why such a scheme?

  • The scheme aims to make India a global hub for manufacturing telecom equipment.
  • The sector is expected to lead to an incremental production of about ₹2.4 lakh crore, with exports of about ₹2 lakh crore over five years and bring in investments of more than ₹3,000 crores.

PLI Scheme

  • The PLI scheme aims to boost domestic manufacturing and cut down on imports by providing cash incentives on incremental sales from products manufactured in the country.
  • Besides inviting foreign companies to set shop in India, the scheme aims to encourage local companies to set up or expand, existing manufacturing units.

UPSC can directly as the sectors included in the PLI scheme. Earlier it was only meant for Electronics manufacturing (particularly mobile phones).

Benefits for MSMEs

  • For inclusion of MSMEs in the scheme, the minimum investment threshold has been kept at ₹10 crores, while for others it is ₹100 crore.
  • For MSMEs, a 1% higher incentive is also proposed in the first three years.

Employment generation

  • The scheme was also likely to generate 40,000 direct and indirect employment opportunities and generate tax revenue of ₹17,000 crores from telecom equipment manufacturing.

Which equipments?

  • The telecom manufacturing would include core transmission equipment, 4G/5G Radio Access Network and wireless equipment, access and Customer Premises Equipment (CPE), IoT access devices, other wireless equipment.

Mother and Child Health – Immunization Program, BPBB, PMJSY, PMMSY, etc.

[pib] National Creche Scheme

Note4Students

From UPSC perspective, the following things are important :

Prelims level : Creche scheme

Mains level : Maternity benefits act

The Union Minister of Women and Child Development have given information about the National Creche Scheme to the Lok Sabha.

Try this PYQ:

Q.Which of the following statements is/are correct regarding the Maternity Benefit (Amendment) Act, 2017?

  1. Pregnant women are entitled to three months pre-delivery and three months post-delivery paid leave.
  2. Enterprises with creches must allow the mother a minimum of six crèche visits daily.
  3. Women with two children get reduced entitlements.

Select the correct answer using the code given below.

(a) 1 and 2 only

(b) 2 only

(c) 3 only

(d) 1, 2 and 3

National Creche Scheme

  • The Ministry of WCD implements the NCS for the children of working mothers as a Centrally Sponsored Scheme through States/ UTs with effect from 01.01.2017.
  • It aims to provide daycare facilities to children (age group of 6 months to 6 years) of working mothers.

The Scheme provides an integrated package of the following services:

  • Daycare facilities including sleeping facilities.
  • Early stimulation for children below 3 years and pre-school education for 3 to 6 years old children
  • Supplementary nutrition (to be locally sourced)
  • Growth monitoring
  • Health check-up and immunization

Air Pollution

[pib] Scheme for Management of Crop Residues

Note4Students

From UPSC perspective, the following things are important :

Prelims level : Air pollution

Mains level : Alternatives solutions for stubble burning

The Scheme on ‘Promotion of Agricultural Mechanization for In-Situ Management of Crop Residue in the States of Punjab, Haryana, Uttar Pradesh and NCT of Delhi’ has been extended for the year 2021-22.

We can cite the example of this scheme for crop residue management as an effective solution against stubble burning.

Management of Crop Residues

  • In pursuance this, a central sector scheme (100% funded by centre) was launched in 2018 Budget to support the efforts of the governments of Haryana, Punjab, Uttar Pradesh and the NCT of Delhi to address air pollution.
  • It aimed to subsidize the machinery required for in-situ management of crop residue.

Various objectives of the scheme:

  • Protecting the environment from air pollution and preventing loss of nutrients and soil micro-organisms caused by burning of crop residue;
  • Promoting in-situ management of crop residue by retention and incorporation into the soil through the use of appropriate mechanization inputs and
  • Creating awareness among stakeholders for effective utilization and management of crop residue

Outcomes of the scheme

  • The residue burning events in 2020 in Punjab, Haryana and UP together have reduced by -30% as compared to 2016.
  • In Punjab the reduction is -22.7%, Haryana – 63.8% and UP – 52.01%.

Textile Sector – Cotton, Jute, Wool, Silk, Handloom, etc.

[pib] Hathkargha Samvardhan Sahayata (HSS) Yojana

Note4Students

From UPSC perspective, the following things are important :

Prelims level : HSS scheme

Mains level : Textile sector of India

The Ministry of Textiles introduced the technology up-gradation scheme called Hathkargha Samvardhan Sahayata (HSS) Yojana.

Much recently, in the budget, the Mega Investment Textiles Parks (MITRA) Scheme was launched.

HSS Yojana

  • This scheme is introduced as an up-gradation scheme under National Handloom Development Programme (NHDP) and Comprehensive Handloom Cluster Development Scheme (CHCDS) in 2015-16.
  • It aims to provide upgraded looms/accessories to handloom weavers to improve the quality of the fabric and enhance productivity.
  • Under the scheme, the Union Govt bears 90% of the cost of looms/accessories.
  • It is designed for all the weavers, including SC/ST/OBC and women.
  • The performance of this scheme will be evaluated by independent third-party agencies.

Start-up Ecosystem In India

[pib] Startup India Seed Fund Scheme

Note4Students

From UPSC perspective, the following things are important :

Prelims level : Seed Funding

Mains level : Startup promotions in India

Startup India Seed Fund Scheme (SISFS) has been approved for the period of next four years starting from 2021-22.

Seed Fund Scheme

  • The scheme aims to provide financial assistance to startups for proof of concept, prototype development, product trials, market entry and commercialization.
  • 945 Crore corpus will be divided over the next 4 years for providing seed funding to eligible startups through eligible incubators across India.
  • The scheme is expected to support about 3600 startups.

Q.Discuss various inherent non-policy challenges to Start-ups in India.(150W)

What is Seed Funding?

  • Seed funding or seed-stage funding is a very early investment which aims at helping a business grow and generating its own capital.
  • Also referred to as seed money or seed capital, investors often get an equity stake in exchange for the capital invested.
  • The investors can themselves be the founders and use their savings as seed money for their new company — also known as bootstrapping.

Why Seed Funding matters?

  • It is a fact that starting a new business and lifting it up off the ground is a huge ask for most entrepreneurs and it only gets tougher with capital constraints.
  • Seed funding helps get things started before the business earns any revenue.
  • It is an effective solution for startups and growing businesses as it provides the much-needed early monetary support.
  • It can cover everything from infrastructure costs, marketing and development costs as well as the cost of initial hiring. Investment is the fuel of any business and seed funding is the first drop of this fuel.
  • As seed money becomes much-needed cash reserve or working capital, not having it is one of the main reasons for failure.

Various options for Seed Funding

  • Crowdfunding
  • Corporate seed funds
  • Incubators Accelerators
  • Angel investors
  • Personal Savings
  • VC Funding
  • Angel Funds or Angel Networks

Mother and Child Health – Immunization Program, BPBB, PMJSY, PMMSY, etc.

Pradhan Mantri Matru Vandana Yojana (PMMVY)

Note4Students

From UPSC perspective, the following things are important :

Prelims level : PMMVY

Mains level : Maternity healthcare

The government’s maternity benefit scheme, or Pradhan Mantri Matru Vandana Yojana, has crossed 1.75 crores, eligible women, till the financial year 2020, the Centre informed Parliament.

PMMVY

  • The PMMVY is a maternity benefit program introduced in 2017 and is implemented by the Ministry of Women and Child Development.
  • It is a conditional cash transfer scheme for pregnant and lactating women of 19 years of age or above for the first live birth.
  • It provides partial wage compensation to women for wage-loss during childbirth and childcare and to provide conditions for safe delivery and good nutrition and feeding practices.
  • Under the scheme, pregnant women and lactating mothers receive ₹5,000 on the birth of their first child in three instalments, after fulfilling certain conditionalities.
  • In 2013, the scheme was brought under the National Food Security Act, 2013 to implement the provision of cash maternity benefit stated in the Act.
  • The direct benefit cash transfer is to help expectant mothers meet enhanced nutritional requirements as well as to partially compensate them for wage loss during their pregnancy.

Eligibility Conditions and Conditionalities

The first transfer (at pregnancy trimester) of ₹1,000 requires the mother to:

  • Register pregnancy at the Anganwadi Centre (AWC) whenever she comes to know about her conception
  • Attend at least one prenatal care session and taking Iron-folic acid tablets and TT1 (tetanus toxoid injection), and
  • Attend at least one counselling session at the AWC or healthcare centre.

The second transfer (six months of conception) of ₹2,000 requires the mother to:

  • Attend at least one prenatal care session and TT2

The third transfer (three and a half months after delivery) of ₹2,000 requires the mother to:

  • Register the birth
  • Immunize the child with OPV and BCG at birth, at six weeks and at 10 weeks
  • Attend at least two growth monitoring sessions within three months of delivery

Additionally, the scheme requires the mother to:

  • Exclusively breastfeed for six months and introduce complementary feeding as certified by the mother
  • Immunize the child with OPV and DPT
  • Attend at least two counselling sessions on growth monitoring and infant and child nutrition and feeding between the third and sixth months after delivery

Before judging this factual information, take this PYQ form 2019:

Q.Which of the following statements is/are correct regarding the Maternity Benefit (Amendment) Act, 2017?

  1. Pregnant women are entitled to three months pre-delivery and three months post-delivery paid leave.
  2. Enterprises with creches must allow the mother a minimum of six crèche visits daily.
  3. Women with two children get reduced entitlements.

Select the correct answer using the code given below.

(a) 1 and 2 only

(b) 2 only

(c) 3 only

(d) 1, 2 and 3

Urban Transformation – Smart Cities, AMRUT, etc.

Jal Jeevan Mission (Urban) to revive urban water bodies

Note4Students

From UPSC perspective, the following things are important :

Prelims level : Jal Jeevan Mission

Mains level : Drinking water scarcity in Urban India

The urban water supply mission under the Jal Jeevan Mission announced in the Budget would include rejuvenation of water bodies as well as 20% of supply from reused water.

Access to safe drinking water has been a grave problem for India, especially in rural areas where lack of usable water has resulted in decades-old sanitation and health problems.

Jal Jeevan Mission

  • Jal Jeevan Mission, a central government initiative under the Ministry of Jal Shakti, aims to ensure access of piped water for every household in India.
  • The mission’s goal is to provide to all households in rural India safe and adequate water through individual household tap connections by 2024.
  • The Har Ghar Nal Se Jal programme was announced by FM in Budget 2019-20 speech.
  • This programme forms a crucial part of the Jal Jeevan Mission.
  • The programme aims to implement source sustainability measures as mandatory elements, such as recharge and reuse through greywater management, water conservation, and rainwater harvesting.

Urban component of the mission

  • The mission is meant to create a people’s movement for water, making it everyone’s priority.
  • There are an estimated gap of 2.68 crore urban household tap connections that the Mission would seek to bridge in all 4,378 statutory towns.
  • The Mission would also aim to bridge the gap of 2.64 crore sewer connections in the 500 cities under the existing Atal Mission for Rejuvenation and Urban Transformation (AMRUT).
  • The mission would include rejuvenation of water bodies to boost the sustainable freshwater supply and the creation of green spaces.

Textile Sector – Cotton, Jute, Wool, Silk, Handloom, etc.

[pib] Mega Investment Textiles Parks (MITRA) Scheme

Note4Students

From UPSC perspective, the following things are important :

Prelims level : MITRA scheme

Mains level : Textile sector of India

The Finance Minister has proposed setting up of a scheme of Mega Investment Textiles Parks (MITRA) Scheme in her budget speech.

Do not get confused over Sahakar Mitra Scheme and this one.

MITRA Scheme

  • MITRA aims to enable the textile industry to become globally competitive, attract large investments, and boost employment generation and exports.
  • It will create world-class infrastructure with plug and play facilities to enable create global champions in exports.
  • It will be launched in addition to the Production Linked Incentive Scheme (PLI).
  • It will give our domestic manufacturers a level-playing field in the international textiles market & pave the way for India to become a global champion of textiles exports across all segments”.

Health Sector – UHC, National Health Policy, Family Planning, Health Insurance, etc.

Ayushman Bharat for CAPFs

Note4Students

From UPSC perspective, the following things are important :

Prelims level : Ayushman Bharat

Mains level : Universal health coverage

Union Home Minister has rolled out the ‘Ayushman CAPF’ scheme, extending the benefit of the central health insurance programme to the personnel of all Central Armed Police Forces (CAPFs) in the country.

Who are the CAPFs?

  • The CAPFs refers to uniform nomenclature of five security forces in India under the authority of the Ministry of Home Affairs.
  • Their role is to defend the national interest mainly against the internal threats.
  • They are the Border Security Force (BSF), Central Reserve Police Force (CRPF), Central Industrial Security Force (CISF), Indo-Tibetan Border Police (ITBP), Sashastra Seema Bal (SSB)

Ayushman CAPF

  • Under this scheme, around 28 lakh personnel of CAPF, Assam Rifles and National Security Guard (NSG) and their families will be covered by ‘Ayushman Bharat: PM Jan Arogya Yojana’ (AB PM-JAY).
  • For the CAPF, the existing health coverage was not comprehensive as compared to other military forces.

Do you know?

The goal of universal health coverage (UHC) as stated in the UN Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs no. 3) is one of the most significant commitments to equitable quality healthcare for all.

About Ayushman Bharat

  • PM-JAY aims to provide free access to healthcare for 40% of people in the country.
  • It is a centrally sponsored scheme and is jointly funded by both the union government and the states.
  • It was launched in September 2018 by the Ministry of Health and Family Welfare.
  • The ministry has later established the National Health Authority as an organization to administer the program.

Key features:

  • Providing health coverage for 10 crores households or 50 crores Indians.
  • It provides a cover of 5 lakh per family per year for medical treatment in empanelled hospitals, both public and private.
  • Offering cashless payment and paperless recordkeeping through the hospital or doctor’s office.
  • Using criteria from the Socio-Economic and Caste Census 2011 to determine eligibility for benefits.
  • There is no restriction on family size, age or gender.
  • All previous medical conditions are covered under the scheme.
  • It covers 3 days of pre-hospitalization and 15 days of post-hospitalization, including diagnostic care and expenses on medicines.
  • The scheme is portable and a beneficiary can avail medical treatment at any PM-JAY empanelled hospital outside their state and anywhere in the country.

Note these features. They cannot be memorized all of sudden but can be recognized if a tricky MCQ comes in the prelims.

Must read:

[Burning Issue] Ayushmaan Bharat

Skilling India – Skill India Mission,PMKVY, NSDC, etc.

[pib] PMKVY 3.0

Note4Students

From UPSC perspective, the following things are important :

Prelims level : PMKVY

Mains level : Skill Development

The Ministry of Skill Development and Entrepreneurship (MSDE) has launched Pradhan Mantri Kaushal Vikas Yojana (PMKVY) 3.0.

Note the differences between all three versions of PMKVY.

PMKVY 3.0

  • PMKVY 3.0 envisages training of eight lakh candidates over the scheme period of 2020-2021.
  • This phase three will focus on new-age and COVID-related skills.
  • The 729 PM Kaushal Kendras (PMKKs), empanelled non-PMKK training centres and more than 200 industrial training institutes under Skill India will be rolling out under it.
  • On the basis of the learning gained from PMKVY 1.0 and PMKVY 2.0, the MSDE has improved the newer version of the scheme to match the current policy doctrine and energize the skilling ecosystem.

Implementation

  • PMKVY 3.0 will be implemented in a more decentralized structure with greater responsibilities and support from States/UTs and Districts.
  • District Skill Committees (DSCs), under the guidance of State Skill Development Missions (SSDM), shall play a key role in addressing the skill gap and assessing demand at the district level.
  • The new scheme will be more trainee- and learner-centric addressing the ambitions of aspirational Bharat.
  • PMKVY 2.0 broadened the skill development with the inclusion of Recognition of Prior Learning (RPL) and focus on training.
  • With the advent of PMKVY 3.0, the focus is on bridging the demand-supply gap by promoting skill development in areas of new-age and Industry 4.0 job roles.

Back2Basics: PMKVY 1.0

  • PMKVY is a skill development initiative scheme of the Government of India for recognition and standardization of skills launched on16 July 2015;.
  • The aim of the scheme is to encourage aptitude towards employable skills and to increase the working efficiency of probable and existing daily wage earners, by giving monetary awards and rewards and by providing quality training to them.
  • For this qualification plans and quality, plans have been developed by various Sector Skill Councils (SSC) created with the participation of Industries.
  • National Skill Development Council (NSDC) has been made coordinating and driving agency for the same.

Crop Insurance – PMFBY, etc.

PM Fasal Bima Yojana (PMFBY) completes 5 Years of operations

Note4Students

From UPSC perspective, the following things are important :

Prelims level : PMFBY

Mains level : Success of PMFBY

The Pradhan Mantri Fasal Bima Yojana (PMFBY) has completed 5 Years of successful operations.

It has become vital these days to remember and recognize every detail of government schemes.

What is PMFBY?

  • 5 years ago, on 13th January 2016, the GoI took a historic step towards strengthening risk coverage of crops for farmers of India and approved the flagship crop insurance scheme – the PMFBY.
  • The scheme was conceived as a milestone initiative to provide a comprehensive risk solution at the lowest uniform premium across the country for farmers.
  • Premium cost over and above the farmer share is equally subsidized by States and GoI.
  • However, GoI shares 90% of the premium subsidy for the North Eastern States to promote the uptake in the region.
  • The average sum insured per hectare has increased from ₹15,100 during the pre-PMFBY Schemes to ₹40,700 under PMFBY.

Coverage of Risks and Exclusions:

Following stages of the crop and risks leading to crop loss are covered under the scheme.

  • Prevented Sowing/ Planting Risk: The insured area is prevented from sowing/ planting due to deficit rainfall or adverse seasonal conditions
  • Standing Crop (Sowing to Harvesting): Comprehensive risk insurance is provided to cover yield losses due to non-preventable risks, viz. Drought, Dry spells, Flood, Inundation, Pests and Diseases, Landslides, Natural Fire and Lightening, Storm, Hailstorm, Cyclone, Typhoon, Tempest, Hurricane and Tornado.
  • Post-Harvest Losses: Coverage is available only up to a maximum period of two weeks from harvesting for those crops which are allowed to dry in cut and spread condition in the field after harvesting against specific perils of a cyclone and cyclonic rains and unseasonal rains.
  • Localized Calamities: Loss/ damage resulting from the occurrence of identified localized risks of hailstorm, landslide, and Inundation affecting isolated farms in the notified area.

Try this question from CSP 2020:

Q.Under the Kisan Credit Card Scheme, short-term credit support is given to farmers for which of the following purposes? (CSP 2020)

  1. Working capital for maintenance of farm assets
  2. Purchase of combine harvesters, tractors and mini trucks
  3. Consumption requirements of farm households
  4. Construction of family house and setting up of village cold storage facility
  5. Construction of family house and setting up of village cold storage facility

Select the correct answer using the code given below:

(a) 1,2 and 5 only

(b) 1,3 and 4 only

(c) 2,3,4 and 5 only

(d) 1, 2, 3 and 4

Progress till date

  • The Scheme covers over 5.5 crore farmer applications year on year.
  • Till date, claims worth Rs 90,000 crores have already been paid out under the Scheme.
  • Aadhar seeding has helped in speedy claim settlement directly into the farmer accounts.
  • Even during COVID lockdown period, nearly 70 lakh farmers benefitted and claims worth Rs. 8741.30 crores were transferred to the beneficiaries.

Agricultural Sector and Marketing Reforms – eNAM, Model APMC Act, Eco Survey Reco, etc.

PM-KISAN payout wrongly made to ineligible beneficiaries

Note4Students

From UPSC perspective, the following things are important :

Prelims level : PM-KISAN

Mains level : Not Much

PM-KISAN payments worth ₹1,364 crores have been wrongly made to more than 20 lakh ineligible beneficiaries and income tax payer farmers.

Try this PYQ:

Q.Under the Kisan Credit Card Scheme, short-term credit support is given to farmers for which of the following purposes? (CSP 2020)

  1. Working capital for maintenance of farm assets
  2. Purchase of combine harvesters, tractors and mini trucks
  3. Consumption requirements of farm households
  4. Construction of family house and setting up of village cold storage facility
  5. Construction of family house and setting up of village cold storage facility

Select the correct answer using the code given below:

(a) 1,2 and 5 only

(b) 1,3 and 4 only

(c) 2,3,4 and 5 only

(d) 1, 2, 3 and 4

PM-KISAN

  • The Pradhan Mantri Kisan Samman Nidhi Yojana (PM-Kisan Yojana) is a government scheme through which, all small and marginal farmers will get up to Rs 6,000 per year as minimum income support.
  • Under the PM-KISAN scheme, all landholding farmers’ families shall be provided with the financial benefit of Rs. 6000 per annum per family payable in three equal instalments of Rs. 2000 each, every four months.
  • The definition of the family for the scheme is husband, wife, and minor children.
  • State Government and UT administration will identify the farmer families which are eligible for support as per scheme guidelines.
  • The fund will be directly transferred to the bank accounts of the beneficiaries.

Why in news?

  • When it was launched just before the general election in 2019, it was meant to cover only small and marginal farmers who owned less than two hectares.
  • Later that year, large farmers were included in the scheme as the government removed land size criteria.

Certain exclusions

  • However, certain exclusions remained.
  • If any member of a farming family paid income tax, received a monthly pension above ₹10,000, held a constitutional position, or was a serving or retired government employee, they were not eligible for the scheme.
  • Professionals and institutional landholders were also excluded.

Who are NOT eligible for PM-KISAN?

The following categories of beneficiaries of higher economic status shall not be eligible for benefit under the scheme.

  • All Institutional Landholders.

Farmer families that belong to one or more of the following categories:

  • Former and present holders of constitutional posts
  • Former and present Ministers/ State Ministers and former/present Members of Lok Sabha/ Rajya Sabha/ State Legislative Assemblies/ State Legislative Councils, former and present Mayors of Municipal Corporations, former and present Chairpersons of District Panchayats.
  • All serving or retired officers and employees of Central/ State Government Ministries
  • All superannuated/retired pensioners whose monthly pension is Rs.10,000/-or more. (Excluding Multi-Tasking Staff / Class IV/Group D employees) of the above category
  • All Persons who paid Income Tax in the last assessment year
  • Professionals like Doctors, Engineers, Lawyers, Chartered Accountants, and Architects registered with Professional bodies and carrying out the profession by undertaking practices.

Note: It is not so easy to remember all such exclusions. But one must be able to recognize them by applying pure logic and thumb rule. This can be well understood from the PYQ given.

J&K – The issues around the state

[pib] New Industrial Development Scheme for Jammu & Kashmir (J&K IDS, 2021)

Note4Students

From UPSC perspective, the following things are important :

Prelims level : JK IDS, 2021

Mains level : Development of JK region

The Union Govt. has formulated the New Industrial Development Scheme for Jammu & Kashmir (J&K IDS, 2021).

Tap to read more about: Reorganization of J&K

J&K IDS, 2021

  • It is a new Central Sector Scheme for the development of Industries in the UT of Jammu & Kashmir.
  • The main purpose of the scheme is to generate employment which directly leads to the socio-economic development of the area.

Incentives available

  • Capital Investment Incentive at the rate of 30% in Zone A and 50% in Zone B on the investment made in Plant & Machinery (in manufacturing) or construction of the building is available.
  • Capital Interest subvention: At the annual rate of 6% for a maximum of 7 years on loan amount up to Rs. 500 crore for investment in plant and machinery (in manufacturing) or construction of the building.
  • GST Linked Incentive: 300% of the eligible value of actual investment made in plant and machinery (in manufacturing) or construction in building for 10 years.
  • Working Capital Interest Incentive: All existing units at an annual rate of 5% for a maximum of 5 years. Maximum limit of incentive is Rs 1 crore.

Key features:

  • The scheme is made attractive for both smaller and larger units.
  • Smaller units with an investment in plant & machinery upto Rs. 50 crore will get a capital incentive upto Rs. 7.5 crore and get capital interest subvention at the rate of  6% for a maximum of 7 years
  • The scheme aims to take industrial development to the block level in UT of J&K, which is the first time in any Industrial Incentive Scheme of the GoI.
  • The scheme has been simplified on the lines of ease of doing business by bringing one major incentive- GST Linked Incentive- that will ensure less compliance burden without compromising on transparency.
  • It is not a reimbursement or refund of GST but gross GST is used to measure eligibility for industrial incentive to offset the disadvantages that the UT of J&K face

Major Impact and employment generation potential:

  • The scheme is to bring about a radical transformation in the existing industrial ecosystem of J&K with emphasis on job creation, skill development and sustainable development.
  • It is anticipated that the proposed scheme is likely to attract unprecedented investment and give direct and indirect employment to about 4.5 lakh persons.
  • Additionally, because of the working capital interest subvention, the scheme is likely to give indirect support to about 35,000 persons.

Mother and Child Health – Immunization Program, BPBB, PMJSY, PMMSY, etc.

Matru Sahyogini Samitis Scheme

Note4Students

From UPSC perspective, the following things are important :

Prelims level : ICDS, Matru Sahyogini Samitis Scheme

Mains level : Not Much

The MP government has issued an order for the appointment of committees led by mothers to ensure better monitoring of services delivered at Anganwadi or day-care centres across the State.

Try this PYQ:

Q.Which of the following are the objectives of ‘National Nutrition Mission’?

  1. To create awareness relating to malnutrition among pregnant women and lactating mothers.
  2. To reduce the incidence of anaemia among young children, adolescent girls and women.
  3. To promote the consumption of millets, coarse cereals and unpolished rice.
  4. To promote the consumption of poultry eggs.

Select the correct answer using the code given below:

(a) 1 and 2 only

(b) 1, 2 and 3 only

(c) 1, 2 and 4 only

(d) 3 and 4 only

Matru Sahyogini Samitis

  • Called ‘Matru Sahyogini Samiti’ or Mothers’ Cooperation Committees, these will comprise 10 mothers at each Anganwadi centres.
  • They would be representing the concerns of different sets of beneficiaries under the Integrated Child Development Services, or National Nutrition Mission.
  • Beneficiaries’ would include children between six months to three years, children between three years and six years, adolescent girls and pregnant women and lactating mothers.
  • These mothers will keep a watch on weekly ration distribution to them as well as suggest nutritious and tasteful recipes for meals served to children at the centres.
  • The move is being taken as per the mandate of the National Food Security Act, 2013 (NFSA).

Its’ functioning

  • The committees will include mothers of beneficiary children as well as be represented by pregnant women and lactating mothers who are enrolled under the scheme.
  • The Anganwadi scheme includes a package of six services delivered at the centres, including supplementary nutrition, health services including vaccination, early education, among others.
  • The Committees will also include a woman panch, women active in the community and eager to volunteer their support to the scheme, teachers from the local school, and women heads of self-help groups (SHG).

Why such a move?

  • This is in a move that is aimed at strengthening community response to the problem of hunger and malnutrition in the State.
  • With the help of mothers, we will be able to turn anganwadis into a community health system, a nutrition management centre, and spread awareness against social evils.
  • These will turn into a model for local governance as well as allow for greater engagement between communities and the State government.

Back2Basics: Integrated Child Development Services (ICDS)

  • The ICDS aims to provide food, preschool education, primary healthcare, immunization, health check-up and referral services to children under 6 years of age and their mothers.
  • The scheme was launched in 1975, discontinued in 1978 by the government of Morarji Desai, and then relaunched by the Tenth Five Year Plan.
  • The tenth FYP also linked ICDS to Anganwadi centres established mainly in rural areas and staffed with frontline workers.
  • The ICDS provide for anganwadis or day-care centres which deliver a package of six services including:
  1. Immunization
  2. Supplementary nutrition
  3. Health checkup
  4. Referral services
  5. Pre-school education (Non-Formal)
  6. Nutrition and Health information

Implementation

  • For nutritional purposes, ICDS provides 500 kilocalories (with 12-15 grams of protein) every day to every child below 6 years of age.
  • For adolescent girls, it is up to 500-kilo calories with up to 25 grams of protein every day.
  • The services of Immunisation, Health Check-up and Referral Services delivered through Public Health Infrastructure under the Ministry of Health and Family Welfare.

Food Processing Industry: Issues and Developments

[pib] PM Formalization of Micro Food Processing Enterprises Scheme

Note4Students

From UPSC perspective, the following things are important :

Prelims level : PM-FME Scheme

Mains level : Food processing industry and the required reforms

Union Minister for Food Processing Industries has inaugurated the capacity building component of the Pradhan Mantri Formalization of Micro food processing Enterprises scheme (PM-FME Scheme).

The event also sought the launch of the GIS One District One Product (ODOP) Digital Map of India.

Practice question for mains:

Q.What is the PM FME Scheme? Discuss its potential to neutralize various challenges faced by India’s unorganized food industries

PM-FME Scheme

  • Launched under the Aatmanirbhar Bharat Abhiyan, the PM-FME Scheme is a centrally sponsored scheme.
  • It aims to enhance the competitiveness of existing individual micro-enterprises in the unorganized segment of the food processing industry and promote formalization of the sector.
  • It seeks to provide support to Farmer Producer Organizations, Self Help Groups, and Producers Cooperatives along their entire value chain.
  • Under the PM-FME scheme, capacity building is an important component.
  • The scheme envisages imparting training to food processing entrepreneurs, various groups, viz., SHGs / FPOs / Co-operatives, workers, and other stakeholders associated with the implementation of the scheme.

Features of the scheme

  • The Scheme adopts One District One Product (ODODP) approach to reap the benefit of scale in terms of procurement of inputs, availing common services and marketing of products.
  • The States would identify food product for a district keeping in view the existing clusters and availability of raw material.
  • The ODOP product could be a perishable produce based product or cereal-based products or a food product widely produced in a district and their allied sectors.
  • An illustrative list of such products includes mango, potato, litchi, tomato, tapioca, kinnu, bhujia, petha, papad, pickle, millet-based products, fisheries, poultry, meat as well as animal feed among others.
  • The Scheme also place focus on waste to wealth products, minor forest products and Aspirational Districts.

 About ODOP Digital Map

  • The GIS ODOP digital map of India provides details of ODOP products of all the states to facilitate the stakeholders.
  • The digital map also has indicators for tribal, SC, ST, and aspirational districts.
  • It will enable stakeholders to make concerted efforts for its value chain development.

Health Sector – UHC, National Health Policy, Family Planning, Health Insurance, etc.

What is the Viability Gap Funding (VGF) Scheme?

Note4Students

From UPSC perspective, the following things are important :

Prelims level : Viability Gap Funding

Mains level : Not Much

The government has expanded the provision of financial support by means of viability gap funding for public-private partnerships (PPPs) in infrastructure projects to include critical social sector investments in sectors such as health, education, water and waste treatment.

Note the minutes of VGF, its meaning, funding mechanism, various sectors included and its nodal ministry etc. UPSC can ask static statements based question.

What is the move?

  • Now, under this scheme, private sector projects in areas like wastewater treatment, solid waste management, health, water supply and education, could get 30% of the total project cost from the Centre.
  • Separately, pilot projects in health and education, with at least 50% operational cost recovery, can get as much as 40% of the total project cost from the central government.
  • The Centre and States would together bear 80% of the capital cost of the project and 50% of operation and maintenance costs of such projects for the first five years.

Viability Gap Funding (VGF) Scheme

  • Viability Gap Finance means a grant to support projects that are economically justified but not financially viable.
  • The scheme is designed as a Plan Scheme to be administered by the Ministry of Finance and amount in the budget are made on a year-to-year basis.
  • Such a grant under VGF is provided as a capital subsidy to attract the private sector players to participate in PPP projects that are otherwise financially unviable.
  • Projects may not be commercially viable because of the long gestation period and small revenue flows in future.
  • The VGF scheme was launched in 2004 to support projects that come under Public-Private Partnerships.

Its’ funding

  • Funds for VGF will be provided from the government’s budgetary allocation. Sometimes it is also provided by the statutory authority who owns the project asset.
  • If the sponsoring Ministry/State Government/ statutory entity aims to provide assistance over and above the stipulated amount under VGF, it will be restricted to a further 20% of the total project cost.

VGF grants

  • VGF grants will be available only for infrastructure projects where private sector sponsors are selected through a process of competitive bidding.
  • The VGF grant will be disbursed at the construction stage itself but only after the private sector developer makes the equity contribution required for the project.

Industrial Sector Updates – Industrial Policy, Ease of Doing Business, etc.

[pib] PLI Scheme extended to 10 key Sectors

Note4Students

From UPSC perspective, the following things are important :

Prelims level : PLI scheme and various sectors

Mains level : Moves for Atmanirbhar Bharat

The Union Cabinet has unveiled the Production-Linked Incentive (PLI) Scheme to encourage domestic manufacturing investments in ten key sectors.

PLI Scheme

  • The PLI scheme aims to boost domestic manufacturing and cut down on imports by providing cash incentives on incremental sales from products manufactured in the country.
  • Besides inviting foreign companies to set shop in India, the scheme aims to encourage local companies to set up or expand, existing manufacturing units.

UPSC can directly as the sectors included in the PLI scheme. Earlier it was only meant for Electronics manufacturing (particulary mobile phones).

What was the earlier PLI Scheme?

  • As a part of the National Policy on Electronics, the IT ministry had notified the PLI scheme on April 1 this year.
  • The scheme will, on one hand, attract big foreign investment in the sector, while also encouraging domestic mobile phone makers to expand their units and presence in India.
  • It would give incentives of 4-6 per cent to electronics companies which manufacture mobile phones and other electronic components.
  • A/c to the scheme, companies that make mobile phones which sell for Rs 15,000 or more will get an incentive of up to 6 per cent on incremental sales of all such mobile phones made in India.
  • In the same category, companies which are owned by Indian nationals and make such mobile phones, the incentive has been kept at Rs 200 crore for the next four years.

10 new sectors added

The ten sectors have been identified on the basis of their potential to create jobs and make India self-reliant, include:

  1. Food processing
  2. Telecom
  3. Electronics
  4. Textiles
  5. Speciality steel
  6. Automobiles and auto components
  7. Solar photo-voltaic modules and
  8. White goods such as air conditioners and LEDs

Hunger and Nutrition Issues – GHI, GNI, etc.

Distribution of Fortified Rice under ICDS

Note4Students

From UPSC perspective, the following things are important :

Prelims level : Fortified rice, Biofortification, ICDS

Mains level : Various facets of hunger and malnutrition in India

In a bid to combat chronic anaemia and undernutrition, the government is planning to distribute fortified rice through the Integrated Child Development Services and Mid-Day Meal schemes across the country.

What is Fortified Rice?

  • Rice can be fortified by adding a micronutrient powder to the rice that adheres to the grains or spraying of the surface of ordinary rice grains with a vitamin and mineral mix to form a protective coating.
  • Rice can also be extruded and shaped into partially precooked grain-like structures resembling rice grains, which can then be blended with natural polished rice.
  • Rice kernels can be fortified with several micronutrients, such as iron, folic acid and other B-complex vitamins, vitamin A and zinc.
  • These fortified kernels are then mixed with normal rice in a 1:100 ratio, and distributed for consumption.

Note: Biofortification is the process by which the nutritional quality of food crops is improved through agronomic practices, conventional plant breeding, or modern biotechnology. It differs from conventional fortification in that Biofortification aims to increase nutrient levels in crops during plant growth rather than through manual means during the processing of the crops.

What was the earlier initiative?

  • The centrally-sponsored pilot scheme was approved in February 2019 for a three-year period from 2019-20 onwards.
  • However, only five States — Andhra Pradesh, Gujarat, Maharashtra, Tamil Nadu and Chhattisgarh — have started the distribution of fortified rice in their identified pilot districts.

Need for expansion

  • Currently, there are only 15,000 tonnes of these kernels available per year in the country.
  • To cover PDS, anganwadis and mid-day meals in the 112 aspirational districts, annual supply capacity would need to be increased to about 1.3 lakh tonnes.
  • To cover PDS across the country, 3.5 lakh tonnes of fortified kernels would be needed.

Regulating fortification

  • FSSAI has formulated a comprehensive regulation on fortification of foods namely ‘Food Safety and Standards (Fortification of Foods) Regulations, 2016’.
  • These regulations set the standards for food fortification and encourage the production, manufacture, distribution, sale and consumption of fortified foods.
  • The regulations also provide for the specific role of FSSAI in promotion for food fortification and to make fortification mandatory.
  • WHO recommends fortification of rice with iron, vitamin A and folic acid as a public health strategy to improve the iron status of population wherever rice is a staple food.

Back2Basics: Integrated Child Development Services (ICDS)

  • The ICDS aims to provide food, preschool education, primary healthcare, immunization, health check-up and referral services to children under 6 years of age and their mothers.
  • The scheme was launched in 1975, discontinued in 1978 by the government of Morarji Desai, and then relaunched by the Tenth Five Year Plan.
  • The tenth FYP also linked ICDS to Anganwadi centres established mainly in rural areas and staffed with frontline workers.
  • The ICDS provide for anganwadis or day-care centres which deliver a package of six services including:
  1. Immunization
  2. Supplementary nutrition
  3. Health checkup
  4. Referral services
  5. Pre-school education (Non-Formal)
  6. Nutrition and Health information

Implementation

  • For nutritional purposes, ICDS provides 500 kilocalories (with 12-15 grams of protein) every day to every child below 6 years of age.
  • For adolescent girls, it is up to 500-kilo calories with up to 25 grams of protein every day.
  • The services of Immunisation, Health Check-up and Referral Services delivered through Public Health Infrastructure under the Ministry of Health and Family Welfare.

Coronavirus – Health and Governance Issues

Ayushman Sahakar Scheme

Note4Students

From UPSC perspective, the following things are important :

Prelims level : Ayushman Sahakar Scheme

Mains level : Impact of coronovirus outbreak

The Agriculture Ministry has rolled out the Ayushman Sahakar Scheme to assist cooperatives in the creation of healthcare infrastructure in the country.

Can you find the peculiarity of this scheme? Yes. It’s the Agriculture and not the Health Ministry.

Ayushman Sahakar Scheme

  • The scheme is formulated by the National Cooperative Development Corporation (NCDC), the apex autonomous development finance institution under the Ministry of Agriculture and Farmers Welfare.
  • The scheme would give a boost to the provision of healthcare services by cooperatives.
  • It specifically covers establishment, modernization, expansion, repairs, renovation of hospital and healthcare and education infrastructure.

Why need such a scheme?

  • There is a huge need for medical and nursing education in rural areas. But the problem is a lack of infrastructure.
  • Co-ops find it difficult to access credit for such projects as banks may not give them loans for non-agricultural purposes.

Financing the scheme

  • NCDC would extend term loans to prospective cooperatives to the tune of Rs 10000 Crore in the coming years.
  • Any Cooperative Society with a suitable provision in its byelaws to undertake healthcare-related activities would be able to access the NCDC fund.
  • NCDC assistance will flow either through the State Governments/ UT Administrations or directly to the eligible cooperatives.
  • Apart from working capital and margin money to meet operational requirements, the scheme will also provide interest subvention of 1% to women majority cooperatives.