Bharat Emission Standards

What are the Bharat Stage Emission Standards? How do they control emissions? And what’s our Auto fuel policy?

Bharat Emission Standards

Green colour band for BS-VI 4W vehicles

Note4Students

From UPSC perspective, the following things are important :

Prelims level : BS norms

Mains level : BS norms

The Ministry of Road Transport and Highways (MoRTH) has issued an order mandating a coloured strip to identify four-wheeled BSVI vehicle.

Note important PM levels allowed under BS VI norms. Note how it is different from the earlier BS IV norm.

Details of the colour band

  • MoRTH has mandated a strip of green colour of 1 cm width on top of the existing sticker carrying details of registration for BS-VI.
  • Vehicles of any fuel type will carry the green strip irrespective of their original stickers i.e. for petrol or CNG which have a light blue colour sticker and a diesel vehicle which is of orange colour.
  • These stickers will now have a green strip of 1 cm on top for BS-VI, as mandated.

Back2Basics:  Bharat Stage Norms

Standard Reference Date of Implementation
Bharat Stage II Euro 2 1 April 2005
Bharat Stage III Euro 3 1 April 2010
Bharat Stage IV Euro 4 1 April 2017
Bharat Stage VI Euro 6 April 2020 with a mandate (proposed)

Minutes of BS-VI

  • Carmakers would have to put three pieces of equipment — a DPF (diesel particulate filter), an SCR (selective catalytic reduction) system, and an LNT (Lean NOx trap) — to meet stringent BS-VI norms, all at the same time.
  • This is vital to curb both PM (particulate matter) and NOx (nitrogen oxides) emissions as mandated under the BS-VI norms.

How is BS-VI Different from BS-IV?

  • The major difference between the existing BS-IV and forthcoming BS-VI norms is the presence of sulphur in the fuel.
  • While the BS-IV fuels contain 50 parts per million (ppm) sulphur, the BS-VI grade fuel only has 10 ppm sulphur content.
  • Also, the harmful NOx (nitrogen oxides) from diesel cars can be brought down by nearly 70%.
  • In the petrol cars, they can be reduced by 25%.
  • However, when we talk about air pollution, particulate matter like PM 2.5 and PM 10 are the most harmful components and the BS-VI will bring the cancer-causing particulate matter in diesel cars by a phenomenal 80%.

Bharat Emission Standards

[pib] L7 Quadricycle category for BS VI

Note4Students

From UPSC perspective, the following things are important :

Prelims level : BS norms

Mains level : Vehicular pollution and PM 2.5

The Ministry of Road Transport and Highways has issued a notification regarding the emission norms for L7 (Quadricycle) category for BS-VI.

Practice question for Mains:

Q. What are Bharat Stage Emission Standards (BSES)? Discuss how the early implementation of BS-VI norms will help curb vehicular pollution in India.

What is Quadricycle Vehicle verification?

  • The quadricycle is a European Union vehicle category for four-wheeled microcars, which allows these vehicles to be designed to less stringent requirements when compared to regular cars.
  • Quadricycles are defined by limitations in terms of weight, engine power and speed.
  • There are two categories of quadricycles: light quadricycles (L6e) and heavy quadricycles (L7e)

What are the new notified norms?

  • These norms are applicable from the date of notification.
  • This notification completes the process of BS-VI for all L, M and N category vehicles in India.
  • The emission norms are in line with EU with WMTC cycle.
  • The procedure for testing is laid down in Automotive Industry Standard (AIS) 137-Part 9.

What is the WMTC cycle?

  • The World Motorcycle Test Cycle (WMTC) is a system of driving cycles used to measure fuel consumption and emissions in motorcycles.
  • The methods are stipulated as part of the Global Technical Regulation established under the UN World Forum for Harmonization of Vehicle Regulations, also known as WP.29.

Back2Basics:  Bharat Stage Norms

Standard Reference Date of Implementation
Bharat Stage II Euro 2 1 April 2005
Bharat Stage III Euro 3 1 April 2010
Bharat Stage IV Euro 4 1 April 2017
Bharat Stage VI Euro 6 April 2020 with a mandate (proposed)

Minutes of BS-VI

  • Carmakers would have to put three pieces of equipment — a DPF (diesel particulate filter), an SCR (selective catalytic reduction) system, and an LNT (Lean NOx trap) — to meet stringent BS-VI norms, all at the same time.
  • This is vital to curb both PM (particulate matter) and NOx (nitrogen oxides) emissions as mandated under the BS-VI norms.

How is BS-VI Different from BS-IV?

  • The major difference between the existing BS-IV and forthcoming BS-VI norms is the presence of sulphur in the fuel.
  • While the BS-IV fuels contain 50 parts per million (ppm) sulphur, the BS-VI grade fuel only has 10 ppm sulphur content.
  • Also, the harmful NOx (nitrogen oxides) from diesel cars can be brought down by nearly 70%.
  • In the petrol cars, they can be reduced by 25%.
  • However, when we talk about air pollution, particulate matter like PM 2.5 and PM 10 are the most harmful components and the BS-VI will bring the cancer-causing particulate matter in diesel cars by a phenomenal 80%.

Bharat Emission Standards

Bharat Stage (BS) VI emission norms

Note4Students

From UPSC perspective, the following things are important :

Prelims level : BS VI compliant fuels

Mains level : BS norms

Oil marketing companies have informed that there will definitely be a marginal increase in retail prices of the fuels from April 1. Starting April 1, Bharat Stage (BS) VI emission norms come into force. This will be an upgrade on the currently prevalent BS-IV and BS-III norms.

Why rise in Oil prices?

  • In effect, as India moves up the BS scale, automobiles become cleaner and greener but fuel will go costly.
  • Oil refiners have invested heavily to upgrade their refineries to produce the cleaner, BS-VI compliant fuel.
  • The increase in the pump price of fuel will partially offset this cost that the oil marketing companies have paid.
  • In effect, consumers will have to pay a little extra for auto fuel that is cleaner, and which, ultimately, is expected to lead to cleaner air.

The BS norms

  • The BS emission standards are norms instituted by the Indian government to regulate the output of air pollutants from internal combustion engine equipment, including motor vehicles.
  • India has been following the European (Euro) emission norms, although with a time lag.
  • The more stringent the BS norm, lower is the tolerance for pollutants in automobile tailpipe emissions. Lower tailpipe emissions are the function of both more efficient engines, and cleaner fuels.

How is BS-VI fuel different from BS-IV fuel?

  • The main difference between BS-IV and BS-VI (which is comparable to Euro 6) is in the amount of sulphur in the fuel.
  • The lower the sulphur, the cleaner the fuel, so BS-VI fuel is essentially low-sulphur diesel and petrol.
  • BS-VI fuel is estimated to bring around an 80% reduction in sulphur content — from 50 parts per million (ppm) to 10 ppm.
  • Also NOx emissions from diesel cars are expected to come down by nearly 70% and, from cars with petrol engines, by 25%.

How will things change with the new fuels?

  • Cleaner fuel alone will not make a dramatic difference to air pollution.
  • For the full benefits to be experienced, the introduction of the higher grade fuel must go hand in hand with the rollout of BS-VI compliant vehicles as well.
  • While automakers will sell only BS-VI vehicles from April 1, all BS-IV vehicles sold before that date will stay on the road for as long as their registration is valid.
  • This, however, could be a concern because using BS-VI fuel in the current BS-IV engines (or conversely, running BS-VI engines on the current-grade fuel), may be both ineffective in curbing vehicular pollution, as well as damage the engine in the long run.

Back2Basics

History of BS norms in India

  • India introduced emission norms first in 1991, and tightened them in 1996, when most vehicle manufacturers had to incorporate technology upgrades such as catalytic converters to cut exhaust emissions.
  • Fuel specifications based on environmental considerations were notified first in April 1996, to be implemented by 2000, and incorporated in BIS 2000 standards.
  • Following the landmark Supreme Court order of April 1999, the Centre notified Bharat Stage-I (BIS 2000) and Bharat Stage-II norms, broadly equivalent to Euro I and Euro II respectively.
  • BS-II was for the National Capital Region and other metros; BS-I for the rest of India.
  • From April 2005, in line with the Auto Fuel Policy of 2003, BS-III and BS-II fuel quality norms came into existence for 13 major cities, and for the rest of the country respectively.
  • From April 2010, BS-IV and BS-III norms were put in place in 13 major cities and the rest of India respectively.
  • As per the Policy roadmap, BS-V and BS-VI norms were to be implemented from April 1, 2022, and April 1, 2024 respectively.
  • But in November 2015, the Road Transport Ministry issued a draft notification advancing the implementation of BS-V norms for new four-wheel vehicle models to April 1, 2019, and for existing models to April 1, 2020.

Bharat Emission Standards

ICAT Releases India’s 1st BS – VI Certificate in 2W Segment

Note4Students

From UPSC perspective, the following things are important :

Prelims level : BS VI Norms

Mains level : Bharat Emission Standards

  • International Centre for Automotive Technology (ICAT) released India’s first Type Approval Certificate (TAC) for Bharat Stage – VI norms for the two wheeler segment.
  • This is India’s first certification in the two wheeler segment for the BS – VI norms that are the latest emission norms as notified by the GoI.

Quick Recap: BS Norms

  • Bharat Stage norms are the automotive emission norms which the automotive manufacturers have to comply to sell their vehicles in India.
  • These norms are applicable to all two wheelers, three wheelers, four wheelers and construction equipment vehicles.
  • To curb growing menace of air pollution through the vehicles emission, the Govt. has decided to leapfrog from the exiting BS – IV norms to the BS- VI with effect from 1st April 2020.

How is BS VI Different from BS IV?

  • The major difference between the existing BS-IV and forthcoming BS-VI norms is the presence of sulphur in the fuel.
  • While the BS-IV fuels contain 50 parts per million (ppm) sulphur, the BS-VI grade fuel only has 10 ppm sulphur content.
  • Also, the harmful NOx from diesel cars can be brought down by nearly 70%. In the petrol cars, they can be reduced by 25%.
  • However, when we talk air pollution, particulate matter like PM 2.5 and PM 10 are the most harmful components and the BS VI will bring the cancer causing particulate matter in diesel cars by a phenomenal 80%.
  • Only those vehicles will be sold and registered in India from 1st April 2020 onwards, which comply to these norms.

About ICAT

  • ICAT is the premier testing and certification agency authorized by Ministry of Road Transport and Highways.
  • Aim: Providing testing and certification services to the vehicle and component manufacturers in India and abroad.
  • It has the latest equipment, facilities and capabilities to develop, validate, test and certify the engines and vehicles for the latest norms in the field of emission.
  • It tests for many other facilities like crash lab, NVH lab, EMC lab and test tracks.

Bharat Emission Standards – Everything that you want to know

 


 

Recently, govt. has decided to implement Bharat Standards VI norms April 1, 2020. This comes in the wake of pressure from Supreme Court to implement clean vehicular fuel norms soon amid concerns on rising air pollution especially in Delhi.

This policy is inline with our commitments at Paris Climate Change Conference as well as public sentiments against rising air pollution in the cities, especially metros.

These are norms instituted by the Govt of India to regulate the output of air pollutants from internal combustion engine equipment, including motor vehicles.

  • The standards and the timeline for implementation are set by Central Pollution Control Board under the Ministry of Environment & Forests and climate change.
  • The standards are based on European regulations were first introduced in 2000.

What is current status of emission norms?

Currently, BS IV norms are applicable in 33 cities in which the required grade of fuel is available.

In rest of India, we are still following BS III standards.


 


 

Let’s see a little background of its implementation

1991– India introduced the emission norms for the first time.

1996– The norms saw some tightening as govt. asked most vehicle manufacturers to incorporate catalytic converters to cut exhaust emissions.
Govt. also notified fuel specifications based on environmental considerations, which were to be implemented by 2000.

2000– Govt. notified BS-I and BS-II standards, which were equivalent to Euro I and Euro II respectively. <BS-II was for the NCR and BS-I for the rest of India>

2005BS-III and BS-II fuel quality norms came to be implemented. <BS-III for 13 major cities and BS-II for the rest of India>

2010 BS-IV and BS-III fuel quality norms were introduced. <BS-IV for 13 major cities and BS-III for the rest of India>

It works on a two-pronged strategy to control the air pollutant output.

  1. Reducing the Sulphur content in the fuel.
  2. At engine level, it augments some equipment which reduces emissions.

What does Auto Fuel Policy have to say?

Auto Fuel Policy 2003

  • It aims at addressing issues of vehicular emissions and vehicular technologies by applying fuel quality standards.
  • It encouraged the use of CNG/LPG fuel in cities affected by higher pollution levels.
  • It gives the timeline for adopting the Bharat Standards across the country:
    BS IV- 2017
    BS V- 2020
    BS VI- 2024

Recently, govt had constituted an Expert Committee under the Chairmanship of Shri Soumitra Choudhuri, to draft Auto Fuel Vision and Policy 2025.

Recommendations of Soumitra Choudhuri committee:

It presents the road map for auto fuel quality till 2025 for the country,taking into account the achievement under the last Auto Fuel Policy, emission reduction of in use vehicles, growth of vehicles and the supply and availability of fuels.

  • It recommended nationwide fuel standards to be BS-IV. It has proposed to move to BS V from 2020 and BS VI from 2024.
  • To upgrade refineries to produce BS-V petrol and diesel will need Rs.80,000 crore.
  • It recommended Special Fuel Upgradation Cess of 75 paise/litre on fuel to meet the cost.

Let’s analyse Bharat Standards vis-a-vis Euro Standards

BS-VI is equivalent to Euro VI. However, many western countries have already graduated to Euro VI.

But, India is following European emission norms with a time lag of  5 years.

What are the challenges in implementing BS VI norms?

Engine

Engine development firms have cited a technological challenge in implementing the changes.

They have cited that jumping directly to BS-VI norms would give them little time to design changes in their vehicles.

Why is it challenging for auto firms to implement it?

There are two critical components which needs a fitment in the engine. They would have to be adapted to India’s peculiar conditions, where running speeds are much lower than EU or US. Industry estimates of required investment to upgrade from BS-IV to BS-V are to the tune of Rs. 50000 crore.

  1. Diesel Particulate Filter– Its function is to remove particulate matter from diesel exhaust.
    ChallengeProblem is small cars with limited bonnet space would need major redesign to accommodate DPF. Temperature of 600 degrees Celsius is required to burn the soot in DPF, which is difficult to achieve in India due to low driving speeds.
  2. Selective Catalytic Reduction Module– It reduces oxides of Nitrogen.
    Challenge: It needs injection of Aqueous solution into the system, for which separate infrastructure is needed for countrywide supply.

Fuel

There are questions about the ability of the oil marketing companies to quickly upgrade fuel quality from BS-III and BS-IV standards to BS-VI.

The objective of upgradation to higher emission norms is defeated, if the uniform fuel is not available across the country.<This has been seen in reduced efficacy of engines of BS-IV vehicles, while taking inter-state travel>


 

Published with inputs from Pushpendra 
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Aditya Shukla
Aditya Shukla
1 year ago

Read in-depth article about BS-6 norms
https://www.autocurious.com/2020/02/bharat-stage-6.html?m=1