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[op-ed snap] The Tripura model

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Mains Paper 2: Governance | Government policies & interventions for development in various sectors & issues arising out of their design & implementation.

From UPSC perspective, the following things are important:

Prelims level: Armed Forces (Special Powers) Act, National Family Health Survey (NFHS), infant mortality rate (IMR), MGNREGA

Mains level: How Tripura model can be adopted by other northeastern states for their development


Context

Tripura’s peace model

  1. In the late 1990s and early 2000s, Tripura embarked on a unique path to peace
  2. It was not dependent solely on security measures but involved investment in human development and people’s participation in the implementation of socio-political and economic policy as well
  3. More than a decade later, the human development consequences of peace have been remarkable

Peace process in the state

  1. Economic and social investments and people’s involvement are essential components of the peace process in the State
  2. The landmark repeal of the Armed Forces (Special Powers) Act, or AFSPA, in 2015 in the State was an outstanding symbol of the success of this policy
  3. There is now a palpable atmosphere of peace and personal safety in the State, even in its most remote reserved-forest settlements
  4. The progress achieved over the last 10 years in several indicators of human development — especially in education, health, and employment — is the State’s peace dividend

Growing literacy and health indicators

  1. Literacy has been described as being “the basic personal skill that underlies the whole modernizing sequence.”
  2. Separatist militancy in Tripura was an obstacle to the spread of literacy and schooling
  3. According to the Census, the share of literate persons above the age of seven years rose from 73% to 87% between 2001 and 2011
  4. Data from the National Family Health Survey (NFHS) indicate that the infant mortality rate (IMR) in Tripura almost halved between 2005-6 and 2014-15

Employment and labour force participation

  1. Peace and security enable the expansion of employment and livelihoods
  2. A labour force, by definition, includes those in work and seeking work
  3. For the last five to six years, Tripura has ranked first among the States of India with respect to the implementation of the Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act (MGNREGA)
  4. An important feature of Tripura’s economy over the last decade has been a rise in labour force participation and work force participation, particularly among women
  5. This is in marked contrast to India as a whole, where data show a decline in female labour force participation and work force participation over time
  6. An important factor in the dramatic rise in work participation rates, especially among women, has been the improvement in the security environment, which encouraged women to enter the labour force in much larger numbers than before

Positive achievement and a challenge

  1. The rise in work and labour force participation rates, particularly among women, is both a positive achievement and a challenge
  2. The challenge is to generate adequate employment opportunities to absorb the increasing number of women who will join the work force

Tripura’s inclusive model

  1. Tripura’s path of development is one that respects administrative autonomy for regions where people of the Scheduled Tribes are predominant in the population, and the principle of unity of its diverse people
  2. An inclusive path of development, one that encompasses the poorest in the population and the most far-flung of forest-based human settlements, is a precious legacy

Sri Lanka tops South Asia in human development

As for the growth rate during 1990-2014, South Asia’s figure was 1.38, the highest among all regions.

  1. The report, which studied a total of 188 countries and territories, has determined the HDI values.
  2. By assessing long-term progress in 3 basic dimensions of human development — a long and healthy life, access to knowledge and a decent standard of living.
  3. India and Bhutan fall under the category of medium human development countries.
  4. India is placed at 130th rank and Pakistan, 147th.
  5. Within the region of South Asia, Afghanistan tops the list with the value of 1.89 for 1990-2014 followed by Bangladesh (1.64), Nepal (1.49) and India (1.48).

Inequality pulls back India

India is ranked 130 of 188 countries on the HDI in 2014, up marginally from 135 in 2013.

  1. The annual HDI report looks at the role of work in improving human development.
  2. India loses over one-fourth of its HDI value, when inequality is factored in, .
  3. Workforce participation rates for women have dropped globally, driven largely by declines in the last decade in India and China.
  4. The HDR report calls for a new social contract among govts, society, and the private sector to ensure everyone has a say in policy formulation.
  5. Over half of India’s population is multi-dimensionally poor, while a further 18% are close to this line.

Lets know about Human Development Index

  1. The HDI is a composite index meant to compare the well-being of people across countries and it was first introduced by the UNDP in 1990.
  2. It is calculated as the geometric mean of three indicators: life expectancy at birth, education and national income.
  3. The education dimension is measured by mean of years of schooling for adults aged 25 years and more and expected years of schooling for children of school entering age.
  4. The measure of gross national income per capita at Purchasing Power Parity rates reflects the standard of living.


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