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[pib] Seva Bhoj Yojana

Mains Paper 2 : Government Scheme/Policies |

Note4Students

From UPSC perspective, the following things are important :

Prelims level : Seva Bhoj Yojana

Mains level : Particulars of the scheme



News

Seva Bhoj Yojna

  • It is a Central Sector Scheme for providing reimbursement of CGST and Central Government’s share of IGST paid by charitable/religious institutions on purchase of specific raw food items for serving free food to public / devotees.
  • The specific raw food items covered under the Scheme are (i) Ghee (ii) Edible Oil (iii) Sugar/Burra/Jaggery (iv) Rice (v) Atta/Maida/Rava/Flour and (vi) Pulses.
  • Under the scheme the financial assistance will be provided for free ‘prasad’ or free food or free ‘langar’ / ‘bhandara’ (community kitchen) offered by charitable/religious institutions like Gurudwara, Temples, Dharmik Ashram, Mosques, Dargah, Church, Math, Monasteries etc.

Criteria for financial assistance

  • The applicant must be involved in charitable/religious activities by way of free and philanthropic distribution of food/prasad/langar(Community Kitchen)/ bhandara free of cost and without discrimination.
  • The institutions/organizations should have been distributing free food, langar and prasad to atleast 5000 persons in a calendar month can apply under the scheme.
  • Financial Assistance under the scheme shall be given only to those institutions which are not in receipt of any Financial Assistance from the Central/State Government for the purpose of distributing free food.
  • The Institution/Organization blacklisted under the provisions of Foreign Contribution Regulation Act (FCRA) or under the provisions of any Act/Rules of the Central/State shall not be eligible for financial assistance under the scheme.
Goods and Services Tax (GST)

[pib] Museum Grant Scheme

Mains Paper 1 : Arts & Culture |

Note4Students

From UPSC perspective, the following things are important :

Prelims level : Museum Grant Scheme

Mains level : Not Much


News

Museum Grant Scheme

  • Ministry of Culture provides financial assistance under the Scheme to the State Governments and Societies, Autonomous bodies, Local Bodies and Trusts registered under the Societies Act, for setting up new Museums.
  • It aims to strengthen and modernize the existing museums at the Regional, State and District level.

Funding pattern

  • The maximum amount of financial assistance which may be given would be 80% of the total project cost.
  • In case of museums in North-Eastern region including Sikkim the financial assistance would be 90% of the total project cost.
  • The remaining amount i.e. 20% of the project cost (in case of North Eastern region, 10% of the project cost), will have to be borne by the organization.
  • The organization may arrange the balance amount either from its own resources or may receive assistance through Corporate Social Responsibility.
  • There is no condition in the scheme for receiving assistance through Corporate Social Responsibility.
Historical and Archaeological Findings in News

[pib] LaQshya Initiative

Mains Paper 2 : Health & Education |

Note4Students

From UPSC perspective, the following things are important :

Prelims level : LaQshya Initiative

Mains level : Not Much


News

  • The Minister of State (Health and Family Welfare) informed about LaQshya Initiative in the Lok Sabha.

LaQshya Initiative

  • Government of India has launched “LaQshya” (Labour room Quality improvement Initiative) to improve quality of care in labour room and maternity operation theatres in public health facilities.
  • Aim: To reduce preventable maternal and newborn mortality, morbidity and stillbirths associated with the care around delivery in Labour room and Maternity Operation Theatre and ensure respectful maternity care.

Objectives

  • To reduce maternal and newborn mortality & morbidity due to hemorrhage, retained placenta, preterm, preeclampsia and eclampsia, obstructed labour, puerperal sepsis, newborn asphyxia, and newborn sepsis, etc.
  • To improve Quality of care during the delivery and immediate post-partum care, stabilization of complications and ensure timely referrals, and enable an effective two-way follow-up system.
  • To enhance satisfaction of beneficiaries visiting the health facilities and provide Respectful Maternity Care (RMC) to all pregnant women attending the public health facilities.

Following types of healthcare facilities have been identified for implementation of LaQshya program:

  1. Government medical college hospitals.
  2. District Hospitals & equivalent health facilities.
  3. Designated FRUs and high case load CHCs with over 100 deliveries/month ( 60 in hills and desert areas)
Health Sector – UHC, National Health Policy, Family Planning, Health Insurance, etc.

[pib] Witness Protection Scheme

Mains Paper 2 : Governance, Transparency & Accountability, Citizens Charters |

Note4Students

From UPSC perspective, the following things are important :

Prelims level : Not Much

Mains level : Mandate of the scheme


News

  • Minister of State for Home Affairs informed about the scheme in a written reply to question in the Rajya Sabha.

Witness Protection Scheme

  • Witness Protection Scheme, 2018 provides for protection of witnesses based on the threat assessment and protection measures.
  • It includes protection/change of identity of witnesses, their relocation, installation of security devices at the residence of witnesses, usage of specially designed Court rooms, etc.
  • As per Article 141/142 of the Constitution, the Witness Protection Scheme, 2018 endorsed in the said Judgment of the Supreme Court is binding on all Courts within the territory of India and enforceable in all States and Union Territories.

Other Provisions of the scheme

  1. Witness Protection Fund means the fund created for bearing the expenses incurred during the implementation of Witness Protection Order passed by the Competent Authority under this scheme;
  2. Witness Protection Order means an order passed by the Competent  Authority detailing the steps to be taken for ensuring the safety of witness from threats to his or his family member’s life, reputation or property.  *It also includes interim order, if any passed, during the pendency of Witness Protection Application;
  3. Witness Protection Cell means a dedicated Cell of State/UT Police or Central Police Agencies assigned the duty to implement the witness protection order. It shall be responsible for the security as per witness protection order.

Proposed Rights to be entitled to the Witness

  • Right to give evidence anonymously
  • Right to protection from intimidation and harm
  • Right to be treated with dignity and compassion and respect of privacy
  • Right to information of the status of the investigation and prosecution of the crime
  • Right to secure waiting place while at Court proceedings
  • Right to transportation and lodging arrangements

About Witness Protection Fund

  • The Scheme provides for a State Witness Protection Fund for meeting the expenses of the scheme.
  • This fund shall be operated by the Department/Ministry of Home under State/UT Government and shall comprise of the following:
  1. Budgetary  allocation  made  in  the  Annual  Budget  by  the State Government;
  2. Receipt of amount of costs imposed/ ordered to be deposited by the courts/tribunals in the Witness Protection Fund;
  3. Donations/ contributions from Philanthropist/ Charitable Institutions/ Organizations   and individuals permitted by the Government.
  4. Funds contributed under Corporate Social Responsibility.
Police Reforms – SC directives, NPC, other committees reports

[pib] Mahila Kisan Sashaktikaran Pariyojana (MKSP)

Mains Paper 2 : Laws, Institutions & Bodies Constituted For The Vulnerable Sections |

Note4Students

From UPSC perspective, the following things are important :

Prelims level : MKSP

Mains level : Feminization of Agriculture in India


News

  • As per Agriculture Census conducted at an interval of every five years by the Department of Agriculture, Cooperation and Farmers Welfare, the percentage of female operational holdings in the country have increased from 12.78 percent during 2010-11 to 13.78 percent during 2015-16.

Mahila Kisan Sashaktikaran Pariyojana (MKSP)

  • In line with the provisions of National Policy for Farmers (NPF) (2007), Ministry of Rural Development is already implementing a programme exclusively for women farmers namely MKSP.
  • It is a sub-component of Deendayal Antyodaya Yojana-National Rural Livelihood Mission (DAY-NRLM).
  • The primary objective of MKSP is to empower women by enhancing their participation in agriculture and to create sustainable livelihood opportunities for them.
  • Funding support to the tune of up to 60% (90% for North Eastern States) for such projects is provided by the Government of India.

Feminization of Agriculture in India

  • Rural women form the most productive work force in the economy of majority of the developing nations including India.
  • More than 80% of rural women are engaged in agriculture activities for their livelihoods.
  • About 20 per cent of farm livelihoods are female headed due to widowhood, desertion, or male emigration.
  • Agriculture support system in India strengthens the exclusion of women from their entitlements as agriculture workers and cultivators.
  • Most of the women-headed households are not able to access extension services, farmers support institutions and production assets like seed, water, credit, subsidy etc.
  • As agricultural workers, women are paid lower wage than men.
  • MKSP recognizes the identity of “Mahila” as “Kisan” and strives to build the capacity of women in the domain of agro-ecologically sustainable practices.
Women empowerment issues: Jobs,Reservation and education

[pib] Kisan Credit Cards for Fishermen

Mains Paper 3 : Inclusive Growth & Issues |

Note4Students

From UPSC perspective, the following things are important :

Prelims level : Kisan Credit Card Scheme

Mains level : Easy credit facilities for Farmers


News

  • The GoI has extended the facility of Kisan Credit Card (KCC) to fisheries and animal husbandry farmers to help them meet their working capital needs.

KCC facility for Fishermen

  • The KCC facility will help fisheries and animal husbandry farmers to meet their short term credit requirements of rearing of animals, poultry birds, fish, shrimp, other aquatic organisms and capture of fish.
  • Under this, for the existing KCC holders the credit limit is Rs. 3 lakh including animal husbandry and fisheries activities whereas the KCC holders for animal husbandry and fisheries have the credit limit of Rs. 2 lakh.
  • It would help them to meet their working capital requirements for animal husbandry and fisheries activities.
  • Under KCC facility, Interest subvention is available for animal husbandry and fisheries farmers @ 2% per annum at the time of disbursal of loan and additional interest subvention @ 3 % per annum in case of prompt repayment as Prompt Repayment Incentive.

Back2Basics

Kisan Credit Card Scheme

  • The Kisan Credit Card (KCC) scheme is a credit scheme introduced in August 1998 by Indian banks.
  • This model scheme was prepared by the National Bank for Agriculture and Rural Development (NABARD) on the recommendations of RV Gupta to provide term loans and agricultural needs.
  • Its objective is to meet the comprehensive credit requirements of the agriculture sector by giving financial support to farmers.
  • Participating institutions include all commercial banks, Regional Rural Banks, and state co-operative banks.
  • The scheme has short term credit limits for crops, and term loans.
  • Kisan Credit Card (KCC) offering credit to the farmers in two types viz, 1. Cash Credit 2. Term Credit ( for allied activities such as pump sets, land development, plantation, drip irrigation).

For additional reading, navigate to the page:

http://vikaspedia.in/agriculture/agri-credit/kisan-credit-card-scheme

Agricultural Marketing Reforms – eNAM, Model APMC Act, Eco Survey Reco, etc.

[pib] Scheme for Trans-disciplinary Research for India’s Developing Economy (STRIDE)

Mains Paper 2 : Health & Education |

Note4Students

From UPSC perspective, the following things are important :

Prelims level : STRIDE Scheme

Mains level : Trans-disciplinary Research in India


News

  • The University Grants Commission (UGC) has approved a new scheme – ‘Scheme for Trans-disciplinary Research for India’s Developing Economy’ (STRIDE).

STRIDE Scheme

  • STRIDE will provide support to research projects that are socially relevant, locally need-based, nationally important and globally significant.
  • It shall support research capacity building as well as basic, applied and transformational action research that can contribute to national prioritiers with focus on inclusive human development.
  • It shall support creation, development and integration of new ideas, concepts and practices for public good and strengthening civil society.
  • It will strengthen research culture and innovation in colleges and Universities and help students and faculty to contribute towards India’s developing economy with help of collaborative research.

 A move for Trans-disciplinary research

  • Trans-disciplinary research is a team effort of investigators from different disciplines to create new conceptual, theoretical, methodological innovations that integrates and transcends beyond discipline-specific approaches to address a common problem.
  • Trans-disciplinary research goes beyond mere production of knowledge and extends to the practical use of the knowledge outside academic endeavour.
  • In essence, it takes into consideration the societal impact of knowledge enunciating as what should be the main aim of research.
  • It creates unity of intellectual frameworks beyond the disciplinary perspectives and solve problems by going beyond the boundaries of disciplines to involve various stakeholders.
  • Trans-disciplinary research generates knowledge through use of multi and inter-disciplinary concepts and integrates new theories among science and society.

Objectives

  • To identify young talent, strengthen research culture, build capacity, and promote innovation and support trans-disciplinary research for India’s developing economy and national development.
  • To fund multi institutional network high-impact research projects in humanities and human sciences.

Components of the Scheme

Component-1

  • It will endeavour to identify the motivated young talents with research and innovation aptitude in universities and colleges.
  • It will provide research capacity building in diverse disciplines by mentoring, nurturing and supporting young talents to innovate pragmatic solutions for local, regional, national and global problems.
  • This component is open to all disciplines for grant upto 1 crore.

Component-2

  • It will be mainly to enhance problem solving skills with help of social innovation and action research to improve wellbeing of people and contribute for India’s developing economy.
  • Collaborations between universities, government, voluntary organizations and industries is encouraged under this scheme.
  • This component is open to all disciplines for grant upto 50 lakh – 1 crore.

Component-3

  • It will fund high impact research projects in the identified thrust areas inhumanities and human sciences through national network of eminent scientists from leading institutions.
  • Disciplines eligible for funding under this component include: Philosophy, History, Archaeology, Anthropology, Psychology, Liberal Arts, Linguistics, Indian Languages and Culture, Indian Knowledge Systems, Law, Education, Journalism, Mass Communication, Commerce, Management, Environment and Sustainable Development.
  • Grant available for this component is upto 1 crore for one HEI and upto 5 crores for multi institutional network.
  • To encourage high quality high impact research in humanities, there is a provision to identify experts and invite them to develop a proposal.
  • UGC is also proposing to provide a grant of Rs 2 lakh for developing proposals.
Higher Education – RUSA, NIRF, HEFA, etc.

National Warehousing Grid

Mains Paper 3 : Effects Of Liberalization On The Economy, Changes In Industrial Policy and their effects on Industrial Growth |

Note4Students

From UPSC perspective, the following things are important :

Prelims level : National Warehousing Grid

Mains level : Need for National Warehousing Grid


News

  • The government is likely to introduce warehousing schemes at village and National level to build an efficient storage infrastructure.
  • A National Warehousing Grid along the National Highways may also be introduced in the Budget.

National Warehousing Grid

  • The Centre’s scheme aims at broad integration of the warehousing capacities in India.
  • Approximately 90% of the warehousing space is controlled by unorganised players, with small warehouses of less than 10,000 sq ft area.
  • An action plan has already been approved by the Centre on sectoral basis for the construction of steel silos with a capacity of 100 lakh metric tonnes in PPP mode for modernizing storage infrastructure and improving shelf life of stored food grains.

Why need such scheme?

  • Practically, much of the country’s warehousing capacity outside of the agri sector is in the unorganised sector, with small warehouses of less than 10,000 sq ft area.
  • Currently, of the total warehousing space of about 180 million sq ft in the country, the industrial segment accounts for about 86% and the agricultural sector the rest 14%, according to NITI statistics.
  • Two-thirds of the warehousing capacity in the food storage segment is owned by the public sector.
  • Apart from conventional storing services, India’s warehousing capacity is increasingly being used to offer value-added services such as the consolidation and breaking up of cargo, packaging, labelling, bar coding and reverse logistics.

Plugging deficiencies

  • The project is aimed at plugging deficiencies given that India’s current cold storage capacity at 25 MT is barely sufficient for 10% of the fruits and vegetables produced in the country.
  • The lack of adequate storage infrastructure is an important reason for the high cost of food products and wastage.
  • Nearly 60% of the modern warehousing capacity in India is concentrated in top six cities, namely Ahmedabad, Bengaluru, Chennai, Mumbai, Delhi-NCR and Pune, with Hyderabad and Kolkata being the other major markets, according to Care Ratings.
  • This trend is driven by the concentration of industrial activity and presence of sizeable urban population around these clusters.

Beneficiaries

  • The prime beneficiaries of the new wave of growth in warehousing include peripheral locations of Tier 1 and Tier 2 cities.
  • Much of the fresh investments would go into creating storage facilities for retail and consumer goods.

Forthcoming challenges

  • The primary challenge that India’s warehousing market currently faces is acquisition of a feasible land parcel, given that land cost constitutes the largest component of a warehousing project.
  • While rental values that a warehouse owner can charge are primarily driven by demand and supply factors, land prices are inherently dependent on multiple factors like development control regulations, infrastructure development and the best alternative usage of land.
Industrial Sector Updates – Industrial Policy, Ease of Doing Business, etc.

[pib] Education Quality Upgradation and Inclusion Programme (EQUIP)

Mains Paper 2 : Health & Education |

Note4Students

From UPSC perspective, the following things are important :

Prelims level : EQUIP Programme

Mains level : Promoting India as a global study destination


News

  • The HRD Ministry has finalized and released a five-year vision plan named Education Quality Upgradation and Inclusion Programme (EQUIP) .
  • This has been done in accordance with the decision of the PM for finalizing a five-year vision plan for each Ministry.

Education Quality Upgradation and Inclusion Programme (EQUIP)

  • The Expert Groups drawn from senior academicians, administrators and industrialists, have suggested more than 50 initiatives that would transform the higher education sector completely.
  • The Groups have set the following goals for higher education sector:
  1. Double the Gross Enrolment Ratio (GER) in higher education and resolve the geographically and socially skewed access to higher education institutions in India
  2. Upgrade the quality of education to global standards
  3. Position at least 50 Indian institutions among the top-1000 global universities
  4. Introduce governance reforms in higher education for well-administered campuses
  5. Accreditation of all institutions as an   assurance of quality
  6. Promote Research & Innovation ecosystems for positioning India in the Top-3 countries in the world in matters of knowledge creation
  7. Double the employability of the students passing out of higher education
  8. Harness education technology for expanding the reach and improving pedagogy
  9. Promote India as a global study destination
  10. Achieve a quantum increase in investment in higher education
Higher Education – RUSA, NIRF, HEFA, etc.

Pilot Scheme for distribution of Fortified Rice through PDS

Mains Paper 3 : Awareness In The Fields Of It, Space, Computers, Robotics, Nano-Technology, Bio-Technology |

Note4Students

From UPSC perspective, the following things are important :

Prelims level : BIofortification


News

  • A centrally-sponsored pilot scheme on fortification of rice and its dispersal through PDS has been approved by the government.

About the Scheme

  • The Department of Food and Public Distribution has approved the “Centrally Sponsored Pilot Scheme on fortification of rice and its distribution through Public Distribution System.”
  • Financial assistance of up to 90 per cent in case of North-Eastern, Hilly and Island States and up to 75 per cent in case of rest of the States has been extended.
  • Further, the Govt. has also advised all states and UTs especially those states and UTs that are distributing wheat flour through PDS to distribute fortified wheat flour through PDS.

How it is finalized?

  • The Recommended Dietary Allowance for Indian population is finalized by the National Institute of Nutrition (NIN-ICMR) based on the recommendations of the Expert Group.
  • It is based on individual variability and nutrient bio-availability from the habitual diet.

Back2Basics

Fortification

  • Fortification is a complementary strategy to fight malnutrition.
  • Under this, there is addition of key vitamins and minerals such as iron, iodine, zinc, vitamins A & D to staple foods such as rice, wheat, oil, milk and salt are done to improve their nutritional content.
  • This is done to improve the nutritional quality of the food supply and provide a public health benefit with minimal risk to health.
  • Biofortification is the process by which the nutritional quality of food crops is improved through agronomic practices, conventional plant breeding, or modern biotechnology.
  • It differs from conventional fortification in that Biofortification aims to increase nutrient levels in crops during plant growth rather than through manual means during processing of the crops.

How is Rice fortified?

  • Rice can be fortified by adding a micronutrient powder to the rice that adheres to the grains or spraying of the surface of ordinary rice grains with a vitamin and mineral mix to form a protective coating.
  • Rice can also be extruded and shaped into partially precooked grain-like structures resembling rice grains, which can then be blended with natural polished rice.
  • Rice kernels can be fortified with several micronutrients, such as iron, folic acid and other B-complex vitamins, vitamin A and zinc.

Regulating Fortification

  • FSSAI has formulated a comprehensive regulation on fortification of foods namely ‘Food Safety and Standards (Fortification of Foods) Regulations, 2016’.
  • These regulations set the standards for food fortification and encourage the production, manufacture, distribution, sale and consumption of fortified foods.
  • The regulations also provide for specific role of FSSAI in promotion for food fortification and to make fortification mandatory.
  • WHO recommends fortification of rice with iron, vitamin A and folic acid as a public health strategy to improve the iron status of population wherever rice is a staple food.

About Food Fortification Resource Centre (FFRC)

  • The FFRC is established under India’s government department that regulates food ie FSSAI in collaboration with TATA Trusts.
  • The FFRC works dedicatedly to provide essential support to stakeholders like relevant government ministries, food businesses, development partners etc., promoting and supporting food fortification efforts across India.

 

 
Health Sector – UHC, National Health Policy, Family Planning, Health Insurance, etc.

‘One Nation One Ration Card’ Scheme

Mains Paper 2 : Government Scheme/Policies |

Note4Students

From UPSC perspective, the following things are important :

Prelims level : One Nation One Ration Card Scheme

Mains level : Read the attached story


News

One Nation One Ration Card” scheme

  • The union govt. is working on a plan to launch a “One Nation One Ration Card” scheme for beneficiaries to access to any PDS shop across the country.
  • The scheme is aimed at providing freedom to beneficiaries, as they will not be tied to one PDS shop.
  • It aims to reduce their dependence on shop owners and curtail corruption.
  • The biggest beneficiaries will be migrant workers who move to other states to seek better job opportunities.

Plan of action

  • PoS machines are available at all PDS shops in various states, like Andhra Pradesh, Haryana and a few other others, but 100 per cent availability is required to provide the benefit across the country.
  • The availability of PoS (Point of Sale) machines needs to be ensured at all PDS shops to implement the scheme.

Implementation

  • The Ministry of Consumer Affairs, Food and Public Distribution will implement the scheme.
  • It will be subsumed under the Integrated Management of PDS (IMPDS), under which beneficiaries can avail their share of food grain from any district.
  • Such a scheme is operational in Andhra Pradesh, Gujarat, Haryana, Jharkhand, Karnataka, Kerala, Maharashtra, Rajasthan, Telangana and Tripura.

Importance of the scheme

  • The work done by the PDS  fair price shops is a lifeline for 81 crore beneficiaries across the country.
  • There is 612 lakh tonnes of food grains stored in warehouses of FCI, CWC, SWCs and private godowns for distribution annually.
  • Around 78 per cent of Fair Price Shops in India have so far been automated by installing electronic PoS devices.
Food Procurement and Distribution – PDS & NFSA, Shanta Kumar Committee, FCI restructuring, Buffer stock, etc.

Govt. to start Jal Shakti Abhiyan for 255 water-stressed districts

Mains Paper 2 : Governance, Transparency & Accountability, Citizens Charters |

Note4Students

From UPSC perspective, the following things are important :

Prelims level : Jal Shakti Abhiyan

Mains level : Ensuring safe drinking water for all


News

  • The Centre is set to initiate the Jal Shakti Abhiyan to ramp up rainwater harvesting and conservation efforts in 255 water-stressed districts of the country.

Jal Shakti Abhiyan

Effective monitoring

  • The Jal Shakti Abhiyan would aim to accelerate water harvesting, conservation and borewell recharge activities already being carried out under the MGNREGS and the Integrated Watershed Management Programme of the Rural Development Ministry.
  • Progress would be monitored in real time through mobile applications and an online dashboard at indiawater.gov.in.
  • Block and district-level water conservation plans would be drafted, and Kisan Vigyan Kendras would hold melas to promote better crop choices and more efficient water use for irrigation.
  • A major communications campaign on TV, radio, print, local and social media would be carried out, with celebrities mobilised to generate awareness for the campaign.
Water Management – Institutional Reforms, Conservation Efforts, etc.

[pib] Various loan schemes for weaker sections

Mains Paper 2 : Laws, Institutions & Bodies Constituted For The Vulnerable Sections |

Note4Students

From UPSC perspective, the following things are important :

Prelims level : Various schemes mentioned

Mains level : Credit facilities for EWS in India


News

  • In terms of RBI guidelines on Priority Sector Lending (PSL) a target of 40 percent of Adjusted Net Bank Credit (ANBC) or Credit Equivalent amount of Off-Balance Sheet Exposures (OBE), whichever is higher has been mandated for lending to the priority sector.
  • This has been mandated for all domestic Scheduled Commercial Banks and Foreign Banks with 20 branches and above.

Various schemes for benefitting poor people are as under:

Pradhan Mantri Mudra Yojana (PMMY)

  • It provides access to institutional finance to unfunded micro / small business units by extending loans upto Rs.10 lakh for manufacturing, processing, trading, services and activities allied to agriculture.
  • These loans are given by Commercial Banks, RRBs, Small Finance Banks, Cooperative Banks, MFIs and NBFCs.
  • The borrower can approach any of the lending institutions mentioned above or can apply online through its portal.

Pradhan Mantri Awas Yojana – Urban (PMAY-U)

  • The mission aims to provide assistance to all States/UTs in addressing the housing requirement of urban poor including EWS/ Low Income Group (LIG).
  • This scheme is converged with other schemes to ensure houses have a toilet, Saubhagya Yojana electricity connection, Ujjwala Yojana LPG gas connection, access to drinking water and Jan Dhan banking facilities, etc.

Central Sector Interest Subsidy Scheme (CSIS)

  • It is an unique Scheme which pivots around the vision that no student desiring to pursue higher education is denied of the opportunity if he/ she is financially poor.
  • This Scheme benefits all categories of EWS students for pursuing professional/ technical courses in lndia and intends to provide affordable higher education.
  • Under this scheme full interest subsidy on educational loans upto Rs 7.50 lakh is available during the period of moratorium on loans availed under the Indian Banks’ Association (IBA) Model Education Loan Scheme from Scheduled Banks.

Deendayal Antyodaya Yojana- National Rural Livelihoods Mission (DAY-NRLM)

  • It aims at promoting poverty reduction through building strong institutions of the poor, particularly women and enabling these institutions to access a range of financial services and livelihood services.
  • DAY-NRLM has a provision for interest subvention, to cover the difference between the Lending Rate of the banks and 7% per annum, on all credit availed by women Self Help Groups (SHGs)
  • It permits a maximum loan of Rs. 3 Lakh per SHG.
  • Further there is also provision of additional interest subvention of 3% for all prompt payee SHG accounts in selected 250 districts.

Deendayal Antyodaya Yojana – National Urban Livelihoods Mission (DAY-NULM)

  • It is a centrally sponsored scheme to reduce poverty and vulnerability of the urban poor households by enabling them to access gainful self-employment and skilled wage employment opportunities.

Differential Rate of Interest (DRI) Scheme

  • Under the DRI Scheme, banks provide finance up to ₹15,000/- at a concessional rate of interest of 4 percent per annum to the weaker sections of the community for engaging in productive and gainful activities.
Financial Inclusion in India and Its Challenges

‘Jal Hi Jiwan’ Scheme in Haryana

Mains Paper 2 : Government Scheme/Policies |

Note4Students

From UPSC perspective, the following things are important :

Prelims level : Jal Hi Jivan Scheme

Mains level : Groundwater management


News

  • Farmers in paddy-growing districts of Haryana have agreed to opt for maize and other alternatives after the state government offered major incentives for crop diversification.
  • This was done in an attempt to address the rapidly falling groundwater levels in the state.

 ‘Jal Hi Jiwan’ Scheme

  • The ‘Jal Hi Jiwan’ scheme envisages diversification of 50,000 hectare area of non-basmati rice mainly into maize, pulses or oilseeds to achieve the target.
  • Apart from seeds and financial assistance of Rs 5,000 per hectare, the farmer’s share of crop insurance will also be borne by the government.
  • After it emerged that the groundwater level has depleted in 76% area of the state, Haryana launched the pilot scheme.
  • The objective of the scheme is to replace paddy with maize in seven major paddy-growing districts: Ambala, Yamuna Nagar, Kurukshetra, Kaithal, Jind, Karnal and Sonipat.
  • According to the state Agriculture and Farmers Welfare Department, the farmers have formally registered for alternative plantations over 40,000 hectares of land.

Why substitute Paddy Cultivation?

  • Paddy is not suitable for Haryana because it puts tremendous stress on the groundwater due to its water-intensive nature.
  • According to agriculture department officials, 1 kg of rice requires 2,000-5,000 litres of water, depending upon its variety, soil type and time of sowing.
  • With paddy production jumping, the number of tubewells in the state also shot up from a few thousand to 8 lakh, resulting in overdrawing of groundwater.
  • Experts also say that it has exhausted the soil health while the crops like arhar, pulses and oilseeds require minimum fertilizers.
  • If farmers opt for maize in place of rice, the water saved per hectare will be about 14 lakh litres per crop season.

Rise in dark zones

  • These are zones where the water table has fallen to a critical level, and the rate at which water is being drawn is much more than the pace at which it is being recharged.
  • In the last two decades, the farmers have pumped out much as 74% of the groundwater reservoirs.
  • If over-exploitation of the water continues, parts of Haryana will turn into a desert in the coming years.

First such scheme ever

  • Haryana is the first state to implement water-saving scheme involving sowing maize as an alternative crop.
Water Management – Institutional Reforms, Conservation Efforts, etc.

[pib] Establishment of ‘Gokul Grams’ Under Rashtriya Gokul Mission

Mains Paper 3 : Economics Of Animal-Rearing |

Note4Students

From UPSC perspective, the following things are important :

Prelims level : Rashtriya Gokul Mission

Mains level : Promoting indigenous breeds for animal husbandry



News

  • Funds have been mobilized under Rashtriya Gokul Mission (RGM) for setting up of 21 Gokul Grams as Integrated Cattle Development Centres.

About Rashtriya Gokul Mission

  • The RGM has been launched by the Government for conservation and development of indigenous breeds in a focused and scientific manner.
  • The mission envisages establishment of integrated cattle development centres „Gokul Grams to develop indigenous breeds including upto 40% nondescript breeds.
  • Rashtriya Gokul Mission is a focussed project under National Programme for Bovine Breeding and Dairy Development, with an outlay of Rs 500 crore during for three years from 2014-15 to 2016-17.

Objectives

  1. Development and conservation of indigenous breeds
  2. Breed improvement programme for indigenous cattle breeds to improve their genetic makeup and increase the stock;
  3. Enhancement of milk production and productivity;
  4. Upgradation of nondescript cattle using elite indigenous breeds like Gir, Sahiwal, Rathi, Deoni, Tharparkar, Red Sindhi and
  5. Distribution of disease free high genetic merit bulls for natural service.

Implementing Agency:

  • Rashtriya Gokul Mission is being implemented through “State Implementing Agencies (SIA) viz Livestock Development Boards.
  • All Agencies having a role in indigenous cattle development are “Participating Agencies” like CFSPTI, CCBFs, ICAR, Universities, Colleges, NGO‟s, Cooperative Societies.

Gokul Gram

  • These are Indigenous Cattle Centres and will act as Centres for development of Indigenous Breeds.
  • They’ll be established- a) in native breeding tracts and b) near metropolitan cities for housing the urban cattle.
  • A dependable source for supply of high genetic breeding stock to the farmers in the breeding tract.
  • Self sustaining and will generate economic resources from sale of milk, organic manure, vermi-composting, urine distillates, and production of electricity from bio gas for in house consumption and sale of animal products.
  • Also function as state of the art in situ training centre for Farmers, Breeders.

For additional readings, navigate to the page:

Rashtriya Gokul Mission

Animal Husbandry, Dairy & Fisheries Sector – Pashudhan Sanjivani, E- Pashudhan Haat, etc

[pib] Janani Suraksha Yojana

Mains Paper 2 : Health & Education |

Note4Students

From UPSC perspective, the following things are important :

Prelims level : Janani Suraksha Yojana

Mains level : Maternity healthcare in India


News

Janani Suraksha Yojana (JSY)

  • Janani Suraksha Yojana (JSY) is a safe motherhood intervention under the National Rural Health Mission (NHM).
  • It is being implemented with the objective of reducing maternal and infant mortality by promoting institutional delivery among pregnant women.
  • The scheme is under implementation in all states and Union Territories (UTs), with a special focus on Low Performing States (LPS).
  • It was launched in April 2005 by modifying the National Maternity Benefit Scheme (NMBS).
  • The NMBS came into effect in August 1995 as one of the components of the National Social Assistance Programme (NSAP).
  • The scheme was transferred from the Ministry of Rural Development to the Department of Health & Family Welfare during the year 2001-02.

Various measures under JSY

  • The scheme focuses on the poor pregnant woman with special dispensation for States having low institutional delivery rates namely the States of UP, Uttaranchal, Bihar, Jharkhand, MP, Chhattisgarh, Assam, Rajasthan, Orissa and J&K.
  • While these States have been named as Low Performing States (LPS), the remaining States have been named as High performing States (HPS).
  • Exclusion criteria of age of mother as 19 years or above and up to two children only for home and institutional deliveries under the JSY have been removed.
  • Eligible mothers are entitled to JSY benefit regardless of any age and any number of children.
  • BPL pregnant women, who prefer to deliver at home, are entitled to a cash assistance of Rs 500 per delivery regardless of age of women and the number of children.
  • States are encouraged to accredit private health facilities for increasing the choice of delivery care institutions.
Health Sector – UHC, National Health Policy, Family Planning, Health Insurance, etc.

‘Nal Se Jal’ Yojana

Mains Paper 2 : Health & Education |

Note4Students

From UPSC perspective, the following things are important :

Prelims level : Nal Se Jal Scheme

Mains level : Ensuring safe drinking water for all


News

  • Hon’ble PM will soon launch Jal Se Nal Yojana in the entire country.

Nal Se Jal Yojana

  • Nodal Agency: Ministry of Jal Shakti
  • Aim: To provide piped drinking water to every rural home by 2024
  • It is a component of the government’s Jal Jivan Mission.

Why such scheme?

  • According to a 2018 NITI Aayog report, 600 million Indians face high to extreme water stress and about two lakh people die every year due to inadequate access to safe water.
  • By 2030, the country’s water demand is projected to be twice the available supply, implying severe water scarcity for hundreds of millions of people and an eventual ~6% loss in the country’s GDP.
  • Studies also show that 84% of rural homes have no access to piped water, with more than 70% of the country’s water contaminated.
Water Management – Institutional Reforms, Conservation Efforts, etc.

[pib] Swachh Bharat Mission impact on Groundwater

Mains Paper 2 : Government Scheme/Policies |

Note4Students

From UPSC perspective, the following things are important :

Prelims level : SBM

Mains level : SBM impact on water contamination


News

  • Swachhata has affected all aspects of the environment – be it groundwater, surface water, soil or air – as well as health and well-being of the communities in ODF regions as per the report published by UNICEF.

Environmental Impact study by UNICEF

  • Under the “Environmental impact of the SBM on Water, Soil, and Food” by UNICEF, groundwater samples were collected and studied from ODF and non-ODF villages of Odisha, Bihar and West Bengal.
  • The study found that, in terms of faecal contamination, non-ODF villages were, on average:
  1. 11.25 times more likely to have their groundwater sources contaminated (12.7 times more from contaminants traceable to humans alone)
  2. 1.13 times more likely to have their soil contaminated
  3. 1.48 times more likely to have food contaminated and 2.68 times more likely to have household drinking water contaminated.
  • The study findings indicated that these substantial reductions may potentially be attributed to the improvement in sanitation and hygiene practices.

IEC footprint study by Gates Foundation

  • IES stands for Information, Education and Communication.
  • The “Assessment of the reach and value of IEC activities under SBM (Grameen)” was conducted by Dalberg, supported by the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation.
  • It estimated the scale of IEC activities within the Mission and assessed associated monetary and in-kind costs, and outputs such as reach.
  • The study found that:
  1. SBM mobilized a spend equivalent worth INR 22,000 to 26,000 crores in monetary and non-monetary IEC activities.
  2. Of this spend equivalent, cash expenditure on IEC activities spent by the Government, private sector, and the development community was estimated to be between INR 3,500 – 4,000 crores.
  3. An average person living in rural India was exposed to between 2,500 – 3,300 SBM related messages over the last five years.
Swachh Bharat Mission

Pension scheme for small shopkeepers, retail traders

Mains Paper 2 : Government Scheme/Policies |

Note4Students

From UPSC perspective, the following things are important :

Prelims level : About the pension scheme

Mains level : Minimum assured pension for all


News

  • The newly-inducted Union Cabinet, in its first meeting, approved a mega pension scheme to provide a minimum assured pension of ₹3000 per month to all small shopkeepers and retail traders.

New Pension Scheme for small shopkeepers, retail traders

  • The new scheme is a part of PM universal social security programme.
  • Under the scheme, all shopkeepers, retail traders and self-employed persons are guaranteed a monthly pension amount of ₹3,000 once they attain the age of 60 years.
  • It aims at benefiting over 3 crore traders and shopkeepers.
  • The new scheme is a voluntary and contributory pension scheme on a 50:50 basis where a prescribed age-specific contribution shall be made by the beneficiary and a matching contribution by the central government.
  • For example if an individual contributes ₹100 per month, then the central government also contributes the equal amount as subsidy into subscriber’s pension account every month.

Beneficiaries of the scheme

  • All small shopkeepers and self-employed persons as well as the retail traders with GST turnover below ₹5 crore and age between 18-40 years can enroll for this scheme.
  • To make it easier for the trading community, minimal documentation is required to avail the scheme.
  • One needs the 12-digit Aadhaar card number and the bank account details for enrolling in the pension scheme.
  • Common people can enroll themselves through over 3.25 lakh common service centres spread across the country.

Equip Project

Mains Paper 2 : Health & Education |

Note4Students

From UPSC perspective, the following things are important :

Prelims level : EQUIP Project

Mains level : Promoting quality education in India



News

EQUIP Project

  • Equip stands for Education Quality Upgradation and Inclusion Programme.
  • The Ministry of HRD plans to launch this ambitious ₹1.5 lakh crore action plan to improve the quality and accessibility of higher education over the next five years.
  • The Centre would mobilise money from the marketplace through the Higher Education Financing Agency (HEFA).
  • The joint venture between the HRD Ministry and Canara Bank, set up in 2017, has been tasked with raising ₹1 lakh crore to finance infrastructure improvements in higher education by 2022.

Objectives of the project

The committees have drafted strategy to improve access to higher education, especially for underserved communities:

  • improve the gross enrolment ratio;
  • improve teaching and learning processes;
  • build educational infrastructure;
  • improve the quality of research and innovation;
  • use technology and online learning tools; and
  • work on accreditation systems, governance structures and financing.

A news NEP

  • This is being described as the implementation plan for the National Education Policy — a 2014 poll promise from the NDA.
  • The last NEP was released in 1986, with a revision in 1992.
Higher Education – RUSA, NIRF, HEFA, etc.