[Starts 1st April] Join the most systematic revision program by CD

Click2know about SIP | Samanvaya, Samachar Manthan, Static subject coverage & Prelims Mock tests

NSA-headed committee for higher defence management

Note4students

Mains Paper 2: Polity | Statutory, regulatory & various quasi-judicial bodies.

From UPSC perspective, the following things are important:

Prelims level: Defence Planning Committee (DPC)

Mains level: Developments in defence sector management & their possible effects


News

Improving higher defence management

  1. The government has constituted a new committee headed by the National Security Advisor to improve higher defence management
  2. The Defence Planning Committee (DPC) headed by NSA will prepare a draft national security strategy, develop a capability development plan, work on defence diplomacy issues and improving defence manufacturing in India

Composition of DPC

  1. The DPC will have the Chairman of the Chiefs of Staff Committee, three service chiefs, secretaries of the ministries of defence, expenditure and foreign affairs as its members
  2. The Chief of Integrated Staff in the MoD will be the member secretary of DPC
  3. The DPC will submit its reports to the Defence Minister

New fund for defence enterprises

Note4students

Mains Paper 3: Economy | Mobilization of resources

From UPSC perspective, the following things are important:

Prelims level: Defence and Aerospace SME fund

Mains level: Make in India in defense sector


News

Defence and Aerospace SME fund

  1. The Indian government is planning to set up a new fund for small and medium defence enterprises
  2. It will be a dedicated Defence and Aerospace SME fund

Details of the fund

  1. The fund will be registered with SEBI and minority stake can be taken up by investors
  2. The fund will help channelize investments to the two defence corridors, in Uttar Pradesh and Tamil Nadu

[op-ed snap] The math of military modernization

Note4students

Mains Paper 2: Governance | Government policies and interventions for development in various sectors and issues arising out of their design and implementation.

From UPSC perspective, the following things are important:

Prelims level: Not much

Mains level: Insufficient Indian defence budget. How can India and the US contribute each other(in the defence sector)?


News

Major security challenge in the Asia-Pacific region

  1. The Chinese are on track to dominate the security architecture of the Asia-Pacific
  2. China has increased military spending at an average of 8.5% per year
  3. This acknowledges the foreseeable outcome of the growing gap between China’s ability to project military power in Asia and the defence capabilities of other regional militaries
  4. Obscuring this gap, and matching it in some sense, is the need of the hour

Insufficient defence budget

  1. The 2018 Indian defence budget is no more than 1.5% of gross domestic product, which barely keeps pace with inflation
  2. India’s military pensions are now greater than its entire defence capital budget
  3. This in the midst of a military readiness situation that notable Indian observers describe as a “crisis” caused by significant shortfalls in major weapons systems like fighter aircraft, helicopters, tanks, rifles and submarines

Direct comparison(of defence budget) is misleading

  1. Direct comparisons between military spending totals are misleading for a variety of reasons, including mismatches between resources and military requirements
  2. For example, it takes far fewer resources to deny an adversary access to a local geography than to project power from one side of the globe to the other

Asia is in the midst of a “multipolar moment”

  1. Some experts question the necessity of a defence partnership with the US, believing that India will thrive in multipolarity by hedging its partnerships among many countries
  2. But the math of military modernization suggests the multipolar moment will eventually be superseded by a Sino-centric security order

Why is India important for the US?

  1. No country has the demographic and economic weight to play the stabilizing role India can in Asia
  2. This is why Republicans and Democrats are united in treating India as a “Major Defence Partner”
  3. Major Defence Partner is a unique designation created by the Barack Obama administration and sustained by both the US Congress and the Donald Trump team

What can be done?

  1. Important steps can be taken to bolster Indian military power that are unrelated to budgets , but that requires India to embrace the US more closely than ever before
  2. A choice can be made to partner(in some areas exclusively) with the US because this is the only realistic hedge against Chinese hegemony
  3. This includes increasing information sharing and interoperability in maritime domain awareness, expanding cooperation in anti-submarine warfare, and partnering on maritime patrols

Country-wide IAF exercise to prepare for two-front threat posed by China, Pakistan

Note4students

Mains Paper 3: Internal Security | Security challenges and their management in border areas

From UPSC perspective, the following things are important:

Prelims level: Particulars of the exercise

Mains level: The two-front threat posed by China and Pakistan is a reality. The exercise will help in enhancing operational preparedness of the Indian Air Force.


News

Gagan Shakti: A country-wide training exercise

  1. The Indian Air Force (IAF) is planning for Gagan Shakti, scheduled to take place during April 11-21
  2. It is conducted every two years

Important particulars

  1. The exercise will be conducted in two separate phases for western and northern borders across India and deep over the Indian waters
  2. the first phase of Gagan Shakti will see practice by forces deployed along the western border while the second phase will be for practice along the northern border
  3. More than 15,000 IAF personnel, including 300 officers, will move from their bases during the exercise which will see the involvement of over 1,100 aircraft
  4. This would mean 3,000 to 4,000 sorties per day during the exercise

Participation of the Tejas

  1. This is the first time indigenously manufactured Tejas LCA fighter jets will participate in the exercise

 

Indian Air Force begins process to procure 110 fighter jets worth $15 billion

Note4students

Mains Paper 3: Science & Technology | Science and Technology- developments and their applications and effects in everyday life Achievements of Indians in science & technology; indigenization of technology and developing new technology

From UPSC perspective, the following things are important:

Prelims level: Read the attached story

Mains level: The proposed deal will give a push to ‘Make in India'(indigenization of defence technologies) in defence.


News

One of India’s largest defence orders in recent years

  1. The Indian Air Force set in motion the process of acquiring a fleet of 110 fighter jets worth an estimated $15 billion, one of its largest orders in recent years,
  2. in a bid to shore up its fast-depleting squadron strength

Process of acquiring the fleet

  1. The issue of the request for information (RFI) is the first step to acquiring the aircraft
  2. This will be followed by a request for proposal (RFP) or a formal tender, to be followed by evaluations, technical trials and commercial negotiations

Push to ‘make in India’

  1. According to a statement on the defence ministry’s website, at least 85% of the jets have to be made in India, giving a big push to India’s “Make in India” programme
  2. In other words, the aircraft have to be jointly produced by a foreign aircraft maker along with an Indian company under the recently-launched strategic partnership model which aims to bring in high-end defence technology to India

Participating aircraft producers for the bid

  1. Leading military aircraft producers, including US firms Lockheed Martin and Boeing, Sweden’s Saab and France’s Dassault Aviation, are among those likely to vie for the mega deal

Depleting squadron strength

  1. According to estimates, some 400 aircraft will be going out of service in the next decade
  2. Many of these are the Russian-made MiG aircraft which have been the backbone of the Indian Air Force for decades
  3. The Indian Air Force and navy require as many as 400 single- and double-engine combat aircraft, according to government figures

Draft defence production policy aims to raise FDI cap in niche tech to 74%

Note4students

Mains Paper 2: Governance | Government policies & interventions for development in various sectors & issues arising out of their design & implementation

From UPSC perspective, the following things are important:

Prelims level: Draft Defence Production Policy 2018, Make in India, FDI, Artificial Intelligence

Mains level: India’s rising defense imports and need for indigenous production


News

Draft Defence Production Policy 2018

  1. It aims to create an environment that encourages a dynamic, robust and competitive defence industry, as an important part of the Make in India initiative
  2. The policy proposes to increase the foreign direct investment (FDI) cap in niche technology areas to 74% under the automatic route
  3. At present, the FDI cap for the defense sector is 49% under the automatic route for all categories

Why more focus on ‘Make in India’?

  1. India is currently the top importer of defense hardware in the world (according to the Stockholm International Peace Research Institute)
  2. By giving a leg-up to defense manufacturing, Asia’s third largest economy also hopes to transform itself into a “global leader in cyberspace and AI (artificial intelligence) technologies

Proposals in the policy

  1. India hopes to achieve a turnover of Rs1.7 trillion in defense goods and services by 2025
  2. It has a goal of becoming an arms exporter to the tune of Rs35,000 crore in defense goods and services by 2025
  3. The government will list its requirements in terms of platforms and weapon systems for the next decade to help private sector companies understand the opportunities
  4. It will also simplify procedures for private firms to enter defense production, i.e., liberalize the regime by issuing licenses in 30 days and pruning no-go areas to a small ‘negative list’ for licensing
  5. The government will also do away with capacity assessment, except for critical projects
  6. In the area of taxation, the government has proposed rationalization of taxes on import of capital goods for services and inputs for defense and aims to prevent inversion of taxes

[op-ed snap] The battle for money

Note4students

Mains Paper 3: Economy | Government Budgeting

From UPSC perspective, the following things are important:

Prelims level: Not much

Mains level: Recently, the army said to the Parliamentary committee on defence, “The 2018-2019 budget has dashed our hopes … The marginal increase barely accounts for inflation and does not even cater for taxes.” The newscard discusses some important points related to this issue.


News

Context

  1. Funds shortage is affecting the preparedness of the armed forces, but the government has chosen to ignore the crisis

No lesson learned from the history

  1. In 1999, India was forced to request Israel, in the middle of a Kargil conflict, to fly in emergency supplies of ammunition and spares
  2. As India planned “surgical strikes” in Pakistan occupied Kashmir, it was worried about an escalation of conflict
  3. Certain types of ammunition were again in short supply, and in some urgent moves, India was forced to fly the ammunition in from friendly countries
  4. The lessons from either Kargil or surgical strikes have clearly not been learnt by the government

The current situation

  1. The situation has only worsened in the past year, and any hopes of improvement were belied in the recent budget
  2. The vice chiefs of the three services were recently compelled to speak the unspeakable to the parliamentary standing committee on defence
  3. The army vice chief has recently told the MPs that 68 per cent of army’s equipment is vintage,
  4. And the capital budget doesn’t even cater for the committed payments of 125 ongoing procurement deals, leave alone provide funds to replace the vintage equipment
  5. GST: On top of that, the army will be saddled with an additional bill of Rs 5,000 crore due to increased taxes because of GST but no additional money has been made available for it
    No different situation for the Navy and the Air Force
  6. They don’t have money to even pay for the ongoing procurement deals, and haven’t been allocated funds for additional payments to be made towards custom duties

What is the main issue?

  1. Senior military officers feel that a belief has gained ground at the highest levels of the government that a war is an absolutely impossibility in today’s times
  2. Whether it is due to the presence of nuclear weapons or structural geopolitical factors or a blind faith in India’s diplomacy is a matter of debate, but its consequences are damning
  3. Driven by this view, the government accords a lower priority to the demands of the defence services, whether it be in budgetary support or in implementing major defence reforms
    Raksha Mantri’s Directive
  4. The role and tasking of the defence services is decided by an official document called the Raksha Mantri’s Directive
  5. Notwithstanding the government’s belief about impossibility of war, it has not amended the directive to the defence services accordingly
  6. Nearly four years into office, the current government has not been able to issue a fresh directive to the defence services despite numerous deliberations on the draft of the directive a couple of years back

The way forward

  1. In all likelihood, the issues of tasking have already been broached informally with the government by the defence services
  2. If the alarming situation persists, the matter is bound to be raised more forcefully in the future
  3. The government must act quickly not merely to avoid that embarrassment but for the larger goal of ensuring India’s national security

Army to buy air defence system

Note4studens

Mains Paper 3: Science & Technology | Science and Technology- developments and their applications and effects in everyday life Achievements of Indians in science & technology; indigenization of technology and developing new technology

From UPSC perspective, the following things are important:

Prelims level: VSHORAD

Mains level: Particulars of the contract.


News

Decision on very short-range air defence system(VSHORAD)

  1. After several retrials and delays, the Army is set to begin contract negotiations in the multi-billion dollar deal for the very short-range air defence system or VSHORAD
  2. The bids will be opened shortly to select the lowest bidder so as to begin cost negotiations
  3. Before the bids are opened, a benchmark price will be set based on various factors, and the bids will be checked with it

Particulars of the contract

  1. The request for proposal was first issued in 2010 for over 5,000 missiles, 258 single launchers and 258 multi-launchers, estimated to cost Rs. 6,400 crore
  2. Since then, there have been trials and retrials because of the deviations in the products
  3. The request for information was issued in 2010
  4. The trials started in 2012
  5. Of the five who responded, MBDA of France; Rosoboronexport of Russia; and SAAB of Sweden made it

Expectations of the army

  1. The air defence system should have a maximum range of 6 km and an altitude of 3 km, besides all-weather capability

Indigenous module for submarines undergoing trials

Image source

Note4students

Mains Paper 3: Science & Technology | indigenization of technology & developing new technology

From UPSC perspective, the following things are important:

Prelims level: Air Independent Propulsion, Scorpène submarines, DRDO

Mains level: Defense technologies and Make in India


News

AIP technology for submarines

  1. The indigenous Air Independent Propulsion (AIP) module is in an advanced stage of trials
  2. It enhances the ability of submarines to stay underwater
  3. It is being developed by the Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO)
  4. All Scorpène submarines will be equipped with it in due course

Procedure for fitting module on submarines

  1. The AIP module will be installed on the submarines during upgrades
  2. Six Scorpene submarines are being made at Mazagon Dock Limited under technology transfer from France

Back2Basics

Scorpène submarines

  1. The Scorpène-class submarines are a class of diesel-electric attack submarines
  2. In 2005, the Indian Navy ordered six Scorpène-class submarines
  3. All the Indian boats will be built in India
  4. The first Scorpène submarine, named INS Kalvari, was undocked for the purpose of starting sea trials in April 2015
  5. After extensive sea trials, Kalvari was commissioned into the Indian Navy on 14 December 2017

India successfully test-fires ATGM Nag in desert conditions

Image source

Note4students

Mains Paper 3: Science & Technology | Achievements of Indians in science & technology

From UPSC perspective, the following things are important:

Prelims level: Nag ATGM

Mains level: India’s rising defence capabilities


News

Nag ATGM Test Fired

  1. India has successfully test-fired Anti Tank Guided Missiles (ATGM) Nag in desert conditions
  2. The Nag ATGM has been developed by the Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO)
  3. With this, the developmental trials of the missile have been completed and it is now ready for induction

Back2Basics

Nag Anti Tank Guided Missiles

  1. Nag is a third generation “fire-and-forget” anti-tank missile developed in India
  2. It is one of five missile systems developed by the Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO) under the Integrated Guided Missile Development Program (IGMDP)
  3. The NAMICA (Nag Missile Carrier) version of the missile is a ‘lock-on before launch’ system, where the target is identified and designated before the missile is launched
  4. As the targeting system is based on visual identification, the range is limited
  5. The HELINA (Helicopter-launched Nag) version, on the other hand, will use a ‘lock-on after launch’ system extending its range to 7 km

Rustom-2 UAV successfully test-flown

Image source

Note4students

Mains Paper 3: Science & Technology | indigenization of technology & developing new technology

From UPSC perspective, the following things are important:

Prelims level: Rustom-2, DRDO

Mains level: Make in India in defense sector


News

Test flight of UAV Rustom 2

  1. India’s under-development Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Rustom-2 was successfully test-flown by the Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO)
  2. This was the first flight in user configuration with a higher power engine
  3. The flight was conducted at the DRDO’s Aeronautical Test Range at Chitradurga in Karnataka

About Rustom 2

  1. Rustom-2 belongs to a family of UAVs under development, besides Rustom-1 and Rustom-H
  2. It is a Medium Altitude Long Endurance drone (MALE)
  3. It can fly up to an altitude of 22,000 feet and has an endurance of over 20 hours
  4. It is capable of carrying payloads for electronic and signal intelligence missions

Other drones also being developed

  1. The DRDO is also developing other drones in different categories
  2. Currently, the three services employ hundreds of Israeli drones

India test fires medium range nuclear capable Agni-II missile

Note4students

Mains Paper 3: Science & Technology | Science and Technology- developments and their applications and effects in everyday life Achievements of Indians in science & technology; indigenization of technology and developing new technology

From UPSC perspective, the following things are important:

Prelims level:Particulars of the missile

Mains level: The test confirms operational preparedness of the Indian Armed Forces.


News

Trial of Agni-II missile

  1. India on Tuesday test-fired its medium range nuclear capable Agni-II missile with a strike range of 2,000 km from Abdul Kalam Island off Odisha coast
  2. The trial of the missile was conducted from a mobile launcher
  3. It was launched as a training exercise by the armed forces
  4. The test was carried out by the Army’s Strategic Forces Command (SFC) with logistic support provided by the Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO)

Particulars of the Agni-II missile

  1. It is a surface-to-surface Intermediate Range Ballistic Missile (IRBM)
  2. The state-of-the-art missile is already a part of the country’s arsenal for strategic deterrence
  3. It is a a two-stage missile, equipped with advanced high accuracy navigation system and guided by a unique command and control system was propelled by solid rocket propellant system
  4. It has a launch weight of 17 tonne and can carry a payload of 1,000 kg over a distance of 2,000 km
  5. Agni-II was developed by the Advanced Systems Laboratory along with other DRDO laboratories and integrated by the Bharat Dynamics Limited

India successfully test-fires nuclear capable Prithvi-II

Note4students

Mains Paper 3: Science & Technology | Science and Technology- developments and their applications and effects in everyday life Achievements of Indians in science & technology; indigenization of technology and developing new technology

From UPSC perspective, the following things are important:

Prelims level: Particulars of the missile and the IGMDP

Mains level: The test shows the preparedness of Indian Army in launching missiles from production stocks.


News

Prithvi-II missile test

  1. India has successfully test-fired its indigenously developed nuclear capable Prithvi-II missile
  2. It was tested as part of a user trial by the Army from a test range in Odisha
  3. The was carried out from a mobile launcher from launch complex-3 of the Integrated Test Range at Chandipur

Particulars of the Missile

  1. It is a surface-to-surface missile
  2. It has a strike range of 350 km
  3. It is capable of carrying 500-1,000 kilogram of warheads and is thrusted by liquid propulsion twin engines
  4. It is nine-metre-tall and  single-stage liquid-fuelled missile
  5. It was developed by the DRDO under the Integrated Guided Missile Development Programme (IGMDP)
  6. It is the first missile to have been developed by the DRDO under the Integrated Guided Missile Development Programme (IGMDP)

The test was a part of regular training exercise

  1. The missile was randomly chosen from the production stock and the entire launch activities were carried out by the specially formed Strategic Force Command (SFC) of the Army
  2. The test was monitored by the scientists of Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO) as part of training exercise

Back2basics

Integrated Guided Missile Development Programme

  1. The Integrated Guided Missile Development Programme (IGMDP) was an Indian Ministry of Defence programme for the research and development of the comprehensive range of missiles
  2. The programme was managed by the Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO) and Ordnance Factories Board in partnership with other Indian government political organisations
  3. The project started in 1982–83 with popular political support from the successive governments and bestowed under the leadership of Abdul Kalam who oversaw its ending in 2008 after these strategic missiles were successfully developed.
  4. On 8 January 2008, the DRDO formally announced the successful completion of the IGMDP
  5. It added that the strategic integrated guided missile programme was completed with its design objectives achieved since most of the missiles in the programme had been developed and inducted by the Indian armed forces

Endo-atmospheric interceptor missile successfully tested

Image source

Note4students

Mains Paper 3: Science & Technology | indigenization of technology & developing new technology

From UPSC perspective, the following things are important:

Prelims level: Advanced Air Defence (AAD) interceptor missile, Ballistic Missile Defence (BMD) system, Prithvi Defence Vehicle (PDV)

Mains level: Defence manufacturing and Make in India


News

AAD missile test successful

  1. India successfully test-fired an Advanced Air Defence (AAD) interceptor missile, capable of destroying enemy ballistic missiles at low altitude
  2. The missile is being developed as part the Ballistic Missile Defence (BMD) system and it was the third successful test this year

Importance of missile

  1. The endo-atmospheric missile is capable of intercepting missiles at altitudes of 15-30 km
  2. Shooting down an incoming missile at lower altitudes is more complicated than shooting at higher altitudes due to the higher velocity of the missile

Ballistic Missile Defence (BMD) system

  1. The BMD consists of two interceptor missiles, the Prithvi Defence Vehicle (PDV) for exo-atmospheric ranges and the Advanced Area Defence (AAD) missile for endo-atmosphere or lower altitudes

Skewed outlay for defence: panel

Note4students

Mains Paper 3: Economy | Government Budgeting

From UPSC perspective, the following things are important:

Prelims level: Capital, revenue expenditure

Mains level: Defence modernisation and issues related to it


News

Decreasing share of capital allocation in the defence budget

  1. Parliamentary Standing Committee on Defence has expressed concerns over the decreasing share of capital allocation in the defence budget compared with the revenue component
  2. Committee said the Defence Ministry should overhaul its planning and budgeting mechanism to ensure a prudent and equitable distribution of funds to revenue and capital heads

Capital and revenue heads

  1. The revenue component caters to salary, other recurring expenses, requirement of stores, transportation, revenue works and maintenance and others
  2. The capital component is for procurement of weapons and systems

Decline has become a trend

  1. With each year, the ratio of revenue-to-capital outlay is skewed as the budget for capital acquisitions for the services is declining in comparison to revenue allocations
  2. This is  adversely affecting the modernisation process of our forces

Ministry’s reply

  1. Revenue outlay expenditure follows a pattern due to its inherent characteristics
  2. Capital outlay fluctuates depending on milestone payments and new accruals, which may not necessarily increase every year

Revise economy concepts faster with Titbits by Dr. V here

Work to integrate Brahmos on 40 Sukhoi aircraft begins

Note4students

Mains Paper 3: Science & Technology | indigenization of technology & developing new technology

From UPSC perspective, the following things are important:

Prelims level: Brahmos missile, Sukhoi combat aircraft, MTCR

Mains level: India’s rising defense capabilities


News

Integration project started

  1. Work has begun to integrate the Brahmos supersonic cruise missile on 40 Sukhoi combat aircraft
  2. This project is expected to fulfil critical needs of the Indian Air Force in the wake of evolving security dynamics in the region

Test launch successful

  1. The air-launched variant of the Brahmos was successfully test fired from a Sukhoi-30 combat jet on November 22, marking a major milestone to enhance the precision strike capability of the air force

First of its kind integration

  1. Brahmos missile is the heaviest weapon to be deployed on India’s Su-30 fighter aircraft
  2. The integration of the missile on Sukhoi aircraft is a very complex process involving mechanical, electrical and software modifications of the Su-30 jet

Back2Basics

Brahmos missile

  1. It is world’s fastest supersonic cruise missile
  2. The 2.5-ton missile flies almost three times the speed of sound at Mach 2.8 and has a range of 290 km
  3. The range of the missile can be extended up to 400 km as certain technical restrictions were lifted after India became a full member of the Missile Technology Control Regime (MTCR) last year
  4. The BrahMos missile is named after two rivers, the Brahmaputra and the Moskva
  5. Brahmos is a joint venture between DRDO of India and NPO Mashinostroyenia (NPOM) of Russia

Narendra Modi inducts Scorpene-class submarine Kalvari into Indian Navy

Note4students

Mains Paper 3: Science & Technology | indigenization of technology & developing new technology

From UPSC perspective, the following things are important:

Prelims level: INS Kalvari, INS Sindhushastra, Project-75, Kalvari tiger shark

Mains level: Defense procurement and Make in India


News

INS Kalvari inducted

  1. PM Modi commissioned India’s first modern conventional submarine, INS Kalvari, into Navy’s fleet
  2. This is the first induction in almost two decades
  3. The Navy last inducted a conventional diesel-electric submarine, INS Sindhushastra, procured from Russia in July 2000

About INS Kalvari

  1. Kalvari is the first of the six Scorpene-class submarines being built as part of Project-75 of the Indian Navy
  2. Kalvari, named after a deep-sea tiger shark, weighs about 1,600 tonnes and carries the sea skimming SM 39 Exocet missiles and the heavyweight wire guided Surface and Underwater Target (SUT) torpedoes

Back2Basics

Kalvari tiger shark

  1. The Tiger Shark has a worldwide distribution in tropical and warm temperate seas
  2. It occurs throughout the Indo-Pacific region from the northern Red Sea to South Africa and east through the islands of Oceania and northern New Zealand
  3. This large (>550 cm), omnivorous shark is a relatively fast growing and fecund species
  4. There is evidence of declines for several populations where they have been heavily fished, but in general they do not face a high risk of extinction

Joint Indo-UK military exercise focusing on inter-operability

Note4students

Mains Paper 2: IR | Bilateral, regional & global groupings & agreements involving India &/or affecting India’s interests

From UPSC perspective, the following things are important:

Prelims level: Military exercises-Ajeya Warrior, Indra, Shakti, Shatrujeet, Drad sankalp

Mains level: India’s defence cooperation with various nations


News

Third edition of the exercise ‘Ajeya Warrior’

  1. The third edition of the exercise, underway at close to the Indo-Pak border in Rajasthan, is aimed at acquainting both the armies with each others’ operating procedures to be applied while operating in counter-terrorism environment
  2. Military-to-military cooperation, inter-operability, heliborne and anti-terrorists operations are some of the highlights of the joint Indo-UK military exercise

About the exercise

  1. The exercise is being held against the backdrop of UN mandate of anti-terrorism operations
  2. The first exercise was conducted in 2013 at Belgaum, Karnataka, where as for the second exercise in 2015, an Indian Army contingent had visited the United Kingdom

Other exercises held in Rajasthan

  1. In Rajasthan, Indo-Russian exerciseIndra-2013’ and ‘Indra-2015’ and Indo-French exerciseShakti-2016’ were the similar bilateral exercises focused on anti-terrorism operations
  2. Apart from these anti-terrorism exercises, the Indian desert terrain bordering with Pakistan has also witnessed some major armoured intensive offensive training exercises like ‘Shatrujeet-2016’ and ‘Drad Sankalp-2015

Futuristic combat vehicle plan a game changer: Army

Image source

Note4students

Mains Paper 3: Science & Technology | indigenization of technology & developing new technology

From UPSC perspective, the following things are important:

Prelims level: FICV, FRCV, T-72, Arjun tank

Mains level: Military modernization and Make in India


News

Two new combat vehicles to be built 

  1. The Futuristic Infantry Combat Vehicle (FICV) and Future Ready Combat Vehicle (FRCV) programmes are going to be the biggest game changers for the Indian Army as well as defense industry

What are FICV and FRCV?

  1. The FICV is an ambitious effort to indigenously design and manufacture a futuristic infantry vehicle by the private industry by roping in foreign Original Equipment Manufacturers
  2. FRCV is a tender for the procurement of futuristic tanks through the Strategic Partnership model
  3. FRCV would replace the Russian T-72 tanks presently in service

Arjun tanks to continue

  1. FRCV programme would not “scuttle” the indigenous Arjun tanks as the service had already inducted the Arjun Mk-1 tanks

Navy to use U.S. aircraft launch system in ship

Note4Students

                Mains Paper 3 | Security challenges

Prelims:  CATOBAR, EMALS, INS Vikrant

Mains level: Not Much


News

Context

    1. The Navy is likely to go with an advanced catapult-based aircraft launch mechanism (CATOBAR) from the U.S. for its second indigenous aircraft carrier (IAC-II), which is on the drawing board.

 

  • For some time, India has been exploring the possibility of installing the U.S. electromagnetic aircraft launch system (EMALS).

 

  1. The two countries had set up a joint working group on Aircraft Carrier Technology Cooperation (JWGACTC) under the Defence Technology and Trade Initiative, which held several rounds of discussions
  2. The group concluded its 4th meeting in New Delhi recently.

Technology

  1. The U.S. has offered India its latest EMALS technology, developed by General Atomics Aeronautical Systems Inc., which has just been installed on the Gerald Ford carrier.
  2. While the older generation of CATOBAR was powered by a steam catapult, EMALS uses an electric motor-driven catapult instead, which allows the launch of much heavier aircraft and also reduces the stress on the aircraft.
  3. However, the system is expensive, something that needs to be factored in.
  4. EMALS will allow us to operate heavy surveillance aircraft in addition to heavy fighters

IAC-II

  1. The Navy envisages the IAC-II to be around 65,000 tonnes and capable of carrying over 50 aircraft.
  2. While the Navy is keen on nuclear propulsion, which would give it unlimited range and endurance, its development in time seems doubtful.

INS Vikrant

  1. India’s first domestic carrier, Vikrant, weighing 40,000 tonnes, is in an advanced stage of construction in Kochi and is scheduled to be launched by 2018-end.
  2.  The motto of the ship is Jayema Sam Yudhi Sprdhah, which is taken from Rig Veda and is translated as “I defeat those who fight against me.
  3. It works on a Short Take-Off But Arrested Recovery (STOBAR) mechanism similar to that in the present carrier INS Vikramaditya, with an angular ski-jump.

India eyes military expansion; Sitharaman to spend Diwali with soldiers in Andaman tri-service command

Image Source

Note4students

Mains Paper 3: Internal Security | Security challenges and their management in border areas

From UPSC perspective, the following things are important:

Prelims level: INS Baaz

Mains level: Very important article. It shows Indian Navy’s plans of expansion in the Indian Ocean and talks about strategically important areas in the region.


News

India’s plan of Military expansion

  1. India is working on expanding the military effectiveness of its outpost at the juncture of Bay of Bengal and Andaman Sea
  2. This includes creation of military infrastructure for greater naval presence in the islands which dominates the strategically important Malacca Strait

Possible reasons behind these steps

  1. The military focus is on countering the increasing Chinese presence in the region, which has been a cause of concern
  2. Chinese submarines have been sighted in the area and have also been docked at bases in Pakistan and Sri Lanka

Extension of airstrip at INAS Baaz

  1. INAS Baaz is the naval aviation base on Campbell Bay on the Great Nicobar island
  2. It is currently being extended from 3,050 feet to 10,000 feet
  3. The extension is scheduled to be completed by 2021
  4. It will allow the Navy to place its modern P-8I surveillance aircraft at INAS Baaz
  5. The Navy currently operates its eight P-8I aircraft(procured from the US in 2013) from INS Rajali in Tamil Nadu
  6. If the P-8I aircraft shift to Campbell Bay, our surveillance reach will get multiplied by thousand miles

Why is INS BAAZ important?

  1.  Baaz gives us that flexibility which will cover South China Sea
  2. Moreover, Baaz is adjacent to Malacca straits, an area of immense strategic interest to us

Other developments

  1. The Navy also plans to commission its second Floating Dry Dock Navy (FDDN)
  2. It will allow more naval ships to be maintained and serviced in the islands
  3. The Navy is also in the process of constructing three forward operating bases (FOBs) in the islands — at Diglipur, Kamorta and at Campbell Bay
  4. It will allow its Khukri class corvettes to be distributed across various locations in the archipelago

Nirmala Sitharaman commissions warship INS Kiltan in Indian Navy

Image Source

Note4students

Mains Paper 3: Internal Security | Security challenges and their management in border areas

From the UPSC perspective following things are important:

Prelims Level: Particulars of the INS Kitan

Mains Level: Specially mentioned in the Mains Syllabus. Also, it is a first-of-its-kind which make its more important for the exam.


News

INS Kiltan commissioned

  1. The Defence minister has commissioned the indigenously-built anti-submarine warfare stealth corvette INS Kiltan
  2. This is the third of the four Kamorta-class corvettes being built under Project 28
  3. The ship hosts a predominantly indigenous cutting-edge weapons

Particulars of the INS Kitan

  1. It is India’s first major warship to have a superstructure of carbon fibre composite material resulting in improved stealth features, lower top weight and maintenance costs
  2. In the future, it would also be installed with short range SAM system and carry an integral ASW helicopter

Background

  1. The ship derives its name from one of the islands in Aminidivi group of the strategically located Lakshadweep and Minicoy group of islands
  2. The ship also boasts of the proud legacy of the erstwhile Petya Class ship of same name ‘Kiltan (P79)’ built in the USSR
  3. It had actively participated as Task Force Commander in ‘Operation Trident’ during the 1971 India-Pakistan war

Indigenous artillery gun sets new record in range

Note4students

Mains Paper 3: Science & Technology | Science and Technology- developments and their applications and effects in everyday life Achievements of Indians in science & technology; indigenization of technology and developing new technology

From UPSC perspective, the following things are important:

Prelims level: Particulars of the Gun

Mains level: It is a good example of Make in India in Defence.


News

Setting up of a World Record

  1. The advanced towed artillery gun system (ATAGS) has set a world record in range by hitting targets at a distance of 48 km
  2. ATAGS  is being jointly developed by the Defence Research and Development Organisation and the private sector
  3. During trial firings, ATAGS registered the longest ever distance of 48.074 km, surpassing the maximum ranges of 35-40 km fired by any artillery gun system in this category

Development of the Gun

  1. The development is being done through a consortium based model
  2. It was designed by DRDO’s Armament Research and Development Establishment (ARDE)
  3. In addition, Bharat Forge Limited of Kalyani Group, Tata Power Strategic Engineering Division and Mahindra Defence Naval System are involved in a big way, along with the Ordnance Factory Board

Navy to get advanced choppers

Note4students

Mains Paper 2: Governance | Government policies and interventions for development in various sectors and issues arising out of their design and implementation.

From UPSC perspective, the following things are important:

Prelims level: Particulars of the Strategic Partnership Model

Mains level: Indian Government has a well structured plan to increase Indian Navy presence in the Indian Ocean, as a Blue Water Navy, this step can be seen as a step towards this plan.


News

Helicopters for ‘Special Operations’

  1. The Indian Navy is looking to add to its fleet dedicated helicopters for ‘Special Operations’
  2. Some of the Naval Multi-Role Helicopters (NMRH) for which the tender was issued last week will be in this configuration
  3. Of the 123 NMRH to be procured, 33 will be dedicated variants for Special Operations

Request for Information (RFI) by the Navy

  1. The Navy had issued the Request for Information (RFI) to global Original Equipment Manufacturers (OEM) for the procurement of 123 NMRH and 111 Naval Utility Helicopters (NUH)
  2. The procurement would be under the recently approved Strategic Partnership (SP) model of the Defence Procurement Procedure (DPP)

Back2basics

Strategic Partnership(SP) Model

Click here to read more about it.

Army to get six Apache helicopters

Image Source

Note4students

Mains Paper 2: IR | Bilateral, regional and global groupings and agreements involving India and/or affecting India’s interests

From UPSC perspective, the following things are important:

Prelims level: Country of Origin of helicopters, DAC.

Mains level: Good example of rising Indo-US defense ties.


News

Approval from Defence Ministry

  1. Defence Ministry has approved the purchase of six AH-64 Apache attack helicopters from the U.S. , for Indian Army
  2. The Defence Acquisition Council (DAC) has cleared total capital acquisitions worth about Rs. 4,700 crore

Original Deal

  1. This deal is of $3 bn, India has contracted 22 Apache attack helicopters and 15 Chinook heavy-lift helicopters through the Foreign Military Sales programme

Prithvi-II missile test-fired

Note4Students:

Mains Paper 3: Science and Technology | Science and Technology- indigenization of technology and developing new technology

Another success in India’s Integrated Guided Missile Development Programme (IGMDP). Read details about missile as well as authorities concerned (In B2B).

From UPSC perspective, following things are important:

Prelims level: Prithvi-II missile, other missiles developed in IGMDP, Strategic Forces Command and DRDO.

Mains level: Success of India’s missile development programme and way forward.


News:

  1. India on Friday successfully test-fired its indigenously developed nuclear-capable Prithvi-II missile from a test range in Odisha as part of a user trial by the Army
  2. About the launch: Launch was carried out from a mobile launcher from launch complex-3 of the Integrated Test Range (ITR) at Chandipur (Odisha)
  3. The launch was carried out by the specially formed Strategic Force Command and monitored by the scientists of the Defence Research and Development Organisation
  4. About Prithvi Missile: Prithvi is a surface-to-surface missile, which has a strike range of 350 km.
  5. It is capable of carrying 500 kg to 1,000 kg of warheads and is thrusted by liquid propulsion twin engines
  6. It uses advanced inertial guidance system with manoeuvring trajectory to hit its target with precision

Back2Basics:

Strategic Forces Command

  1. The Strategic Forces Command (SFC) sometimes called Strategic Nuclear Command, forms part of India’s Nuclear Command Authority (NCA)
  2. It is responsible for the management and administration of the country’s tactical and strategic nuclear weapons
    stockpile
  3. It will have the sole responsibility of initiating the process of delivering nuclear weapons and warheads, after
    acquiring explicit approval from the NCA
  4. The SFC manages and administers all strategic forces by exercising complete command and control over nuclear assets, and producing all contingency plans as needed to fulfill the required tasks

Army to induct 18 Dhanush guns

Note4Students:

Mains Paper 3: Science and Technology | Science and Technology- indigenization of technology and developing
new technology

From UPSC perspective following things are important:

Prelims level: Particulars of Dhanush and Bofors Gun.

Mains level: Important as an example of ‘Make in India’ initiative in the defence sector.


News:

  1. What: The first regiment of 18 Dhanush artillery guns will be inducted into the Army by the end of the year
  2. Dhanush is the indigenously upgraded variant of the Swedish Bofors guns
  3. Why is this Artillery Gun Superior? Dhanush is an upgraded version, based on the original design of the Swedish 155-mm Bofors howitzers, which India procured in the mid-1980s
  4. It is a 155-mm, 45-calibre gun with a maximum range of 40 km in salvo mode, compared to the 39-calibre, 27-km range of the original guns
  5. Background: The gun as of June 2016 has entered into active production with confirmed order of 414 guns

Strategic Partnership model takes effect

Note4students

Mains Paper 3: Science and Technology | Science and Technology- indigenization of technology and developing new technology

From UPSC perspective, following things are important:

Prelims level: Particulars of the Policy.

Mains level: It will promote Make in India’ in defence manufacturing and therefore it is an important topic for Mains.


News

  1. What: Strategic Partnership (SP) policy, intended to promote Indian private sector participation in defence manufacturing has formally came into effect recently.
  2. The Defence Ministry notified the policy as the final chapter under the Defence Procurement Procedure
  3. Why this model: The SP model is being implemented to enable participation of private Indian firms in ‘Make in India’ in defence.
  4. The SP is expected to play the role of a system integrator by building an extensive ecosystem comprising development partners, specialised vendors and suppliers
  5. Relaxation for inexperienced Private Sector: The policy acknowledges that the Indian private sector currently has limited experience in defence manufacturing.
  6. In view of this, the policy states, “besides any experience in defence manufacturing, potential SPs will be identified primarily based on their experience and competence in integration of multi-disciplinary functional system of systems, engineering and manufacturing.”
  7. Segments under SP: Of the four segments under SP, two are for the Navy: submarines and utility helicopters.
  8. The others are single-engine fighter aircraft for the Indian Air Force and armoured vehicles for the Army.

INS Kalvari to join Navy by July

Note4students

Mains Paper 3: Science and Technology | Science and Technology- indigenization of technology and developing new technology The inclusion of Scorpene submarines,

The inclusion of Scorpene submarines, etc. will boost the strength of India’s navy.

From UPSC perspective, following things are important

Prelims Level: Note down about Kalvari, Khanderi and Scorpenes from this newscard, questions on them are possible in Prelims


Context:

  1. The first of the six Scorpene submarines, being built in India under technology transfer from France
  2. It is likely to join the Navy by July or August
  3. Kalvari- Kalvari is named after a deep-sea tiger shark.
  4. Six Scorpene submarines are being built under Project-75
  5. It is being built by Mazagon Docks Ltd. with technology transfer from DCNS, a French naval shipbuilder
  6. Trial for Khanderi: The second Scorpene submarine Khanderi, named after an island fort of Maratha ruler Chhatrapati Shivaji, was launched in the sea in January and will begin sea trials
  7. Chinese submarines: Chinese submarines on anti-piracy patrols had in the past docked in Sri Lanka, causing
    concerns in New Delhi
  8. Other firsts: The construction of the first indigenous aircraft-carrier Vikrant would start trials in 2019.

Back2bascis

Scorpene

  1. The Scorpène-class submarines are a class of dieselelectric attack submarines
  2. They are jointly developed by the French Direction des Constructions Navales (DCN) and the Spanish company
    Navantia, and now by DCNS
  3. It features diesel propulsion and an additional airindependent propulsion (AIP)
  4. The Scorpène class of submarines has four subtypes.

Project 75

  1. Under Project 75, six Scorpene submarines are being built with assistance and technology transfer from DCNS of France under deal signed in October 2005.
  2. The first of the series INS Kalvari is completing sea trials and will be commissioned shortly. The other four submarines are expected to be launched at nine-month intervals after the INS Khanderi.
  3. At Present, the Indian Navy operates only 13 conventionally powered submarines and two nuclear submarines.

Navy says no to Tejas variant

  1. Source: Navy Chief Admiral Sunil Lanba
  2. What: The indigenously developed Light Combat Aircraft (LCA) Tejas does not meet requirements
  3. Reason: The current weight of the Naval LCA with the underpowered engine does not allow it to fly from a carrier
  4. This effectively means the end of the road for the fighter’s Naval variant as the service is looking at the global market for its needs
  5. The Naval LCA made its maiden flight in April 2012 and two prototypes are currently undergoing flying as part of the development

Note4students:

Tejas has been inducted into the IAF. But the Navy’s rejection shows that India has just begun to get rid of its dependence on other nations for its defence needs. It also impacts Make in India.

Back2basics:

The Light Combat Aircraft (LCA) is the smallest and lightest multi-role supersonic fighter aircraft of its class. It is designed and developed by the Aeronautical Development Agency (ADA) and Hindustan Aeronautics Limited (HAL) for the Indian Air Force and the Indian Navy.

In the early eighties, it was realised that no organisation existed which had the total capability to develop such an aircraft all on its own. The last time an indigenous fighter aircraft, the HF 24 flew was in 1961. Since then, the HF 24 assembly line had been shut down and the design team had been wound up. The only way left was to develop an aircraft from scratch.

To better accomplish these goals, the government of India in 1984 decided to establish the Aeronautical Development Agency (ADA) to manage the LCA programme. Hindustan Aeronautics Limited, (HAL) was to be the principal partner with participation of various DRDO & CSIR Laboratories, Public & private sector industries and academic institutions.

Agni-I successfully test-fired

  1. Agni-I missile was successfully test-fired from the Integrated Test Range on the Wheeler Island off the Odisha coast on Tuesday
  2. The missile is capable of carrying a nuclear warhead weighing 500 kg
  3. The DRDO designed and developed the Agni-I, which is a single stage missile that weighs 12 tonnes and is 15 metres long. It has a range of 750 km
  4. The missile, which has already been inducted into the armed forces, has proved its excellent performance in terms of range, accuracy and lethality

A relook at defence blacklist

  1. What: Defence Minister Parrikar said the Ministry will “re-ascertain” the list of blacklisted firms based on the new policy
  2. The new policy is called ‘Guidelines of the Ministry of Defence for penalties in business dealings with entities’
  3. It was approved by the Defence Acquisition Council (DAC) on Nov 7 and was released by the Ministry on 21 Nov
  4. The new policy has reduced the period of blanket ban to 5 years from 10 years. However, the upper limit of the ban period has not been specified
  5. The policy makes a provision to do business with a blacklisted firm for support of critical spares and maintenance in view of national security
  6. But it requires the approval of the Defence Minister

DRDO successfully carries out maiden-flight of indigenous UAV Rustom-II

  1. What: Rustom-II, India’s indigenously developed long-endurance combat-capable drone, successfully completed its maiden-flight
  2. This has given a boost to India’s development programme for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV)
  3. TAPAS 201 (RUSTOM–II) has an endurance of 24 hours and can conduct surveillance and reconnaissance missions for the country’s armed forces
  4. It can also be used as an unmanned armed combat vehicle on the lines of the US’s Predator drone

Blacklisting policy for tainted defence deals approved

  1. What: The government has approved the long- pending policy for blacklisting firms involved in corruption in arms purchases
  2. The government has stated that instead of blanket blacklisting of firms involved in corrupt practices, heavy fines could be imposed and banning would be the last resort
  3. Why: In several instances in the past, banning of firms had adversely affected defence preparedness
  4. As major military platforms were grounded due to lack of spares and support

Range of BrahMos to be doubled

  1. What: India and Russia have agreed to double the range of the BrahMos supersonic cruise missile that the two produce together
  2. Background: This follows India’s recent accession to the Missile Technology Control Regime (MTCR)
  3. Earlier, India was denied access to the missile technology with range over 300 km as it was not a member state
  4. BrahMos has already been deployed by the Army and the Navy in anti-ship and precision strike roles respectively

Nagpur SEZ to host Rafale offset manufacturing

  1. Event: An integrated facility will be commissioned by the Reliance Anil Dhirubhai Ambani Group and its French partner Dassault in Nagpur in the next few months
  2. Purpose: Execution of offset contracts of the just-concluded deal for 36 French fighters
  3. Amount: Four French companies which have a major stake in the Rafale deal will execute offsets worth about Rs. 30,000 crore as per their share
  4. Background: Last month India and France concluded a €7.87-billion deal for 36 Rafale multi-role fighter jets in a fly-away condition
  5. Offset: It has a 50 percent offset clause under which that contract value has be invested and sourced from India
  6. As per the agreement about 30 percent of the Rs. 30,000 crore i.e. about Rs. 9,000 crore has to be invested in R&D along with DRDO for technology development

Excalibur to hold the fort now

  1. Delay in purchase: Faced with a huge delay in acquiring world-class rifles for its soldiers, the Army is now reluctantly planning to induct the indigenously developed Excalibur
  2. It had earlier rejected the Excalibur
  3. Excalibur is an upgraded version of the trouble-prone INSAS (Indian National Small Arms System) inducted in the mid-1990s
  4. It is built by the Ordnance Factory Board (OFB)

Goa periscope: A Russian sub leased

  1. India and Russia have reportedly reached an agreement on the lease of a second nuclear submarine during the recent BRICS Summit
  2. The deal is worth $2 billion
  3. India had earlier leased an Akula-II class nuclear attack submarine (SSN) for a period of 10 years
  4. The vessel was inducted into service as INS Chakra in April 2012
  5. The govt. wanted to lease at least one more submarine to train Navy crew in the complex submarine operations to prepare for a large fleet of nuclear submarines

Army’s VSHORAD tender to go for re-confirmatory trials

  1. SAAB (a defence producer) of Sweden has begun training engineers of Bharat Forge under a proposed joint venture in anticipation of a contract to supply air defence systems to the Army
  2. The move comes even as SAAB is gearing up for confirmatory trials for the Very Short Range Air Defence Systems (VSHORAD) tender
  3. Also while it is making an aggressive pitch for the Short Range Surface to Air Missile (SRSAM) tender
  4. These systems are meant to replace the legacy Russian air defence systems in service and have seen repeated delays

Discuss: Remember India’s recent Defence Procurement Policy? What are the salient provisions? Go back and revise now

Rafale deal concluded

  1. News: India and France on Friday concluded an Inter-Governmental Agreement for the purchase of 36 Rafale fighter jets to cost the nation Euro 7.87 billion
  2. Deal includes the 36 aircraft, weapons, spares, support and maintenance and the jet will be customised as per the requirements of the IAF
  3. France has to ensure that 75% of the fleet i.e. 27 fighters are operationally available at any given time
  4. 50% offset clause: French industry will invest half the contract value back in the country which is expected to develop some expertise domestically in the aerospace sector

India sucessfully test-fires surface-to-air missile

  1. The new long range surface-to-air missile would galvanise India’s air defence capabilities
    Jointly developed with Israel
  2. Launched from a mobile launcher at the Integrated Test Range (ITR) in Chandipur, off Odisha coast
  3. Apart from the missile, the system includes a Multi Functional Surveillance and Threat Alert Radar (MF-STAR)
  4. Function: Detection, tracking and guidance of the missile

Indo-Russian project to replace An-32 in limbo

  1. Context: The medium transport aircraft, the planned replacement for the An-32s to be jointly developed by India and Russia
  2. News: The fate of the project seems uncertain with India having second thoughts on the project, but Russia deciding to go ahead with the initial design on its own following the unending delay
  3. Background: An inter-governmental agreement in 2007 to develop and produce the 20-tonne aircraft to replace the An-32 transport aircraft
  4. An-32 transport aircraft is in service in both the Indian and Russian air forces
  5. In 2009, Hindustan Aeronautics Ltd. (HAL) and the United Aircraft Corporation (UAC) of Russia set up a joint venture with an investment of $300 million each by the two air forces
  6. However, differences over the nature of the engine stalled progress

France offers help to resurrect Kaveri engine for Tejas

  1. News: France has offered to help India revive the unsuccessful Kaveri engine project for the indigenous Tejas aircraft among other high-end collaborations
  2. Context: Part of the offsets in the multi-billion Euro Rafale fighter plane deal, which is now in the final stages
  3. An upgraded Kaveri engine with increased thrust can be developed with French cooperation, which can eventually be used for Tejas, which currently uses an American engine

Indian Excalibur rifle awaits certification trials

  1. News: An indigenously produced new generation rifle, Excalibur, is awaiting user trails and final certification
  2. Excalibur: A fully automatic rifle which fires 5.56mm ammunition and is an upgraded version of the current INSAS (Indian National Small Arms System)
  3. INSAS was inducted in the mid-nineties but had a troubled history
  4. Background: The Army has been attempting to procure a new standard issue rifle for a decade
  5. Recently, the overambitious tender for rifles with interchangeable barrels was cancelled after a 4year process as no vendor could meet the requirements

Made in India Tejas joins Indian Air Force

  1. News: The indigenously developed Tejas Light Combat Aircraft joined the Indian Air Force’s squadron called Flying Daggers
  2. Tejas was developed by the Aeronautical Development Agency and produced by the public sector aircraft manufacturer, Hindustan Aeronautics Ltd
  3. Importance: Culmination of a 33-year, Rs 8,000 crore national dream to have an Indian fighter in the country’s air defence fleet
  4. Current IAF fighters are the French-origin Mirage-2000s and the Russian origin Sukhoi-30s and the aged MiGs

Surface-to-air missile test successful

  1. News: A new generation Medium-Range Surface-to-Air Missile (MRSAM) was successfully test-fired twice
  2. Developed by: DRDO (India) and Israel Aerospace Industries (IAI)
  3. From: Integrated Test Range off Odisha Coast
  4. Significance: Boosting India’s efforts to fill gaps in its air defence capabilities
  5. The MRSAM is the land version of LRSAM (long range surface to air missile) that DRDO and IAI are developing for the Navy

Pulgaon ammunition depot fire

  1. News: The deadly blast at the Central Ammunition Depot (CAD) in Pulgaon might have been caused by defective anti-tank mines, packed with poor quality explosives
  2. Manufacturing defects in the anti-tank 1A ND mines made by the Ordnance Factory Chanda, were repeatedly brought to the notice of various stakeholders
  3. Including the Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO), the Ordnance Factory Board (OFB) and the Ministry of Defence
  4. Though a ban was imposed on their use, the mines were not destroyed but remained in the depot
  5. Context: The recent fire at Pulgaon claimed the lives of 19 military and civilian personnel

Defence imports may come down

  1. News: Defence imports would be brought down below 40% by 2019, from the current 60%
  2. Move aimed at becoming more self-sufficient during times of war, to avoid short-supply

Policy clarity on defence acquisitions soon

  1. The following decisions will get more clarity once the DAC, headed by the Defence Minister, meets:
  2. The Air Force’s long-range air defence systems
  3. The Army’s artillery modernisation programme
  4. The Navy’s plans to procure new missile boats and special operations vehicles

Army to involve industry in its long-term plans

  1. Context: The Indian Army is attempting a major reworking of weapons design and procurement by incorporating academia and industry in its long-term perspective plans
  2. This will be done under the soon to be set up Army Design Bureau (ADB)
  3. This is done on the lines of the Navy’s design bureau which has been successful in indigenising warship design
  4. Aim: To bring together academic institutions and the industry to develop indigenous knowhow (Knowledge and ideas are with academia, while industry has the resources)
  5. Priority areas: Small arms, smart munitions, communication and electronic warfare systems and Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV), both surveillance and combat etc

India says NO to Google Street View

  1. India has declined to give security clearance to the Google’s Street View service
  2. Why? Objections by the Defence Ministry about security of sensitive defence installations
  3. It is not possible to monitor the service once it is launched and it would be detrimental to national security
  4. Pathankot: The proposal was rejected in February itself, primarily amid security concerns after the terror attack at the Pathankot airbase
  5. Investigating agencies suspect that terrorists used Google maps as they were aware of the airbase’s topography
  6. Street View service: Allows users to have a panoramic view of places in cities, as they would look in real life
  7. Google uses cars and bikes fitted with cameras to collect 360-degree images of a place

Deficiencies in ammunition management

  1. The Comptroller and Auditor General (CAG) and Parliamentary Standing Committees had on various occasions pointed to deficiencies in ammunition management and suggested corrective measures
  2. 2015 CAG report: (For the period 2008-09 to 2012-13) The depots are functioning with risk of fire accident, as the fire fighting equipment is not held as per requirement
  3. Also, the movement of ammunitions suffered from inadequacies such as delay in issuing them, lack of proper accounting by depots and transportation by means other than the specified vans

Ammunition management steps taken so far

  1. Modernisation plans for storing of ammunition have been ongoing since 2000-01
  2. 75-80% of ammunition are now kept in specialised huts however, still 25% are stored outside under tarpaulin covers or in temporary sheds
  3. Also, all ammunition is segregated based on their volatility
  4. Electrification is done in such a way that it did not pose a risk, grass was cut regularly and surprise visits were made to check compliance

Experts see need for major overhaul

  1. Context: The fire accident at the Central Ammunition Depot in Pulgaon
  2. Reform: Experts have called for a complete overhaul of the Army’s ammunition management system
  3. Need: To study the best practices of developed nations, how their armies store their ammunition
  4. Human resource: The personnel are well trained to handle all kinds of ammunition
  5. Proving: Army would carry out a technical procedure called ‘proving’ all the ammunition in the area
  6. It is a long exercise that involves a close examination of all ammunition

Scorpenes to become Navy’s mainstay

  1. Context: French Scorpenes will replace Navy’s conventional submarine fleet Russian Kilo class vessels
  2. Mazgaon Dock has commissioned second submarine workshop
  3. The new assembly workshop is a pre-engineered building structure to handle construction of five submarines
  4. It can be used to construct additional Scorpenes or the new line of submarines under Project-75I
  5. Scorpenes will have 35 % indigenous content
  6. The first of the Scorpenes, Kalvari, is currently undergoing sea trials
  7. Scorpenes will play a major role in ensuring fleet strength

Parrikar sets $2-billion target- II

  1. Offsets: This is an area where exports and expertise can come
  2. During 2014-15, offset obligations brought in $990 million
  3. This is likely to touch $2 billion in the next two years
  4. Why? Because major deals for fighter aircraft and helicopters are expected to be signed
  5. Offset requirements: Foreign companies are required to invest a part of the contract value back in the country

Parrikar sets $2-billion target

  1. Target: Centre has set a target of $2 billion in defence exports in the next two years
  2. The Defence Ministry has noted the concerns expressed over the issue of strategic partners in manufacturing and would hold discussions with the industry
  3. Govt intends to identify major private companies eligible to take the lead in critical defence projects so as to boost domestic manufacturing

India successfully test-fires advanced interceptor missile

  1. Context: Successful test fire of indigenously developed supersonic interceptor missile
  2. It is a full-fledged multi-layer Ballistic Missile Defence system
  3. Developed by Defence Research Development Organisation (DRDO)
  4. Features: A 7.5-metre-long single stage solid rocket equipped with navigation system, hi-tech computer and an electro-mechanical activator
  5. Also, own mobile launcher, secure data link for interception, sophisticated radar
  6. Capabilities: To destroy the incoming hostile missile in mid-air in an endo-atmospheric altitude, independent tracking and homing capabilities

Indigenous LCH to undergo trials in August

  1. Context: LCH is set to undergo weapon certification trails in July-August
  2. LCH: Light Combat Helicopter, an indigenously built weapon helicopter
  3. Features: Integration of mission sensors such as electro optical system, helmet pointing system, weapon systems air to air missiles
  4. Earlier: It had successfully undergone development trials under various conditions
  5. The Hindustan Aeronautics Limited has developed this 5.8 tonne multirole attack chopper
  6. Use: Provide close air support to ground forces

Navy to bid adieu to Sea Harriers

  1. Context: Harriers fighter aircraft is to be replaced by Indian Naval Air Squadron 300 (INAS 300)
  2. The MiG 29K/Kub fighters will also be inducted
  3. The sea harriers was inducted in 1983 & has dominated the sky protecting the fleet from foreign Long Range Maritime Patrol aircraft
  4. Sea Harrier is a naval Short/Vertical Take-Off and Landing (VSTOL) jet fighter
  5. It is designed and manufactured by the British Aerospace
  6. Features: Ability of vertical takeoff, landing, Air to Air refueling, fitted with anti-ship Sea Eagle missile
  7. History: Was used in operation Vijay and Parakram & also in Falklands War (1982)

Appoint Chief of Defence Staff

  1. Context: Report by Parliamentary Standing Committee on Defence
  2. Demand: The Chief of Defence Staff (CDS) be appointed at the earliest
  3. Background: The recommendation for creating the post of CDS is pending since 2001
  4. In 2011, the Naresh Chandra task force on national security recommended the appointment of a permanent chairman, chiefs of staff committee

No plan from DRDO yet

  1. Context: Report by Parliamentary Standing Committee on Defence
  2. Concerns: Even after 58 years [after establishment], there is no clear-cut technological road map prepared
  3. Also many projects had been closed at the initial stage itself as well as delay in certain major projects
  4. Wasteful expenditure incurred by DRDO on closure of major projects like Airborne Surveillance Platform, Cargo Ammunition
  5. Also some other projects like GPS-based system as an alternative to fire direction radar and several air-defence gun systems
  6. Panel has called for scientific, technical and concurrent audit of all ongoing DRDO projects by an independent agency

Reorient DRDO, focus on key technologies: Panel

  1. Context: Report by Parliamentary Standing Committee on Defence
  2. Suggestions: DRDO should reorient itself with a technology road map
  3. Focus energy on developing certain key technologies
  4. Low-end technologies should be assigned to private sector

Despite impetus, private sector lags in defence manufacturing

  1. Private share: Total value of private sector contribution to defence production remained Rs.2,500 crore for the year 2014-15, out of a total of Rs.49,531 crore that was procured from within India
  2. Efforts: This is despite efforts by the government to increase share of private sector participation in defence manufacturing
  3. Govt has issued 75 industrial licenses to 56 Indian companies for manufacture of various defence items but till date, none of these companies has reported commencement of production
  4. Other findings: Total procurement for the three services was Rs.78,754 crore, out of which the procurement from indigenous sources was Rs.49,532 crore
  5. Indigenous: Most of it went to public sector units- Defence Public Sector Undertakings (DPSUs) and Ordnance Factories

World military spending up in 2015, India in sixth position

  1. Context: The latest report from the Stockholm International Peace Research Institute
  2. News: India is the 6th largest military spender in 2015 having spent $51.3 billion
  3. India moved one rank up from last year accounting for 3.1 percent of global military expenditure
  4. Significance: India is also ahead of countries like France, Germany and Israel who happen to be among its top arms suppliers
  5. Fact: The US remained by far the world’s largest spender in 2015, followed by China, Saudi Arabia, Russia and UK

India jumps to fourth spot in defence spending

  1. Context: A report by US research firm IHS Inc.
  2. What? India has become the world’s fourth largest spender on defence, following a 13.1% increase in its 2016-17 defence budget
  3. Why? India’s rise from sixth position last year is a result of an increase in expenditure to $50.7 billion
  4. Also, military spending cuts by Russia and Saudi Arabia are the factors

 

BEL-Thales joint venture to develop PHAROS fire control radar

  1. Context: Thales and BEL-Thales Systems Limited (BTSL), the joint venture between Bharat Electronics Limited (BEL) and Thales
  2. Objective: Allow Thales and BTSL to jointly develop PHAROS, a fire control radar for both gun and missile systems
  3. This will strengthen the co-operation of Thales and BTSL in the field of innovative technologies
  4. Make in India vision: This co-development agreement is in line with the ‘Make in India’ vision of Govt of India

Defence policy to give a push to ‘Make in India’

  1. News: New defence procurement policy was unveiled by govt with an aim to ensure transparency, fast track acquisition process
  2. Context: Policy lays the roadmap on how India, the world’s largest arms importer, will acquire defence equipment in the future
  3. About Policy: Included a new category to acquire weapons–IDDM (Indigenously Designed, Developed and Manufactured)
  4. IDDM will be the first preferred category of preference
  5. Defence Acquisition Council (DAC) to take a “fast-track” route to acquire weapons, something which was limited to only armed forces till now
  6. Defence export clearances will now be granted online

Reliance Defence, Israel’s Rafael to form JV to build missiles in India

  1. News: The joint venture (JV) company will be set up in India in the highly specialized areas of air-to-air missiles, air defence systems and large aerostats
  2. Importance: The joint venture is one of the biggest between an Indian company with any original equipment manufacturer
  3. Impact: It will provide big thrust into the field of indigenous production and development of high precision and weapon systems in India
  4. Future: The JV will address multiple programs valued at more than Rs.65,000 crore over the next 10 years

Parrikar flags off India’s first indigenous Sonar Dome

  1. News: India has manufactured its indigenous composites sonar dome, a first of its kind in the country
  2. All anti-submarine warfare ships have a sonar array fitted to the ship structure below the waterline
  3. Agency: Designed and produced by a DRDO and has been manufactured by a composites manufacturing company Kineco
  4. The sonar functions as the ship’s underwater eyes and ears
  5. Sonar dome: It is a structure fitted over the sonar array so that its electronics and sensors are not exposed to surrounding hostile environment and has to be structurally sound as well as acoustically transparent

INS Beas visits Doha, Qatar

  1. News: Indian Naval ship Beas is on an official visit to Doha, Qatar
  2. Why? To participate in the fifth edition of Doha International Maritime Defence Exhibition (DIMDEX)
  3. Context: DIMDEX is held biennially at Doha
  4. Opportunities ahead: Provides an ideal platform for showcasing our indigenous shipbuilding capability and technological prowess, innovation in Naval systems
  5. Provides an opportunity to interact with other participating warships from various countries
  6. This contribute towards strengthening ties, enhancing mutual understanding and building ‘Bridges of Friendship’
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Capacity crisis in Indian Air Force

  1. News: A US expert has highlighted Indian Air Force’s falling end strength and problematic force structure, combined with its troubled acquisition and development program
  2. Reason: The IAF’s fighter force is well short of its sanctioned strength, and many of its frontline aircraft are obsolete
  3. Challenge: The main barrier behind successful acquisition and modernisation drive is serious constraints on India’s defence budget
  4. Future: To strengthen its combat capabilities with 4th-generation-plus Western fighters

DPP launched

  1. Context: The much-awaited Defence Procurement Policy (DPP)-2016 was launched at DefExpo 2016
  2. Aim: To ensure transparency, fast-track acquisition and give a push to the ‘Make in India’ initiative
  3. Missing: It doesn’t contain a key chapter on the proposed strategic partnership
  4. According to govt, it will take another 2-3 months to finalise this
  5. DPP lays the road map on how India, the world’s largest arms importer, will acquire equipment in the future

DRDO to Bring Alive Spirit of ‘Make In India’ at Defexpo 2016

  1. News: Showcasing the state-of-the-art military systems and technologies by DRDO in Defence Expo 2016 at Goa
  2. Significance: It will narrate the saga of self-reliance & national pride with Make in India spirit
  3. Design theme: Rise of Futurism
  4. Objective: Emphasises its vision to make India prosperous by establishing world class S&T base
  5. Provide our Defence Services decisive edge by equipping them with internationally competitive systems and solutions
  6. Focus on: Make in India and Self-Reliance and provide a platform for collaboration with industry and academia
PIB

Learn about Exercise Iron Fist

  1. It is a biennial event that showcases the firepower capacity of the Indian Air Force
  2. It demonstrates the IAF’s capability to safeguard our national interests
  3. It includes combat manoeuvres and live firing of Air-to-Ground and Air-to-Air precision weapons by Fighters, Transport Aircraft and Helicopters
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India-Bangladesh drill in Sundarbans

  1. News: A 3-day long joint exercise between Border Guard Bangladesh (BGB) and Border Security Force (BSF) of India is underway in Sundarbans border area
  2. Context: Exercise is titled Sundarban Moitry (Sundarbans Alliance). This is the first time such an exercise is taking place between the 2 border forces
  3. Four aspects: 
  • To asses the problems at the risky areas of the Sunderbans
  • Increasing patrolling in the area by both parties
  • Raiding suspicious cargo and trawlers on the Bangladesh-India sea transportation route jointly
  • Be aware of the forest camps of the partner country

India test-fires n-capable Agni-I

  1. News: India successfully test-fired its indigenously built nuclear-capable intermediate range Agni-I ballistic missile
  2. Features: Surface-to-surface, single-stage missile, powered by solid propellantsC and capable of hitting a target 700 km away
  3. Agni-I is designed to carry a payload of more than one tonne. Its strike range can be extended by reducing the payload

Indo – Indonesia Joint Training Exercise

  1. News: Fourth edition of Indo- Indonesia Joint Training Exercise Garuda Shakti IV 2016 was conducted at Military Training Area, Magelang, Indonesia
  2. Indian contingent: comprised of platoon sized troops of an Infantry Battalion under Southern Command theatre
  3. Context: Ceremony was filled with enthusiasm and has opened another chapter in enhancing ties between Indian and Indonesian Army
  4. Relevance: Opening ceremony showcased the dedication and commitment towards joint training and the will to share expertise gained in combat by both armies
  5. Training: Indian Army troops were oriented to the terrain and tactical aspects of training
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Indo-Indonesia Joint Training Exercise Garuda shakti IV

  1. Context: Conducted as part of military diplomacy between Indian and Indonesian Army alternatively in India and Indonesia resp.
  2. Where? Magelang, Indonesia
  3. Relevance: Exercise is conducted on a reciprocal basis and its first edition was conducted in the year 2012 in India
  4. Aim: Building and promoting positive relations between the 2 Armies of India and Indonesia
  5. Experience: Selected Indian unit has had varied operational experience in Counter Insurgency and Counter Terrorist operations in the Northern, Western and Eastern theatres
  6. Scope: Visualization of insurgency related crisis situation in rural / urban setting in Counter Insurgency environment
PIB

Indian firm to partner Israel for anti-tank missiles

  1. News: India’s Kalyani group will setup a joint venture with Rafale of Israel to build weapon systems in India
  2. They could start with the production of Spike Anti-Tank Guided Missile which the Indian Army is in the process of procuring
  3. Importance: It is in line with the govt’s ‘Make in India’ policy
  4. It will also enable the development and production of high end technology systems within the country

Two more AWACS from Israel

  1. Background: Indo-Israel ties got a major boost after Mr. Modi came to power
  2. News: The Cabinet Committee on Security has cleared the purchase of additional surveillance aircraft from Israel
  3. India will acquire 2 more Phalcon Airborne Early Warning and Control Systems (AWACS) at a cost of Rs. 7,500 crore under a tripartite agreement with Israel and Russia
  4. AWACS: They are advanced radars mounted on an aircraft to give 360 degree coverage to detect incoming aircraft and missiles at long ranges

Handing Over of Anjadiva Island to the Defence Ministry

  1. Context: Island was given by the State Govt of Goa to the Ministry of Defence in the year 1989
  2. Background: Anjadiva Island has been declared as a prohibited place by the State Government of Goa in 1989, under Official Secrets Act, 1923
  3. Significance: Project Sea Bird at Karwar is strategically located project of sensitive nature wherein access of people cannot be allowed freely
PIB

Indo-Seychelles Joint Training ‘Ex Lamitye’ concludes

  1. News: Exercise ‘Lamitye – 2016’, seventh in the series of Indo-Seychelles Joint Training Exercises, was conducted at Victoria, Mahe Island, Seychelles
  2. Aim: to improve interoperability between both Armies in jointly fighting Counter Insurgency / Counter Terrorism
  3. Structure: Indian contingent comprised of an infantry platoon and representatives from the Special Forces
  4. Seychelles People’s Defence Forces (SPDF) was represented by the Tazar (Special Forces Unit) and Seychelles Infantry
  5. ‘Exercise Lamitye’ meaning: ‘Friendship in Creole’, has been a bridge between the Armed Forces of India and SPDF since 2001
PIB

Indigenously developed Prithvi-II missile was successfully test fired

  1. Context: It was conducted by the Strategic Force Command (SFC) and was monitored by the scientists from DRDO
  2. Background: Missile test was carried out from a mobile launcher from launch complex-3 of the Integrated Test Range (ITR)
  3. Prithvi-II already has been inducted into India’s armed forces in 2003
  4. The last user trial of it was successfully conducted in November 2015 from the same test range

Govt opens up more defense production to private firms

  1. Context: Around 25% of the defence PSU (public sector undertaking) turnover can be off-loaded to the private sector
  2. Govt has identified 25 projects to be throw open to the private industry
  3. Earlier: the ministry has already delicensed 60-70% of the production
  4. Revised offset clause: will now be applied to contracts of more than Rs.2,000 crore instead of current Rs.300 crore
  5. Earlier offset clause: any foreign arms manufacturer securing an order worth more than Rs.300 crore from India has to source components worth 30% of the value of the order from India
  6. Benefit: removing a hurdle to foreign firms eyeing the Indian market

INDO-Nepal Battalion Level Combined military exercise commences

This is the Ninth Indo-Nepal Combined exercise and during the next 14 days of combined training

  1. The 14 day Indo-Nepal Combined Military Exercise Surya Kiran IX at general area, Pithoragarh
  2. The Combined Battalion Level Exercise is being conducted under the aegis of Panchshul Brigade of Central Command.
  3. Its emphasis would be laid on upgradation of tactical and practical skills by sharing each other’s experiences
  4. Also on enhancing interoperability in Jungle Warfare and Counter Terrorism operations in mountain terrain
  5. Focus will also be laid on Humanitarian Aid and Disaster Relief Operations which also includes medical and aviation aspects
PIB

India, China hold first joint tactical drill on border

The border troops of India and China held their first joint tactical exercise in the Chushul-Moldo area along the northern border.

  1. To ensure greater interaction between troops stationed along the Line of Actual Control, and thereby ensure peace and tranquillity along the border.
  2. The exercise focussed on actions to be coordinated to tackle jointly aspects of humanitarian aid and disaster relief
  3. The joint exercise, Sino-India Cooperation 2016, lasted an entire day.
  4. This exercise complements the Hand-in-Hand series of India-China Joint Exercises and the recently conducted joint exercise in Sikkim.

Nuclear-missile maker to woo investors as India revamps defence

India wants to embrace more shareholder scrutiny for the sake of national security.

  1. The govt is seeking to divest 20% of each state-owned defence company including nuclear-missile maker Bharat Dynamics.
  2. Divestment will provide capital for growth and enough transparency & accountability to drive efficiencies.
  3. Still structural changes will be required for the state-run defence companies to be more attractive for investors.
  4. India’s goal is an ambitious $150 billion modernization of its sometimes poorly equipped armed forces, including more local production to curb a flood of costly imports.
  5. The challenges is to improve state defence companies, which account for the bulk of domestic weapons output but are strained and lack the most modern technology.

What’s the big military challenge?

The Pathankot attack revealed weaknesses in our intelligence, police and security procedures but the bigger issue is defence reforms, initiated in the aftermath of the 1999 Kargil War.

  1. PM exhorted commanders and bureaucrats to reform their “beliefs, doctrines, objectives and strategies”.
  2. Naresh Chandra Committee in 2011 recommended the creation of a permanent chairman, chiefs of staff committee.
  3. Modi identified six broad areas for reform — defence planning, enhancing jointness , manpower rationalisation , professional military education, restructuring higher defence management and the defence procurement process.
  4. There are three significant obstacles. First, if and how the three chiefs will give up powers for the proposed CDS.  Second, how the government will create more joint commands, especially since it’s opposed by the military. Third, there’s opposition from civilian bureaucrats who don’t want to change the status quo.
  5. Reforms will not succeed if its implementation is not closely monitored.

No open tenders for critical defence spares, says SC

For defence critical spare parts like submarine batteries, there cannot be any open advertisement inviting tenders.

  1. The SC upheld the government’s policy against having any open advertisements inviting tenders for critical and specialised defence spare parts.
  2. Advertisements are issued calling for tenders only for common use items which are normally available in the open market with a wide range of sources.
  3. Submarine batteries do not fall under this category of common use items, the apex court held.
  4. The importance of submarine batteries to a submarine cannot be underestimated as it is strategically a vital equipment for submarines.
  5. The only source of power to a submarine when it dives beyond nine metres into sea/ocean is submarine batteries.

Talks on for Rafale pact

Officials say the final deal is unlikely to be concluded during French President Francois Hollande’s India visit due to differences over pricing.

  1. With French President François Hollande scheduled to arrive in India on January 24 as the chief guest for the Republic Day parade.
  2. India and France are holding hectic discussions to conclude the government-to-government (G-to-G) agreement for the direct purchase of 36 Rafale fighter jets.
  3. Efforts are on to reduce the price by 20 per cent.
  4. In comparison, a Sukhoi-30 MKI aircraft which India is assembling through technology transfer from Russia costs less than half, raising questions on the cost.

Defence Postures

New procurement policy is well-meaning, with a clear focus on indigenisation. Test will be in the execution.

  1. Defence Minister announced the contours of the long-awaited new defence procurement procedure (DPP)
  2. V.K. Aatre Committee, formed to recommend policy on selection of strategic partners in defence manufacturing, is expected to submit its report this week.
  3. The policy is critical for the business development plans of India’s top private defence manufacturers.
  4. The defence ministry has accepted 90 per cent of the recommendations made by Dhirendra Singh committee.
  5. Two major highlights of the new DPP – the creation of a new category called the “IDDM” or indigenously designed, developed and manufactured platforms.
  6. This will get top priority for buying equipment and incentivise domestic manufacturing .
  7. Raising of the value of contracts for 30 per cent offsets from Rs 300 crore to Rs 2,000 crore.which satisfies foreign vendors.
  8. Policy on blacklisting of defence suppliers and authorised defence agents will also be unveiled along with the DPP.
  9. Those policies are critical to creating a well-defined landscape for the operation of both Indian and foreign defence manufacturers.

Bouquets, brickbats for new defence procurement norms

  1. Indian industry has given a mixed response to the new guidelines under Defence Procurement Procedure 2016.
  2. Some welcomed the greater role for the private sector and the focus on MSME.
  3. Some argue that there was very little reflection of the problems faced by the industry.
  4. DAC deferred decisions on some issues such as strategic partnerships and procedures for blacklisting companies.
  5. There was a positive response to the proposed new category of Indigenous Design Development Manufacturing and govt funding for design & development.

Fillip to ‘Make in India’ in defence purchases

  1. Attempting to streamline defence acquisitions and give a big impetus to indigenisation through the ‘Make in India’ initiative.
  2. The government has approved major changes to the Defence Procurement Procedure (DPP).
  3. New category to promote domestic manufacturing including government funding for R&D and recognition of the MSME in technology development.
  4. Recommendations of the expert committee headed by former Home Secretary Dhirendra Singh were considered and most of them were approved.
  5. The DPP 2016 will have a new category, Indigenously Designed, Developed and Manufactured (IDDM) platforms, which will be the priority route for procurements.

Test Firing of New Tank Ammunition for Arjun MBT

The ammunitions have been developed by Pune based DRDO laboratories Armament Research and Development Establishment (ARDE) and High Energy Materials Research Laboratory (HEMRL).

  1. DRDO successfully conducted test firing of new tank ammunition Penetration-Cum Blast (PCB) and Thermobaric (TB) Ammunition.
  2. A specially designed for Arjun Tank at Chandipur, Odisha on 6th Jan 2016.
  3. An innovative chemical composition has been developed by HEMRL after extensive research for the TB ammunition.
  4. During the development phase, these ammunitions were extensively evaluated against different simulated targets viz., armour plates, concrete structures and fortifications.
  5. The trials were unique as for the first time such evaluation is carried out in India.
PIB

ASW corvette INS Kadmatt commissioned in Visakhapatnam

  1. INS Kadmatt, second ship of Project 28 (P28) class Anti-Submarine Warfare (ASW) Corvettes.
  2. Commissioned into the Indian Navy by the Chief of Naval Staff at a ceremony held at Naval Dockyard in Visakhapatnam.
  3. The unique feature of this ship is the high level of indigenisation incorporated in the production, accentuating our national objective of ‘Make in India’.

Navy successfully tests Barak 8 missile

  1. India has successfully test-fired a long-range surface-to-air missile (LRSAM), jointly developed with Israel, from its warship in its maiden attempt.
  2. With this, India joined a select group of countries which has such an anti-air warfare capability for their navies.
  3. The Barak 8 missile fired by the INS Kolkata on the western seaboard successfully intercepted an aerial target at extended ranges.

Navy to test Barak-8 missile

  1. The Navy will carry out the maiden test of the long-range Barak-8 surface-to-air missile.
  2. The Barak-8 missile is being developed jointly by India and Israel.
  3. It has been designed to defend against a variety of short-to-long-range airborne threats, including fixed-wing aircraft, helicopters, drones and projectiles.

Russia is main defence partner again

Russia is making an emphatic comeback as India’s trusted and strategic partner and is on course to reclaiming the position as top supplier of defence hardware.

  1. Russia still accounts for 70 per cent of Indian arsenal, but has in recent years been overtaken by Israel and U.S. as the biggest hardware suppliers on an annual basis.
  2. Russia, still is the largest supplier due to spares and support for hardware in the inventory and the committed liabilities for programmes under way.
  3. The country’s first major project under the ‘Make in India’ will be the production of Kamov-226T utility helicopters in India.

Defence, nuclear deals to be sealed

The new plants will be in sync with broad principles of ‘Make in India’ initiative and a decision in this regard is likely to be finalised.

  1. Stepping up economic engagement and further expanding ties in strategic areas are likely to be the centrepiece of the 16th India-Russia annual summit talks.
  2. Russia has been India’s biggest supplier of arms though New Delhi has started buying more military hardware from the U.S. in the last few years.
  3. In the nuclear energy sector, India is expected to offer a site in Andhra Pradesh to set up units 5 and 6 of Kudankulam nuclear power plant.

India joins select club to build LNG ships

Cochin Shipyard has received certification to build LNG-transporting ships for any client world-wide, making it the first shipyard in India to get the nod, joining the league of South Korea, Japan and China.

  1. This opens a new chapter in shipbuilding technology in India and marks a big step for Make in India.
  2. The most critical part of an LNG ship is its cryogenic containment and handling system as the LNG is carried at a temperature of -163 degrees.
  3. Cochin Shipyard is now authorised to use the membrane type technologies of GTT for any liquid gas carriers, more particularly the LNG carriers.

CAG warns of Army’s ageing chopper fleet

Govt.’s repeated failure to modernise the Army’s helicopter fleet has resulted in a precarious situation.

  1. CAG reports points that Army Aviation Corps is facing a 32% deficiency in its authorised fleet strength.
  2. The report says that about 52% of the existing fleet is more than 30 years old.
  3.  The main reasons were failure in meeting the targets and objectives of the acquisition plans and tardiness in procurement action.
  4. India has recently selected Russian Kamov-228T utility helicopter, which will be built in India under technology transfer.

DNA Profiling of Soldiers

Armed Forces Medical Research Committee (AFMRC) approved a pilot project, titled “Development of Protocol for DNA Profiling (Identification) and Repository of Personnel of Armed Forces”.

  1. The objectives of the project were to devise a protocol for collection, preservation and transportation of blood samples of the soldiers, maintain absolute accuracy in personnel information.
  2. To devise protocol for procedure for identifying service personnel from any fragment of body tissue.
  3. Standing Operating Procedure for collection of blood samples of soldiers posted at different locations all over the country.
  4. Their transport to DNA repository, storage and profiling laboratory at Armed Forces Medical College, Pune has been developed.
PIB

Country’s flagship HAL turns 75

  1. Hindustan Aeronautics Ltd is country’s sole maker of military aircraft, and part of the Ministry of Defence.
  2. It is ranked 34 among the world’s aerospace companies and among the top 4 in Asia by turnover.
  3. Its own product is the multipurpose Advanced Light Helicopter ‘Dhruv’ and its variations for combat and surveillance.
  4. HAL’s production portfolio includes Sukhoi-30, Mirage 2000 fighters, etc.

Use of UAV for Internal Security

DRDO has developed Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) – ‘Nishant’ and the same has been inducted in Army.

  1. Hindustan Aeronautics Ltd. (HAL) has initiated activities for the design, development and manufacture of UAVs.
  2. UAV are the most advanced systems for obtaining real-time imagery of the ground and is useful in the internal security scenario.
  3. Presently, CRPF has a holding of 10 Micro-UAVs (NETRA) which have been deployed in LWE affected states, including Chhattisgarh.
  4. Besides National Technical Research Organisation (NTRO) is also providing their UAV coverage to CRPF for operations in LWE areas.
PIB

INDRA NAVY- 15 Commences at Visakhapatnam

INDRA NAVY is a bilateral maritime exercise between the Indian and Russian navies and epitomises the strategic relationship between the 2 countries.

  1. The 8th edition of INDRA NAVY has begun in the Bay of Bengal in Visakhapatnam, Andhra Pradesh.
  2. Initiated in 2003, the exercise has matured over the years with increasing scope, complexity of operations and level of participation.
  3. It includes wide- ranging professional interactions during the Harbour phase and a diverse canvas of operational activities at sea across a spectrum of maritime operations.
PIB

LRSAM Successfully Flight-Tested

Long Range Surface to Air Missile (LRSAM), jointly designed and developed by Israel Aerospace Industries and DRDO.

  1. LRSAM is also called Barak 8 missile in Israel which in Hebrew language means Lightning.
  2. For the LRSAM, DRDO has designed and developed Dual Pulse Propulsion System and safe arm mechanisms for Solid Propulsion system.
  3. The missile is designed to defend against any type of airborne threat including aircraft, helicopters, anti-ship missiles, and UAVs.
  4. The LRSAM programme consists of Missiles, MFSTAR (Radar), Weapon Control System, Vertical Launcher unit and Two- way data link.
PIB

India successfully test fires Dhanush ballistic missile

  1. The nuclear-capable Dhanush ballistic missile was recently test fired from a naval ship off the Odisha coast.
  2. It is a surface-to-surface missile and naval variant of India’s indigenously-developed Prithvi missile.
  3. It is a single-stage, liquid-propelled missile.
  4. It has already been inducted into the armed forces and is one of the 5 missiles developed by DRDO under the Integrated Guided Missile Development Programme.

Nuclear capable Prithvi II missile successfully test fired

  1. Indigenously developed nuclear capable Prithvi-II surface-to-surface missile was successfully test-fired by the Indian Army.
  2. It is a tactical short-range ballistic missile (SRBM) developed by DRDO, under Integrated Guided Missile Development Program.
  3. The missile is capable of carrying 500 kg to 1,000 kg of warheads.
  4. It has the ability to dodge enemy missiles and uses advanced inertial guidance system with manoeuvring trajectory to hit its target.

India test-fires indigenously developed interceptor missile

The interceptor is a 7.5-meter long single stage solid rocket propelled guided missile equipped with a navigation system, a hi-tech computer and an electromechanical activator.

  1. As part of efforts to develop a full fledged multi-layer Ballistic Missile Defence system.
  2. India has test-fired indigenously developed supersonic interceptor missile, capable of destroying any incoming ballistic missile.
  3. The interceptor, known as Advanced Air Defence (AAD) missile, was engaged against an electronically prepared target which simulated the trajectory of a hostile ballistic missile.
  4. The interceptor AAD missile has been indigenously developed by DRDO under Ballistic Missile Defence Programme.

Indian Army successfully test fires Brahmos missile

  1. Brahmos supersonic land attack cruise missile test fired at Pokhran in Jaisalmer district, Rajasthan.
  2. It was test fired from an Autonomous Mobile Launcher (AML) in full configuration and met all the mission objectives.
  3. It is a fire-and-forget Missile.
  4. It has capability of destroying surface-based targets by flying a combined high-low trajectory by evading enemy air defence systems.

BrahMos missile test-fired from INS Kochi

World’s fastest cruise missile successfully hit target ship ‘Alleppey’ located at a distance covering nearly the full range of the missile with high precision.

  1. INS Kochi is a 7,500-tonne indigenously developed warship
  2. It has new design concepts for survivability, stealth and manoeuvrability.
  3. It can carry 16 BrahMos missiles in two eight-cell vertical launch systems.
  4. Brahmos is a two stage missile, jointly developed by India and Russia.
  5. It can fly at a supersonic speed of 2.8 Mach and at a height of 10m.
  6. It carries conventional warheads and launched from ships, land and submarines.

First Scorpene class submarine set afloat in Mumbai

Kalavari, the first of Scorpene class submarines being manufactured at Mazagon Dock Shipbuilders Ltd (MDL).


  1. Kalvari is built under the Project 75, under collaboration with M/s DCNS, France.
  2. The Scorpene class submarines are a class of diesel-electric attack submarine developed by the French DCN and the Spanish company Navantia.
  3. It features AIP technology, which allows a non-nuclear submarine to operate without the need to access atmospheric oxygen.

INS Astradharini Joins The Indian Navy

It is Indian Navy’s first totally indigenously-designed and built Torpedo launch and recovery vessel (TRV). 

  1. It is advanced replacement for INS Astravahini which was decommissioned from India Navy.
  2. The unique design by a collaborative effort of Naval Science and Technological Laboratory (NSTL), IIT Kharagpur and Shoft Shipyard.
  3. It is 50-metre twin-hulled warship with maximum speed of 15 knots (28 km/h).
  4. It will function and operate under the Eastern Fleet of Indian Navy.
  5. It will carry out the technical trials of underwater weapons and systems like torpedoes and mines.
PIB

Indian Navy is set to welcome INS Kochi

The indigenously-designed ship INS Kochi, a second ship of the Kolkata-class Guided Missile Destroyer.

INS Kochi during sea trials.

  1. INS Kochi weighs over 7500 tonnes, spanning over 164 meters in length,designed to achieve speeds in excess of 30 knots.
  2. The ship is loaded with long-range BrahMos surface-to- surface missile.
  3. Anti-submarine arsenal consists of Indigenous Rocket Launchers (IRL), Indigenous Twin-tube Torpedo Launchers (ITTL) and bow-mounted new generation HUMSA Sonar Dome.
  4. It is equipped to operate two Sea King or Chetak helicopters.

Apoorva and C-421 ships commissioned at Naval Dock

  1. Two Indian Coast Guard Ships are Apoorva and C-421.
  2. ICGS Apoorva is a 50 meter long Fast Patrol Vessel (FPV) that displaces 317 Tonnes and can achieve a maximum speed of 33 knots.
  3. C-421 is a water jet propelled vessel with maximum speed of 45 Knots.
  4. ICGS Apoorva is equipped with state-of-the-art weaponry, advanced communication and navigational equipment that make her an ideal platform for undertaking multifarious close-coast Surveillance, interdiction, Search & Rescue and medical evacuation missions.
  5. The interceptor boat (ICGS C-421) is fitted with medium range armaments, the ship is designed for close coast and shallow water operations.

 

‘AUSINDEX’ at Visakhapatnam for naval exercise

  1. Biennial event ‘AUSINDEX’ between Australia and India is all set to begin.
  2. The exercise will strengthen defence cooperation as envisaged in the Framework for Security Cooperation.
  3. The Indian Navy would be represented by stealth frigate INS Shivalik, guided missile destroyer INS Ranvijay, and fleet tanker INS Shakti.
  4. The exercise will include tabletop exercises, scenarios and practical demonstrations ashore, and a sea phase.

French fighter talks deadlocked

  1. Reason for the deadlock is enhanced costs and differences on offset requirements.
  2. The negotiations were stuck for three years as the cost shot up to over $20 billion from $10 billion.
  3. The Defence Ministry has made it clear that offsets apply to the deal which is 50% for the Medium Multi-Role Combat Aircraft (MMRCA)
  4. The Air Force has also sought some changes in the configuration which will further add to the cost and time overruns.
  5. As per the Defence Procurement Procedure, offset applies to all deals worth over Rs.300 crore under which companies have to invest 30 per cent of the value of the contract back in the country.

Differences over offset clause delays Rafale deal


 

  1. India insists that France should invest 50% of the $4Billion deal in the Indian defence industry in form of offset obligations.
  2. But France is ready to invest only 30% to cover infrastructure costs, maintenance, training and storage facilities.
  3. Also, the 2 year timeline of procuring the jets seems doubtful as Dassault (manufacturer of Rafale jets) has capacity of manufacturing 11 jets a year and it already has an order of 24 jets each from Qatar and Egypt.

 

What is an offset clause?

Countries importing military equipment often require obligations from the exporter to invest in the importer’s defense industry. This is called the ‘offset clause’.

Rafael of Israel and India’s Kalyani Group help deepen defence ties


 

  1. Kalyani group will form a manufacturing joint venture with Israel’s Rafael to make Spike Anti-Tank Guided Missiles (ATGM) in India.
  2. The deal was cleared by the Defence Acquisition Council last year and the plan is to start production in about 2 years.
  3. The JV will conform to the FDI guidelines with 51% ownership held by the Kalyani Group. The companies are in talks with the Telangana Govt. for land procurement.

Spike is a third generation, fire-and-forget, man-portable, anti-tank missile.

Defence, aero PSUs reveal hurdles to ‘Make in India’

  1. PSUs related to strategic sectors of aerospace and defence are apprehensive of reversing in near future the 70% dependence on import of military hardware.
  2. The reason is that the parts’ suppliers are falling short on facilities, quality and time lines.
  3. India does not have a ‘wind tunnel’ used to test aircraft systems. Lack of infrastructure and delays by the suppliers is a big impediment for ‘Make in India’ challenge for defence products.

Now, Naval help to ‘Make in India’

  1. With aim of complete indigenization of all warship construction in next 15 years, Navy wants to involve private companies in a big way.
  2. DRDO and Indian companies will work in tandem to achieve this target.
  3. Navy has 90% indigenization in float warships, 60% in move category and 30% in fight warships.

Ottappalam to have India’s first defence industrial park

  1. With an eye on indigenization and modernization of defence items, DIPP has approved a proposal to set up the country’s first defence industrial park at Ottappalam.
  2. Defence components manufacturing sector has demand estimated at $700 million a year from India and other countries having friendly relationship with it.
  3. The defence park can help to bridge the gap of 15 per cent between demand and supply.

Govt. clears Naval P-8Is and air defence guns for Army

  1. Defence Acquisition Council (DAC) cleared deals worth about 30,000 crore for new platforms and several upgrades for the Army and the Navy.
  2. Additional P-8I maritime patrol and surveillance aircraft for the Navy and new air defence guns for the army were the major deals cleared.

[op-ed snap] Evolving a defence bottom line

India and Vietnam Sign a Joint Vision Statement on Defence Cooperation

[op-ed snap] Defence – In search of clear policy

Parrikar pushes for Chief of Defence Staff

[op-ed snap] A dual approach to defence production

Indian Army and Bank of India ink MoU on Defence Salary Package

What does defence expects out of the Budget 2015?

  1. While both India and China had similar defence expenditure in 1990, India has now become the largest importer & China has graduated into the club of top exporters.
  2. We might need to increase the FDI limit in defence from 49% to 51% – So that the foreign players have some certainty of ownership.
  3. Expectations are that the long-pending One Rank, One Pension scheme will get due funds.
  4. MSME industries are expecting incentives and tax concessions to enable a level-playing field with the public sector.

 

Questions (attempt in the comments section)

1

Recently the union government announced the contours of new defence procurement procedure (DPP). Discuss its highlights, how it is different from DPP-2013 and examine if it compliments the Make in India initiative.







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