From UPSC perspective, the following things are important :
Prelims level : Legislative Councils
Mains level : Need for Legislative Councils
The Andhra Pradesh Assembly recently passed a resolution to abolish the state’s Legislative Council (LC).
- The LC or Vidhan Parishad is the upper house in those states that have a bicameral legislature; the lower house being the State Legislative Assembly.
- Its establishment is defined in Article 169 of the Constitution of India.
- Each Member of the State LC serves for a six-year term, with terms staggered so that the terms of one third of a State Legislative Council’s membership expire every two years.
- This arrangement parallels that for the Rajya Sabha, the upper house of the Parliament of India.
- Q member of LC must be a citizen of India, at least 30 years old, mentally sound, not an insolvent, and must be enrolled on the voters’ list of the state for which he or she is contesting an election.
- Under Article 171, a Council cannot have more than a third of the number of MLAs in the state, and not less than 40 members.
Representation in an LC
MLCs are chosen in the following manner:
- One third are elected by the members of local bodies such as municipalities, Gram panchayats, Panchayat samitis and district councils.
- One third are elected by the members of Legislative Assembly of the State from among the persons who are not members of the State Legislative Assembly.
- One sixth are nominated by the governor from persons having knowledge or practical experience in fields such as literature, science, arts, the co-operative movement and social service.
- One twelfth are elected by persons who are graduates of three years’ standing residing in that state.
- One twelfth are elected by persons engaged for at least three years in teaching in educational institutions within the state not lower than secondary schools, including colleges and universities.
Abolition of LC
- Article 169(1) of the Constitution allows Parliament to either create or abolish a Council in a state “if the Legislative Assembly of the State passes a resolution to that effect.
- The resolution must by a majority of the total membership of the Assembly and by a majority of not less than two-thirds of the members of the Assembly present and voting.
Councils in the Constitution
- Under Article 168, states can have either one or two Houses of legislature. Article 169 leaves the choice of having a Vidhan Parishad to individual states.
- The Constituent Assembly was divided on having a second chamber in the states.
- It was argued that a second House can help check hasty actions by the directly elected House, and also enable non-elected persons to contribute to the legislative process.
- However, it was also felt that some of the poorer states could ill afford the extravagance of two Houses.
- It has been pointed out that the Councils can be used to delay important legislation, and to park leaders who have not been able to win an election.
Councils in other states
- Besides Andhra Pradesh, five other states have Vidhan Parishads — Bihar (58 members), Karnataka (75), Maharashtra (78), Telangana (40), UP (100).
- Jammu and Kashmir had a Council until the state was bifurcated into the Union Territories of J&K and Ladakh.
- In 1986, the M G Ramachandran government in Tamil Nadu abolished the Council.
- The DMK government passed a law revives it, but the subsequent J Jayalalithaa-led government withdrew it after coming to power in 2010.
- The Odisha Assembly has passed a resolution for a Legislative Council. Proposals to create Councils in Rajasthan and Assam are pending in Rajya Sabha.