Bharat Emission Standards

Jun, 11, 2019

ICAT Releases India’s 1st BS – VI Certificate in 2W Segment


  • International Centre for Automotive Technology (ICAT) released India’s first Type Approval Certificate (TAC) for Bharat Stage – VI norms for the two wheeler segment.
  • This is India’s first certification in the two wheeler segment for the BS – VI norms that are the latest emission norms as notified by the GoI.

Quick Recap: BS Norms

  • Bharat Stage norms are the automotive emission norms which the automotive manufacturers have to comply to sell their vehicles in India.
  • These norms are applicable to all two wheelers, three wheelers, four wheelers and construction equipment vehicles.
  • To curb growing menace of air pollution through the vehicles emission, the Govt. has decided to leapfrog from the exiting BS – IV norms to the BS- VI with effect from 1st April 2020.

How is BS VI Different from BS IV?

  • The major difference between the existing BS-IV and forthcoming BS-VI norms is the presence of sulphur in the fuel.
  • While the BS-IV fuels contain 50 parts per million (ppm) sulphur, the BS-VI grade fuel only has 10 ppm sulphur content.
  • Also, the harmful NOx from diesel cars can be brought down by nearly 70%. In the petrol cars, they can be reduced by 25%.
  • However, when we talk air pollution, particulate matter like PM 2.5 and PM 10 are the most harmful components and the BS VI will bring the cancer causing particulate matter in diesel cars by a phenomenal 80%.
  • Only those vehicles will be sold and registered in India from 1st April 2020 onwards, which comply to these norms.

About ICAT

  • ICAT is the premier testing and certification agency authorized by Ministry of Road Transport and Highways.
  • Aim: Providing testing and certification services to the vehicle and component manufacturers in India and abroad.
  • It has the latest equipment, facilities and capabilities to develop, validate, test and certify the engines and vehicles for the latest norms in the field of emission.
  • It tests for many other facilities like crash lab, NVH lab, EMC lab and test tracks.
Oct, 25, 2018

SC bans sale of BS-IV vehicles from 2020

Image result for bharat stage emission norms


Mains Paper 3: Environment | Conservation, environmental pollution and degradation, environmental impact assessment

From UPSC perspective, the following things are important:

Prelims level: Bharat Stage Emission standards

Mains level: Need of regulating rising air pollution across India


No sale of BS-IV vehicles

  1. The Supreme Court has banned the sale and registration of motor vehicles conforming to the emission standard Bharat Stage-IV in the entire country from April 1, 2020
  2. Bharat Stage (BS) emission norms are standards instituted by the government to regulate the output of air pollutants from motor vehicles
  3. SC quoted that India has the dubious distinction of having 15 out of the 20 most polluted cities in the world and thus such measure was necessary
  4. The problem of pollution is not limited to the NCR of Delhi but it is a problem which has engulfed the entire country especially the major cities
  5. BSVI compliant vehicles are going to be more expensive than BSIV compliant vehicles and people have a tendency to buy cheaper vehicle(s) even from a neighbouring city

Shift to BS-VI norms

  1. The country will have to shift to the cleaner Bharat- VI fuel from April 1, 2020
  2. The BS-IV norms have been enforced across the country since April 2017
  3. In 2016, the Centre had announced the country would skip the BS-V norms altogether and adopt BS-VI norms by 2020
Jul, 06, 2018

[pib] ICAT releases First BS-VI engine certificate


Mains Paper 3: Environment | Conservation, environmental pollution and degradation, environmental impact assessment

From UPSC perspective, the following things are important:

Prelims level: BS emission norms

Mains level: India’s policy measures to curb vehicular pollution


Volvo Eicher to receive first commercial BS VI Certificate

  1. ICAT has completed the first BS-VI certification for a heavy-duty engine model for M/s Volvo Eicher Commercial Vehicle Limited.
  2. The engine has been developed and manufactured indigenously by Volvo Eicher in India.
  3. The successful completion of the compliance test of the engine, much ahead of the implementation date of 1 April 2020, gives sufficient time for product stabilization in terms of making it more robust and cost competitive for the end consumers.

Why BS VI?

  1. The pro-active approach from the Government of India has made the country leapfrog from the conventional BS-IV to directly adopt BS-VI emission norms as the next level for regulatory framework in India.
  2. The BS-VI emission standards are much more elaborate in their scope and integrate substantial changes to existing emission standards ensuring cleaner products to the consumer.
  3. Besides the more stringent limits on the gaseous emission components, the particulate matter (PM) limits have also been significantly reduced along with the introduction of particle number (PN) limits.

International Centre for Automotive Technology (ICAT)

  1. The International Centre for Automotive Technology (ICAT) is a division of NATRiP implementation society (NATIS), under the administrative control of the Ministry of Heavy Industries & Public Enterprises, Government of India.
  2. ICAT is the first of new world-class centers established under the National Automotive Testing and R&D Infrastructure Project (NATRiP) with the main objective of carrying out Research & Development besides extending homologation facilities in the field of Automotive Engineering.
  3. ICAT is one of the prime testing agencies recognized by the Government of India as one of the accredited ‘Type Approval and Homologation’ agencies in India under Central Motor Vehicle Rules (CMVR).
  4. It has also been recognized as Scientific and Industrial Research Organization (SIRO) by the Department of Scientific and Industrial Research (DSIR), since Feb 2010, by BIS for Tyre Testing, Safety Glasses and by Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB) for emission and noise testing of generator sets.


Bharat Emission Standards

  1. Bharat stage emission standards (BSES) are emission standards instituted by the Government of India to regulate the output of air pollutants from internal combustion engines and Spark-ignition engines equipment, including motor vehicles
  2. The standards and the timeline for implementation are set by the Central Pollution Control Board under the Ministry of Environment & Forests and climate change
  3. The standards, based on European regulations were first introduced in 2000
  4. Bharat Stage IV emission norms have been in place since April 2010 and it has been enforced for entire country since April 2017
  5. In 2016, the Indian government announced that the country would skip the BS-V norms altogether and adopt BS-VI norms by 2020
  6. While the norms help in bringing down pollution levels, it invariably results in increased vehicle cost due to the improved technology & higher fuel prices
Sep, 20, 2016

Centre sends BS-V auto emission norms for a 'six'

  1. Context: Application of BS-VI emission norms
  2. The Centre has notified the Bharat Stage (BS)-VI emission standards for two-wheelers and four-wheelers from April 2020 across the country
  3. With this, the government has decided to skip the BS-V emission standards and move directly to BS-VI from the BS-IV norms currently being followed in various cities
  4. Automobile makers have urged the government to make available the testing BS-VI compliant fuel a year sooner across the country
  5. The Ministry of Road Transport and Highways has given the Union Petroleum Ministry four years to make BS-VI fuels available to auto companies
  6. Oil companies will be investing more than Rs.60,000 crore towards BS-VI fuels

Discuss: What are Bharat Stage norms? What will be the impact of implementing BS-VI norms by skipping BS-V on different sectors of economy & environment?

Mar, 22, 2016

BS-VI rules for oil firms may be relaxed

  1. Context: Govt intends to relax fuel specifications in BS-VI norms for oil refineries
  2. Benefit: It will enable them achieve a higher output
  3. Counter: Automobile industry has argued that it will not yield the desired emission result
  4. It will also compromise the fuel efficiency, safety and durability of vehicle
Jan, 07, 2016

Govt. to implement BS-VI norms by 2020

Petroleum Ministry will spend Rs.30,000 crore for upgrading refineries to implement the clean fuel technology.

  1. The government, in a move to fight pollution, will implement Bharat Standard (BS)-VI emission norms by April 1, 2020.
  2. The minister urged automobile manufacturers, who had opposed an early deadline to implement the norms due to financial burden, to co-operate.
  3. The decision was taken a day after the Supreme Court pressed for implementing clean vehicular fuel norms soon amid concerns on rising air pollution especially in Delhi.
  4. Supreme Court had asked the government to implement BS-VI norms earlier than the April 2021 deadline fixed by the Union government.
  5. The apex court also ordered shutting down more entry points at the national capital border for heavy commercial vehicles not meant for Delhi.
Dec, 31, 2015

Two-wheelers face stricter emission norms

  1. The Union govt will soon issue a draft notification for stricter emission standards for two-wheelers.
  2. Two-wheelers will need to upgrade to Euro-V and Euro-VI emission standards from 2020 and 2022 respectively.
  3. It has been observed that two-wheelers are more polluting than the four-wheelers
  4. The two-wheelers account for 75% of the total vehicular population of the country.
Dec, 31, 2015

Government’s clean fuel drive in reverse gear

  1. The Ministry of Road Transport and Highways is pushing to implement the clean fuel technology by the deadline of 2019.
  2. But, the Ministry of Petroleum expressed their inability to comply with the early deadline to implement the clean fuel technology.
  3. However, it is agreed to take on a more challenging task of compressing the timeline due to deteriorating air quality.
  4. The Centre may set the new deadlines for implementation of Euro-V emission standards.
Dec, 30, 2015

Govt. to notify Euro V & VI norms soon

Amid concerns over the rising air pollution, the Union government is going to notify norms soon for vehicles to shift to clean fuels under Euro V and VI emission standards.

  1. The introduction of clean fuels under Euro V and VI standards will be done in phases.
  2. According to the draft, old vehicles will need to switch to Euro V and Euro VI norms from April 1, 2019 and April 1, 2021 respectively.
  3. The new norms are planned to be introduced in new vehicles from 2020 and 2022.
  4. At present, BS-IV auto fuels are being supplied in over 30 cities, and the rest of the country has BS-III fuels.
  5. Supreme Court has banned registration of diesel cars and SUVs with 2000 CC engine capacities in the Delhi and the National Capital Region till March 31, 2016.
Oct, 30, 2015

Oil Minister confirms BS-VI fuel rollout target of 2020

India aims to implement introduction of the cleaner Bharat Stage-VI fuel in the country by 2020.

  1. The earlier plan was to implement BS-V by 2020 and BS-VI by 2024.
  2. The Petroleum Ministry is planning to skip BS-V and directly implement BS-VI standards by 2020.
  3. The technology in BS-VI engines is substantially different from that in BS-V engines making it unviable to skip the BS-V stage entirely.
Mar, 12, 2015

Saumitra Chaudhuri Committee for Auto fuel vision policy 2025 (2/2)

  1. Saumitra’s report touched on – Bharat norms (next stage implementation), Taxation issues & Alternative fuels. Let’s study a few of the fuels.
  2. Methanol – is readily biodegradable, can be used directly or by blending with petrol, is already used in racing cars of China.
  3. Ethanol – burns cleaner and burns more completely than petrol, is an organic solvent, can be derived from Sugar cane juice and molasses.
  4. Hydrogen Fuel – Ministry of New and Renewable Energy (MNRE)’s Green Initiatives for Future Transport (GIFT). It has vision-2020 for Hydrogen.

    Discuss: Ethanol as a fuel is an interesting case study in Brazil. Also, while we are at it – do revise the 4 categories of bio-fuels and their differences. 


Mar, 12, 2015

Saumitra Chaudhuri Committee for Auto fuel vision policy 2025 (1/2)

  1. In the last two flashcards, we talked about carbon tax. Let’s take a step forward to the recommendations given by a former Planning Commission member.
  2. In India, we follow Euro norms under the label “Bharat stage” norms. This defines the maximum limit of pollutant that a vehicle can emit.
  3. Recommended nationwide fuel standards to be BS-4. Upgrading refineries to produce Euro-V equivalent petrol and diesel will need ~Rs.80,000 crore.
  4. Cost can be met by a Special Fuel Upgradation Cess of 75 paise per litre on fuel. BS-6 emission norms are expected by 2024.

    Discuss: What are the parameters of Bharat Stage or Euro norms? Go to the 2nd part of the same series.

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