Insolvency and Bankruptcy Code

Aug, 13, 2018

More banks report tightening of credit standards, shows survey


Mains Paper 2: Governance | Government policies and interventions for development in various sectors and issues arising out of their design and implementation.

From UPSC perspective, the following things are important:

Prelims level: Not Much

Mains level: The newscard discusses measures adopted by banks to reduce NPAs.


Cautioned over NPAs

  1. A survey conducted by FICCI and Indian Banks’ Association (IBA) showed more respondents claiming they had tightened credit standards during January-June 2018, the period in which survey was conducted.
  2. 67% respondents among participating banks have reported tightening of standards, steeply increasing from 28% in the last round of the survey.
  3. A total of 22 public sector, private sector and foreign banks participated in the survey, which is conducted twice a year. These banks together represent 64% of the banking industry, as classified by asset size.
  4. This round has been conducted at a time when NPAs have shot past the Rs. 10-lakh crore marks and continue to rise.

IBC effect

  1. The survey noted that with stressed assets rising, banks have generally adopted a cautious approach in lending, to prevent fresh slippages.
  2. As was the case in the previous round of the survey, 59% of the respondent banks reported a rise in NPAs in the current round of the survey.
  3. Infrastructure, metals and engineering goods were the key sectors reported with the highest NPAs. More than two-thirds of the respondents have cited these as sectors with high NPAs.
  4. At the same time, most participating banks agreed that the Insolvency and Bankruptcy Code (IBC) had made the recovery process faster and improved the recovery position of banks.
  5. To improve the resolution rate, bankers suggested strengthening of the judiciary, enhancing capacity, empowerment of local level government officials, among other suggestions.
  6. They also said that extension of the moratorium beyond 270 days for any reason should not be permitted.
Aug, 08, 2018

Govt. panel suggests amending Passport Act to prevent borrowers from fleeing country


Mains Paper 2: Governance | Important aspects of governance, transparency and accountability

From UPSC perspective, the following things are important:

Prelims level: Not Much

Mains level: Preventing bank fraudsters and other offenders fleeing the country


Amending Passport Act

  1. A government panel has recommended amending the Passport Act to prevent borrowers from fleeing the country.
  2. If the recommendations are accepted, it will be a step towards ensuring that large borrowers are held accountable for non-payment of loans to banks and cannot flee the country without paying their dues.
  3. The recommendations include that over a reasonably prescribed limit, wherever there is a financial risk in a particular (loan) account, the borrower will be asked to participate in the resolution of the account, and stop them from fleeing the country.
  4. The government will prescribe a threshold for the loan default, beyond which the lenders will be empowered to alert enforcement agencies as per the provisions in law.

Other recent measures

  1. The government has already enacted the Fugitive Economic Offenders Law to ensure that the fugitives return to the country to face prosecution.
  2. The law empowers confiscation of all assets both within and outside the country for all offences where the monetary value of the offence exceeds ₹100 crore.

What data says about offenders?

  1. According to data collated by the external affairs ministry, 28 Indians involved in financial irregularities had fled the country in the period between 2015 and 30 June 2018.
  2. The list was compiled by the Central Bureau of Investigation and Enforcement Directorate (ED), and includes names like Mallya, Nirav Modi and his brother Neeshal Modi, Choksi and Lalit Modi.

About the Panel

  1. The government panel is headed by Rajiv Kumar, secretary, Department of Financial Services in the ministry of finance.
  2. Other members of the panel include representatives from Enforcement Directorate, Central Bureau of Investigation, Reserve Bank of India, Home ministry and ministry of external affairs.
  3. The panel was set up after increasing instances of bank frauds were unearthed, with enforcement agencies unable to prevent the defaulters and fraudsters from fleeing the country.
Jul, 19, 2018

[op-ed snap] Explaining the Fugitive Economic Offenders Ordinance


Mains Paper 2: Governance | Important aspects of governance, transparency and accountability, e-governance- applications, models, successes, limitations, and potential

From UPSC perspective, the following things are important:

Prelims level: Read the attached story

Mains level: Laws to prevent economic frauds


Who is a fugitive economic offender?

  1. Under the Fugitive Economic Offenders Ordinance, promulgated by the President in April, a fugitive economic offender is any individual against whom a warrant for arrest in relation to a scheduled offence has been issued by any court in India and who has either left India to avoid criminal prosecution, or who, being abroad, refuses to return to India to face criminal prosecution.
  2. The list of offences that can qualify an individual to be designated an economic offender, enumerated in the schedule to the Ordinance, includes offences under several Acts such as:
  • Negotiable Instruments Act, 1881;
  • Reserve Bank of India Act, 1934;
  • Central Excise Act, 1944;
  • Customs Act, 1962;
  • Prohibition of Benami Property Transactions Act, 1988;
  • Prevention of Money Laundering Act, 2002; and
  • Indian Penal Code.

What happens if a person is designated a fugitive economic offender?

  1. If the special court is satisfied that an individual is a fugitive economic offender, it can direct the Central government to confiscate the proceeds of the crime in India or abroad, whether or not such property is owned by the fugitive economic offender, and any other property or benami property in India or abroad that is owned by the fugitive economic offender.
  2. While the confiscation of property within India should not be a problem for the Centre, confiscating properties abroad will require the cooperation of the respective country.
  3. The fugitive economic offender will also be disqualified from accessing the Indian judicial system for any civil cases.

On whom does the burden of proof lie?

In keeping with the principle of ‘innocent until proven guilty’, the burden of proof for establishing that an individual is a fugitive economic offender or that certain property is part of the proceeds of a crime is on the Director appointed to file an application seeking fugitive economic offender status.

Jun, 22, 2018

Cross-border insolvency: Rules to help lenders access foreign assets


Mains Paper 3: Economy | Indian Economy Issues relating to planning

From UPSC perspective, the following things are important:

Prelims level: UNCITRAL

Mains level: The newscard highlights the priority of government to counter  cross-border insolvency


Amendments for Cross-Border Insolvency in IBC

  1. The government put out a draft amendment on cross-border insolvency to further strengthen the Insolvency and Bankruptcy Code (IBC), seeking to help lenders access overseas assets of a stressed company.
  2. The draft aims to enable India to seek cooperation from foreign countries to bring defaulters’ assets there under consideration for insolvency proceedings.
  3. In this respect, the draft favours adoption of an existing UN model law (United Nations Commission on International Trade Law, or UNCITRAL) on cross-border insolvency that has already been ratified by 44 countries.

How will it work?

  1. A cross-border insolvency law recognises that one country has to proceed with the main insolvency case while others with supplementary cases, depending on the location of defaulter’s assets.
  2. Similarly, if a foreign country has already initiated insolvency proceedings against a particular defaulter to recover stressed assets some of which are located here, India, too, will have to cooperate with that nation.

What are its benefits?

  1. Once enacted, this will offer a level playing field to Indian companies with investment and creditors overseas and multinational companies with interest in India.
  2. It will offer greater certainty and predictability to insolvencies involving multiple jurisdictions.


United Nations Commission on International Trade Law

  1. UNCITRAL was established in 1966 with the recognition that international trade cooperation among States is an important factor.
  2. When world trade began to expand dramatically in the 1960s, national governments began to realize the need for a global set of standards and rules to harmonize national and regional regulations, which until then governed international trade.
  3. UNCITRAL Model Law on Cross-Border Insolvency was a model law issued by the Secretariat of UNCITRAL in 1997 to assist states in relation to the regulation of corporate insolvency and financial distress involving companies which have assets or creditors in more than one state.
  4. The Model Law is designed to provide a model framework to encourage cooperation and coordination between jurisdictions.
May, 22, 2018

[op-ed snap] Miles to go: The bankruptcy code


Mains Paper 2: Governance | Government policies and interventions for development in various sectors and issues arising out of their design and implementation.

From UPSC perspective, the following things are important:

Prelims level: Read the attached stories

Mains level: The issues discussed in the newscard regarding the IBC.


The new bankruptcy code yields its first success

  1. Tata Steel acquired 73% stake in the bankrupt firm Bhushan Steel for about Rs. 35,000 crore last week, making it the first major resolution of a bankruptcy case under the new Insolvency and Bankruptcy Code (IBC)
  2. Bhushan Steel was one among the 12 major accounts referred to the National Company Law Tribunal at the behest of the Reserve Bank of India last year to ease the burden of bad loans on banks

Expectations of the Finance Ministry from Banks

  1. The Finance Ministry now expects banks to recover more than Rs. 1 lakh crore from the resolution of the other cases referred by the RBI to the NCLT
    Possible benefits
  2. If the banks do indeed recover funds of this scale, it would considerably reduce the burden on taxpayers
  3. Even more important, speedy resolution would free valuable assets to be used for wealth-creation

Many challenges are still there

  1. The resolution of one high-profile case, however, should not deflect attention from the many challenges still plaguing the bankruptcy resolution process
  2. The IBC, as the government itself has admitted, remains a work in progress

Some issues with the present IBC

  1. The issues such as the proposed eligibility criteria for bidders have left it bogged down and suppressed its capacity to help out creditors efficiently
  2. Also, the strict time limit for the resolution process as mandated by the IBC is an area that has drawn much attention,
  3. and it merits further review in order to balance the twin objectives of speedy resolution and maximising recovery for the lenders

The way forward

  1. Going forward, amendments to the bankruptcy code should primarily be driven by the goal of maximising the sale price of stressed assets
  2. This requires a robust market for stressed assets that is free from all kinds of entry barriers
May, 18, 2018

180 days too long for resolving insolvency, says IBBI member


Mains Paper 2: Governance | Government policies and interventions for development in various sectors and issues arising out of their design and implementation.

From UPSC perspectives, the following things are important

Prelims Level: IBBI

Mains Level: Important for business sector.


Statement by a member of the IBBI(Insolvency and Bankruptcy Board of India)

  1. A member of the Insolvency and Bankruptcy Board of India (IBBI) said the current time limit to resolve insolvency cases was more than adequate
    A significant statement
  2. This assumes significance in light of demands for more time to resolve cases filed for bankruptcy
  3. In the present era, we have professionals with technology and offices that are increasing in efficiency
  4. With the availability of these, why should any time be lost?
  5. The sooner we remove such cases, the sooner will we clear the way for the business sector to move ahead

Current status

  1. Currently, after a case is admitted in the National Company Law Tribunal, it has to be resolved within 180 days, failing which the company goes into liquidation
  2. In exceptional cases, the NCLT may allow another 90 days for resolution

Default is not always related to criminal conduct

  1. When a loan is not repaid, the default is automatically construed as criminal conduct under the Code
  2. But there could be situations where the default is purely a result of market forces
  3. Therefore, it can’t be called criminal conduct in all cases
Apr, 02, 2018

Insolvency and Bankruptcy Code set for major overhaul


Mains Paper 2: Governance | Government policies & interventions for development in various sectors & issues arising out of their design & implementation

From UPSC perspective, the following things are important:

Prelims level: Insolvency and Bankruptcy Code, Alternative investment funds

Mains level: Insolvency procedure in India and various issues related to it


IBC amendments

  1. The ministry of corporate affairs is finalizing a series of IBC amendments based on a panel’s recommendations
  2. This is to remove difficulties in turning around businesses and to strike a balance between the interests of lenders, customers of failed businesses and their promoters

Proposed amendments

  1. They make a strong case for treating homebuyers as financial creditors, enabling them to take builders defaulting on their obligations to a bankruptcy court and decide their future along with lenders
  2. Amendment will make it easier for the panel of creditors to make key decisions for resolution or liquidation with 66% of the vote, less than the 75% required now
  3. It will make sure that the provisions enacted in January to disqualify wilful defaulters and those ‘acting jointly’ with them from bidding for the bankrupt firm do not unfairly bar entities like asset reconstruction companies (ARCs), banks and alternative investment funds
  4. The code will also define financial entities which are not covered by the disqualification in a move aimed at widening the pool of potential bidders
  5. The proposed amendments will also make sure that companies filing for bankruptcy have to notify their banks and suppliers of their decision

Applicability of provisions

  1. The IBC amendments will apply prospectively once enacted
  2. It will also clarify that lenders’ action against any guarantor to a bankrupt firm do not enjoy the same protection from recovery proceedings that the insolvent company enjoys while a rescue plan is prepared
Mar, 23, 2018

Govt to set up more NCLT benches to handle wave of bankruptcy cases


Mains Paper 2: Governance | Important aspects of governance, transparency and accountability, e-governance- applications, models, successes, limitations, and potential

From UPSC perspective, the following things are important:

Prelims level: IBC code(read the attached story)

Mains level: The NCLT courts are important tools against ongoing NPA crisis in the country.


Increase in the number of the National Company Law Tribunal(NCLT) benches

  1. The government is set to increase the number of bankruptcy courts to ease the load on existing benches overburdened by creditors suing defaulting businesses and expedite resolution of insolvency cases
  2. The government will also hire more judicial and technical officers to take into account the requirement of the new NCLT benches at Cuttack, Jaipur and Kochi
  3. NCLT has 11 benches at present, including a principal bench in the capital

Need of more NCLT courts

  1. According to experts, bankruptcy courts are over-burdened as they also address other company law matters
  2. relating to mismanagement and oppression, mergers and acquisitions and cases of de-registration of companies on account of defaulting on statutory annual return filing requirements
  3. Cases relating to mergers and acquisition were earlier handled by high courts

Possible changes to the insolvency and bankruptcy code 

  1. Simultaneously, the legislative framework is being streamlined
  2. Possible changes to the insolvency and bankruptcy code include (1) introduction of a simpler code for micro, small and medium enterprises, (2) granting creditor status to home buyers who have given advances to real estate firms and modifying procedures about clearing turnaround plans
  3. An expert panel is expected to give its recommendations on modifications to the bankruptcy code to the government shortly
  4. The need to amend the code arose from the gaps that emerged as the resolution process gathered momentum
Dec, 29, 2017

Govt moves amendments to plug loopholes in insolvency law


Mains Paper 3: Economy | Mobilization of resources

From UPSC perspective, the following things are important:

Prelims level: Insolvency and Bankruptcy code, asset reconstruction companies, alternative investment funds, sustainable structuring of stressed assets

Mains level: Rising NPA problem and ways to tackle it


Insolvency and Bankruptcy Code (Amendment) Bill 2017

  1. It seeks to streamline the law and plug loopholes
  2. Bill allows defaulting promoters to be part of the debt resolution process, provided they repay dues in a month
  3. This will aid promoters who had submitted resolution plans before the enactment of an ordinance that barred them from taking part in the resolution process of the companies

Other provisions

  1. Bill has paved the way for asset reconstruction companies, alternative investment funds (AIFs) such as private equity funds and banks to participate in the bidding process
  2. Many of these entities acquire distressed assets and the classification of these assets as non-performing assets (NPAs) would have disqualified them from the bidding process
  3. Similarly, banks opting to convert their debt into equity under the Reserve Bank of India’s scheme for sustainable structuring of stressed assets would have inadvertently become promoters of these insolvent companies and thereby been barred from the resolution process
  4. The bill has also sought to bring any individual who was in control of the NPA under the ambit of the insolvency code
  5. It lays out that the individual insolvency law will be implemented in phases
  6. The amendment bill has addressed concerns about some of the stringent provisions in the ordinance that was brought in last month

Insolvency and Bankruptcy code

  1. The IBC was enacted in 2016 to find a time-bound resolution for ailing and sick firms, either through closure or revival, while protecting the interests of creditors
  2. A successful completion of the resolution process was expected to aid in reducing rising bad loans in the banking system
Dec, 28, 2017

[pib] IBBI grants recognition to two registered valuers organistaions


From UPSC perspective, the following things are important:

Prelims level: Insolvency and Bankruptcy Board of India

Mains level: Functions of IBBI


  • In pursuance to the Companies (Registered Valuers and Valuation) Rules, 2017, the Insolvency and Bankruptcy Board of India (IBBI) has recognised two registered valuers organisations.
  • The Institution of Estate Managers and Appraisers will handle one asset class of “land and building” while the IOV Registered Valuers Foundation will handle three asset classes of “land and building”, “plant and machinery” and “securities or financial assets”.
  • These registered valuers organisations will conduct educational courses in valuation, grant membership and certificate of practice to individuals, conduct training for its members and lay down and enforce the Code of Conduct for the registered valuers, who are its members.
Dec, 16, 2017

[op-ed snap] Changed priorities


Mains Paper 3: Economy | Mobilization of resources

From UPSC perspective, the following things are important:

Prelims level: Non-performing assets, bankruptcy, Insolvency and Bankruptcy Code (IBC) 2016, CRILC, Insolvency and Bankruptcy Board of India

Mains level: Measures related to tackling NPAs


  1. The 2017 Forbes India List says that the combined net worth of India’s 100 wealthiest stood at a whopping $479 billion
  2. Even then, top corporate borrower groups in India are unable to repay loans and make timely interest payments

Tackling NPAs

  1. The government has taken the high moral ground to deal with the menace of non-performing assets (NPAs)
  2. NPAs have brought many public sector banks on the verge of bankruptcy
  3. Government brought an ordinance on November 23 amending the Insolvency and Bankruptcy Code (IBC) 2016
  4. It disqualified errant promoter from participating in the bidding process

Intent of ordinance

  1. It signals the government’s intent to shift attention away from recovery of bad loans to selling the assets of defaulting corporates
  2. The May 2017 ordinance directed banks to accept deep haircuts on their non-performing loans

Corporates-bank nexus

  1. These corporates have not been downgraded on their creditworthiness parameter although the Reserve Bank of India (RBI) has been monitoring all large loans through the Central Repository of Information on Large Credits (CRILC) since 2014

Loopholes in IBC

  1. The Insolvency and Bankruptcy Board of India (IBBI) is the regulator set up on October 1, 2016, under the Insolvency and Bankruptcy Code
  2. The IBBI is assisted by the disciplinary, advisory and technical committees
  3. The resolution professionals entrusted with the responsibility of sorting out the insolvent companies or individuals can be registered with any one of the three insolvency professional agencies
  4. The advisory committees on corporate insolvency and liquidation are chaired by several top corporates
  5. The appointment of corporates as heads of important corporate insolvency advisory committees under IBBI does not inspire confidence in the credibility of the resolution process

Way forward

  1. The recent ordinance may end up being used selectively to defeat the very objective of penalizing the errant promoter
  2. The banks will only lose if resolution is sidetracked by the ensuing power struggle among corporate India to purchase distressed assets at rock-bottom prices
Nov, 27, 2017

[op-ed snap] Messy fix: the amended insolvency code

Image source


Mains Paper 3: Economy | Mobilization of resources

From UPSC perspective, the following things are important:

Prelims level: Insolvency and Bankruptcy Code

Mains level: Measures being taken to resolve NPA issue


Ordinance for amending the Insolvency and Bankruptcy Code 

  1. The Central government has passed an ordinance that significantly amends the Insolvency and Bankruptcy Code
  2. The aim of the changes is stated ‘to strengthen further the insolvency resolution process’

How will this be undertaken?

  1. There will be prohibition of certain persons from submitting a resolution plan, who, on account of their antecedents, may adversely impact the credibility of the processes
  2. The categories of persons who are deemed ineligible to participate in resolving a corporate entity’s debt once it has been put under the process of insolvency resolution by creditors have also been mentioned

How this changes will affect corporates?

  1. The category of people barred is too broad and risks the very objectives of the original code
  2. Not all bad loans are a result of mala fide intent on the borrower’s part
  3. Barring the promoters of such firms whose companies have ended up struggling to service debt as a result of unpredictable external factors from a chance to restructure and turnaround the business, merely because the loans have turned sour, is unfair to both the entrepreneur and the enterprise itself
  4. The amendment risks becoming an instrument of blunt force that hurts more than it helps

Objective of IBC

  1. IBC is not intended to serve as a mere instrument of liquidation
  2. It is to provide an enabling legal framework for the “reorganisation and insolvency resolution of corporate persons in a time bound manner for maximisation of value of assets of such persons
  3. And to promote entrepreneurship
Nov, 23, 2017

Insolvency and Bankruptcy code being changed, wilful defaulters can’t bid for stressed assets


Mains Paper3 | Indian economy – planning and development

The following things are important from UPSC perspective:

Prelims: IBC- Insolvency Bankruptcy Code

Mains level: This news card talks about the recent amendments introduced in the IBC by the government.



  1. The Union Cabinet approved the promulgation of an ordinance to amend the Insolvency and Bankruptcy Code (IBC) to streamline the stressed-assets resolution process and effectively bar willful defaulters from bidding for companies being put up for sale under the IBC.
  2. The ordinance was being sent to the President and his approval was expected very soon.
  3. The amendments have been introduced after concerns were raised on existing promoters wresting back control of companies under resolution at cheap valuation.

The Amendments in the IBC

  1. The amendments to the IBC explicitly prohibit persons declared as willful defaulters or those having a history of siphoning funds from a company, or convicted of fraud, from submitting a resolution plan for companies that are going through the corporate insolvency resolution process.
  2. The changes also empower the Insolvency and Bankruptcy Board of India (IBBI) to outline further eligibility requirements for applicants bidding for companies under resolution.
  3. There is no plan to prevent existing promoters from submitting a resolution plan for their own companies.
  4. The ordinance also proposes to disallow sale of property to a person who is disqualified to be a resolution applicant.
  5. The amendments explicitly provide that the Committee of Creditors consider viability of the resolution plan at the time of approval.

Two new Sections inserted in IBC

  1. Apart from the amendments, the government has also inserted two new Sections to the IBC.
  2. While Section 23 5A has been added to provide for punishment for contravention where no specific penalty or punishment has been provided.
  3. Section 29 A has been inserted to prevent an “un-discharged insolvent” from participating in the resolution plans.
  4. Section 29A also provides for disallowing an account declared as non performing asset (NPA) for one year or more for being a resolution applicant.


  1. The proposed changes to the IBC, do not address the concerns of homebuyers stuck with undelivered flats by companies that are now undergoing resolution.
  2. The IBC currently overlooks the interests of the buyers who have booked the property but are yet to get it registered in their names.
  3. In such a case, the IBC does not provide any remedy to the homebuyers even though they have paid most of the apartment cost.


Nov, 21, 2017

‘Wilful defaulters must not buy IBC assets’

Image Source


Mains Paper 3: Economy | Indian Economy Issues relating to planning

From UPSC perspective, the following things are important:

Prelims level: Read B2B

Mains level: Shows the seriousness of government to tackle the issue of the NPA


Direction from the Finance Ministry

  1. The Finance Ministry has asked banks to be vigilant to ensure that wilful defaulters are prevented from buying stressed assets again
  2. Why: To ensure the success of the bankruptcy process under the Insolvency and Bankruptcy Code (IBC)

Why this step?

  1. It has been brought to the notice of the Finance Ministry that some wilful defaulters were making a bid to buy the assets of those cases which have been referred under IBC
  2. The resolution is crucial to the entire banking sector and therefore banks have been advised to be vigilant so that wilful defaulters do not get benefits of the process
  3. Banks have to be very conscious of the fact that such defaulters do not get into the system again


The Insolvency and Bankruptcy Code (IBC)

To know more about the code, Click here

Nov, 08, 2017

Insolvency resolution norms made stringent


Mains Paper 3: Indian economy – planning and development.

The following things are important from UPSC perspective:

Prelims: IBBI.

Mains level: This newscard talks about the amendments made by the IBBI in corporate resolution process and  its impact.



The amendment

  1. The Insolvency and Bankruptcy Board of India (IBBI) has amended the corporate insolvency resolution process regulations to ensure that applicants, including promoters, are put to a stringent test with respect to their credit worthiness and credibility.
  2. The amendment also imposes greater responsibility on the resolution professional and the Committee of Creditors in discharging their duties.
  3. The amendments will ensure that as part of due diligence prior to approval of a resolution plan, the antecedents, credit worthiness and credibility of a resolution applicant, including promoters, are taken into account by the Committee of Creditors.
  4. To ensure that the corporate insolvency resolution process results in a credible and viable resolution plan, the IBBI has carried out amendments to the IBBI (Insolvency Resolution Process for Corporate Persons) Resolution Process, 2016 (CIRP Regulations).



  1. It is a modern framework to deal with bankruptcy and insolvency of variety of economic players, including individuals, but excluding financial firms.
  2. Insolvency and Bankruptcy Board of India has been setup to act as a regulator for these utilities and professionals.
  3. It has restored some power to creditors, both financial and operational.
  4. It has fast-tracked the mechanism of insolvency resolution process.
  5. The corporate insolvency would have to be resolved within a period 180 days, extendable by 90 days.
  6. It also provides for fast-track resolution of corporate insolvency within 90 days.
  7. Debt Recovery Tribunals have been set up as adjudicating authority over both individual & unlimited liability partnership firms.
  8. National Company Law Tribunalis adjudicating authority with jurisdiction over companies with limited liability.
  9. It has a clause to provide for insolvency professionalswho will specialize in helping sick companies and in their revival.
  10. It also provides for information utilities that will collate all information about debtors to prevent serial defaulters from misusing the system.
  11. It has also established  Insolvency and Bankruptcy Fund of India, deposits of the fund will include grants made by the central government, the amount deposited by the persons, interest earned on investments made from the fund etc. any person, who has contributed to the fund, may apply for withdrawal, in a case of proceedings against him.
Aug, 18, 2017

Insolvency proceedings: New form allows homebuyers to seek claims from firms

Image result for insolvency and Bankruptcy Code (IBC).

Image source


Mains Paper 2: Polity | Separation of powers between various organs dispute redressal mechanisms and institutions.

From UPSC perspective, the following things are important:

Prelims level: Not much

Mains level: Insolvency and Bankruptcy Code (IBC) features


  1. The government has introduced a new form under the insolvency law to enable a person who has to receive a payment from an insolvent company to seek the claim.
  2. This will enable persons such as homebuyers to make claims for undelivered flats on a company undergoing resolution under the Insolvency and Bankruptcy Code (IBC).

What are the new changes?

  • Till now, only financial and operational creditors were permitted to seek claims under the IBC.
  • But Insolvency and Bankruptcy Board of India (IBBI) has amended the regulations whereby claims can be made by creditors other than financial and operational creditors.
  • Such entities should submit proof of their claims to the resolution professional, as per a notification issued by the IBBI.
  • There could be claims from a creditor who is not a financial creditor or an operational creditor and it needs a specific form for submitting its claim.
  • The revised regulations come at a time when a large number of flat buyers have been left in the lurch, due to long delays in delivery with developers citing fund crunch



Aug, 12, 2017

[op-ed snap] No level playing field

Image result for Insolvency and Bankruptcy Code, 2016.

Image source


Mains Paper 3: Economy | Indian Economy Issues relating to planning

Op-ed discusses about the flaws in the Insolvency and Bankruptcy Code, 2016.

Once you are done reading this op-ed, you will be able to attempt the below.

“The Insolvency and Bankruptcy Code has loopholes to close down businesses instead of assisting entrepreneurs” Critically examine.

From UPSC perspective, the following things are important:

Prelims level: Insolvency and Bankruptcy Code, National Company Law Tribunal, Article 19(1)(g)

 Mains level: Insolvency and Bankruptcy Code, 2016- features, flaws, challenges.



  • The Insolvency and Bankruptcy Code has loopholes to close down businesses.

Why Insolvency and Bankruptcy Code?

  1. It was enacted to improve the ease of doing business in India
  2. It aims to overhaul laws relating to reorganisation and insolvency resolution of corporate persons, partnership firms, and individuals
  3. Attempts to ease the process of recovery of money by operational and financial creditors in a timely manner.
  4. Places the onus on professionals to put forth resolution plans within 180 days

A quick procedure

  1. Code looks to wrap up the process in 180 days.
  2. It warrants a notice of dispute to be issued followed by a response period of 10 days for the corporate debtor, failing which the creditor is entitled to file an insolvency application before the National Company Law Tribunal.
  3. Upon admission of the application, the moratorium period commences.
  4. At this stage, the existing management of the company loses complete control and all powers vest with an interim resolution professional, who has merely 30 days to put together all the relevant information and call for a meeting of the financial creditors.
  5. Once the financial creditors meet, they must appoint a resolution professional who will propose a resolution plan for the company.
  6. All such resolution plans are placed before the financial creditors. When at least 75% of the financial creditors approve, the plan is implemented by way of an order by the NCLT. If the financial creditors fail to arrive at a consensus, the default plan is to liquidate the company.

The flaws

  1. The Code has enough loopholes to close down businesses instead of assisting entrepreneurs.
  2. It fails to provide adequate safeguards to protect the rights of the company before handing over the management in its entirety to the resolution professional.
  3. Neither does the corporate debtor have an opportunity to put forth his/her case nor is there any scope of discretion provided to the adjudicating authority itself.
  4. At various stages, the Code fails to provide any opportunity to the corporate debtor to make a representation
  5. The Code is also deficient in providing a yardstick for the qualification of insolvency resolution professionals
  6. It allows for any person to access the information memorandum put together by the insolvency professional. There is no law protecting confidentiality and vitiates the fundamental right to business under Article 19(1)(g).
  7. Code prohibits withdrawal of the application once the same has been admitted. This means that there is no scope whatsoever for settlement
Oct, 04, 2016

Centre constitutes Insolvency and Bankruptcy Board

  1. Centre has constituted a four-member Insolvency and Bankruptcy Board of India (IBBI)
  2. Under the Chairmanship of MS Sahoo, who was till recently Competition Commission of India (CCI) Member
  3. Main activity: To regulate the functioning of insolvency professionals, insolvency professional agencies and information utilities under the Insolvency and Bankruptcy Code 2016
  4. Kudos! Centre had notified the Insolvency Code in May & the fact that IBBI has been constituted in a span of four months is a commendable effort
  5. Expansion: While the Centre has for now set up the IBBI with four members, going forward this will be expanded to 10 (including the Chairman)
Sep, 29, 2016

Insolvency bill moots 'creative destruction'- II

  1. The draft Bill also sets in place the creation of a Resolution Corporation
  2. It will comprise three ex-officio members representing the Ministry of Finance, the Reserve Bank of India, and the Securities and Exchange Board of India, respectively
  3. Additionally, there will be one member each nominated by the insurance and pension regulators
  4. Background: It was noted in Budget 2016 that there is a need for a comprehensive code for the resolution of financial sector companies
  5. This code, together with the Insolvency and Bankruptcy Code 2015, would provide a comprehensive resolution mechanism for our economy
Sep, 29, 2016

Insolvency bill moots 'creative destruction'- I

  1. A draft Financial Resolution and Deposit Insurance Bill 2016 has mooted the creative destruction of inefficient firms
  2. The legislation seeks to address insolvency issues in financial services companies
  3. In financial firms, zero failure of financial firms is not always possible
  4. However, it is important to ensure that the failure of a financial firm is orderly
  5. Why? So that consumers are protected and systemic stability and resilience are preserved, without relying on taxpayer-funded bail-out
May, 06, 2016

Cross-border pacts mooted to seize defaulters’ assets

  1. Context: Govt would enter into cross-border treaties
  2. Aim: To confiscate overseas assets of wilful defaulters and recover dues of banks even as the
  3. Background: In the wake of the Mallya episode
  4. Also after Congress indicated support, in principle, for the report of the Joint Parliamentary Committee on the Insolvency and Bankruptcy Code
  5. The Bill is considered a key to Govt’s agenda of improving the ease of doing business
Mar, 31, 2016

RBI submits defaulters’ list to SC

  1. Context: RBI submitted a list of big loan defaulters to the Supreme Court
  2. Undisclosed: The names were submitted in a sealed envelope because disclosing names may have an adverse impact on businesses
  3. Background: The court on 16 February made RBI a party ‘in public interest’ to a 2003 case related to bad loans
Feb, 05, 2016

Report on insolvency and bankruptcy code expected by March end

  1. The joint committee of Parliament studying the insolvency and bankruptcy code will submit its report by the first week of March
  2. Whenever there was global economic turmoil in the past, India has always shown resilience, including the global financial crisis in 2008-09
  3. Jaitley invited the foreign investors in roads, highways, oil and gas, urban infrastructure and railways, during India Investment Summit 2016
  4. The National Infrastructure and Investment Fund (NIIF) would be the major driving force for investments in to India’s infrastructure 2016-17 onwards
Jan, 19, 2016

The big fish: don't let the big defaulters escape

Raghuram Rajan rightly cautions India against being seen as a weak state that lets off the well-connected loan defaulters.

  1. We are accused of not having the administrative capacity of ferreting out wrongdoing.
  2. Dominant banking culture in India works like a net that lets the big defaulters escape without any penalties by restructuring their debts.
  3. Amount recovered from cases decided in 2013-14 under the Debt Recovery Tribunals was just 13 per cent of the total amount at stake.
  4. Worse still, these cases were estimated to take 4 years, instead of the mandated 6 months under the law, to resolve.
  5. RBI initiated the Strategic Debt Restructuring (SDR), which allows creditor banks to convert their unpaid loan into equity and take a majority ownership of the troubled firms.
  6. Government can help by passing the long-pending bankruptcy code.
  7. Key reasons why large defaulters tend to get away is that they can seek legal recourse, which is a very long-drawn-out process in India.
Dec, 22, 2015

Centre tables bankruptcy Bill in Lok Sabha

The Centre tabled the Insolvency and Bankruptcy Bill, 2015 in the Lok Sabha, which enhance the ease of doing business in the country.

  1. The proposed Bill aims for a complete renovation of the current insolvency and bankruptcy system in India.
  2. It will help streamline the procedure of revival of companies facing financial distress.
  3. The Bill proposes adherence to strict deadlines to decide whether to liquidate a sick firm or not.
  4. The Bill proposes the setting up of an Insolvency and Bankruptcy Board of India to regulate insolvency professionals and agencies.
  5. It also proposes the setting up of a fund dubbed the Insolvency and Bankruptcy Fund of India.
  6. A recent survey found that the average duration for insolvency resolution in India is 4.3 years.
Nov, 23, 2015

Insolvency resolution in India plagued by wide range of problems: report

The average duration for insolvency resolution in India is 4.3 years, significantly higher than that of South Asia region (2.6 years) and that of OECD high-income countries (1.7 years).

  1. A survey of Indian companies by the consultancy also found that there are systemic problems in the way stressed assets are relieved currently.
  2. SARFAESI [Securitisation and Reconstruction of Financial Assets and Enforcement of Security Interest Act] gives secured lenders the legal right to replace ineffectual management.
  3. It is impossible to achieve, as promoters tend to litigate and the long time taken for resolution in the current judicial system leads to severe degradation in value of the assets.
  4. The report recommends that the proposed National Company Law Tribunal should have a separate bench for handling bankruptcy cases.
Nov, 06, 2015

Bankruptcy panel calls for insolvency regulator

Proposed Bankruptcy Code will replace over a century old insolvency act, Presidency Towns Insolvency Act, 1909, ensures time-bound disposal of insolvency application.

  1. Bankruptcy Law Reforms Committee (BLRC), headed by TK Vishwanathan.
  2. It suggested setting up an insolvency regulator to exercise regulatory oversight over insolvency professionals and agencies.
  3. To ensure speedier winding up of insolvent companies and providing easier exit route to investors.
  4. Recommended, bankruptcy & insolvency processes for individuals with annual gross income of less than Rs 60,000 and aggregate assets of not more than Rs 20,000.

India lacks an effective overarching mechanism to ensure quick winding up of businesses and compensation to other stakeholders.

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