Human Development Report by UNDP

Human Development Report by UNDP

Human Development Report (HDR) 2019


From UPSC perspective, the following things are important :

Prelims level : Human Development Index (HDI)

Mains level : India's performance in HDR and various pulling factors

The Human Development Report (HDR) for 2019 has been released by the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP).

Global scene

  • Norway, Switzerland, Ireland occupied the top three positions in that order.
  • Germany is placed fourth along with Hong Kong, and Australia secured the fifth rank on the global ranking.
  • Among India’s neighbours, Sri Lanka (71) and China (85) are higher up the rank scale while Bhutan (134), Bangladesh (135), Myanmar (145), Nepal (147), Pakistan (152) and Afghanistan (170) were ranked lower on the list.

India’s performance

  • India ranks 129 out of 189 countries on the 2019 HDI — up one slot from the 130th position last year.
  • India’s HDI value increased by 50% (from 0.431 to 0.647), which places it above the average for other South Asian countries (0.642).
  • However, for inequality-adjusted HDI (IHDI), India’s position drops by one position to 130, losing nearly half the progress (.647 to .477) made in the past 30 years. The IHDI indicates percentage loss in HDI due to inequalities.

46% growth in S.Asia

  • As per the report, South Asia was the fastest growing region in human development progress witnessing a 46% growth over 1990-2018.
  • It is followed by East Asia and the Pacific at 43%.

Gender inequality

  • The report notes that group-based inequalities persist, especially affecting women and girls and no place in the world has gender equality.
  • In the Gender Inequality Index (GII), India is at 122 out of 162 countries. Neighbours China (39), Sri Lanka (86), Bhutan (99), Myanmar (106) were placed above India.
  • The report notes that the world is not on track to achieve gender equality by 2030 as per the UN’s SDGs.
  • It forecasts that it may take 202 years to close the gender gap in economic opportunity — one of the three indicators of the GII.

New inequalities on rise

  • The report presents a new index indicating how prejudices and social beliefs obstruct gender equality, which shows that only 14% of women and 10% of men worldwide have no gender bias.
  • The report notes that this indicates a backlash to women’s empowerment as these biases have shown a growth especially in areas where more power is involved, including in India.
  • The report also highlights that new forms of inequalities will manifest in future through climate change and technological transformation which have the potential to deepen existing social and economic fault lines.


Human Development Index (HDI)

  • It is a statistical tool used to measure a country’s overall achievement in its social and economic dimensions. The social and economic dimensions of a country are based on the health of people, their level of education attainment and their standard of living.
  • Pakistani economist Mahbub ul Haq created HDI in 1990 which was further used to measure the country’s development by the United Nations Development Program (UNDP).
  • Calculation of the index combines four major indicators: life expectancy for health, expected years of schooling, mean of years of schooling for education and GNI per capita for standard of living.
  • Every year UNDP ranks countries based on the HDI report released in their annual report.
  • HDI is one of the best tools to keep track of the level of development of a country, as it combines all major social and economic indicators that are responsible for economic development.

Human Development Report by UNDP

[op-ed snap] Nobody speaks to the young


Mains Paper 2: Social Justice| Issues relating to development and management of Social Sector/Services relating to Health, Education, Human Resources.

From UPSC perspective, the following things are important:

Prelims level: Nothing as such.

Mains level: The news-card analyses the issues and challenges of youth of our country, in a brief manner.


  • The youth of our country need a sense of purpose and political identity and not sops.


  • Sixty per cent of our country is under the age of 30. Yet, there is little substantive participation of our young in defining the direction of the nation.
  • The average age of our MPs at 56 years is more than double the median age of 25.
  • Statistics are not available for other groups who shape our politics — academics, activists, media — but a quick check of the top names in each area is indicative of similar under-representation of youth.


  • Talk to young people across the country and what stands out is their feeling of being talked at, pushed around, and dismissed.
  • Consequently, young people respond to rejection with rejection.
  • Ask 10 young people outside of the elite circuit about political developments in the country — most will struggle to respond.
  • Refer to political leaders from various fields and ask the youngsters to talk of their stand on some topical issues. They will shrug.
  • Name the top public intellectuals in the country and most may not even have heard of them.
  • It can be said that young people today are selfish. They are too distracted and lack commitment. But this is, at best, a partial truth.

Youth today is searching for recognition and sense of identity

  • The larger political class and process simply have not been able to establish relevance for young people.
  • Youth, today, are responding to the cues and incentives around them; and paying attention to those who are reaching out to them.
  • Young people are searching for recognition, for an identity in which they can take pride in.
  • Because there are no accessible pathways that can help them get recognised in constructive politics, they are choosing other options.
  • Association with a celebrity, styling themselves like him/her gives that sense of belonging.
  • To be “discovered” in many ways offers a better probability of escaping their circumstances than studying in a dusty college somewhere or working in a dead-end job.
  • Thuggery, bullying, majoritarianism offers a sense of power when as a whole there is a dispiriting lack of agency.

Young India cannot be ignored

  • We cannot ignore Young India if we care about our democracy.
  • Nor can we pick and choose what we want to prioritise — our politics has to be representative of their needs and aspirations.
  • We have to talk about the things that matter to them in a language that they understand.
  • This means prioritising the educational, employment and identity concerns of young people in our daily discourse and politics.


(a) Equal educational opportunity

  • Equal educational opportunity has become a purely rhetorical statement.
  • Seventy per cent of our higher education is in the private sector and, increasingly, even public universities are getting privatised with the onset of “self-financing” courses making a complete mockery of the role of education as a tool for socio-economic mobility.
  • Entire universities are completely notional: There are no classes, students study in coaching centers.
  • Three-year courses are taking up to five years to finish.
  • The examination system is a complete sham.
  • Students are paying exorbitant fees and graduates are saddled with debt without job prospects.
  • Yet our focus on these issues is episodic.
  • That too, when there is some immediate crisis, despite the fact that students are the most visible face of a progressing India.

(b) Employment

  • Similarly, our approach to employment is highly utilitarian.
  • Employment is not just about economics, it is also linked to one’s identity.
  • Yet there is very little conversation about how to imbue meaning and pride in the lives of those at the lowest end of the work chain.
  • We want those who work with us to demonstrate “work ethic” — reliability, punctuality, diligence — but it is unclear what exactly is gained for the young person in being all these three things?

Way Forward

  • If we want the vast majority of our young people to imbibe these virtues of collective living, then we need to create those avenues for them where these will be recognised and rewarded.
  • We have to acknowledge the essential role of young people in nation-building and create meaningful opportunities for them to engage with politics and governance.
  • This is important because young people suffer from additional barriers to entry because of their age and inexperience.
  • All of us have a desire for self-expression and to be part of something bigger than ourselves.
  • If those of us who have the power to shape platforms and narratives are unable to make our politics representative of the aspirations of the youth, they will simply look for meaning elsewhere.

Human Development Report by UNDP

[op-ed snap] Governing India’s many spaces


Mains Paper 3: Economic Development| Inclusive growth and issues arising from it.

From UPSC perspective, the following things are important:

Prelims level: Basic knowledge of India’s performance at different indices.

Mains level: The news-card analyses India’s performance at three important indices i.e. EDB, HDI and EPI, in a brief manner.


  • As the general elections approaches in India, the experts look at the changes since 2014 in three indices for India.
  • These are the indices of the ‘Ease of Doing Business’ (EDB), ‘Human Development’ (HDI) and ‘Environmental Performance’ (EPI).
  • Published by separate international bodies, they are used to rank the world’s countries according to their performance in the related sphere.

‘Ease of Doing Business’: The business ecosystem

  • The EDB, an indicator put out by the World Bank, is meant mainly as an index of the effect of government regulations on running a business.
  • It is also meant to reflect the extent of property rights in a society.
  • Responses are sought from government officials, lawyers, business consultants, accountants and other professionals involved in providing advice on legal and regulatory compliance.

EDB ranking factors

A country’s ranking is based on the extent to which government regulations facilitate the following:

  •         starting a business,
  •         obtaining construction permits,
  •         getting an electricity connection,
  •         registering property,
  •         accessing credit,
  •         protection of investors,
  •         paying taxes,
  •         trading across borders,
  •         enforcement of contracts and
  •         resolving insolvency.

India’s performance at EDB rankings since 2014

  • The present government has set much at store by India’s improved ranking in terms of the EDB index.
  • The improvement is considerable. From a rank of 134 in 2014, India’s rank improved to 77 in 2018.
  • As 190 countries were ranked in 2018, India was in the top 50%.
  • The position is not spectacular but the improvement is noteworthy.

Limitations and Concerns

  • EDB has not been without controversy, with experts suggesting that in the past political bias may have crept into the ranking of countries.
  • Perhaps a bigger problem with the EDB is that it measures the effect of government regulations alone.
  • While it is important to take this aspect into account, in any situation the ease of doing business is dependent upon other factors too.
  • One of these is the availability of ‘producer services’, with electricity, water supply and waste management coming to mind.
  • There is little reason to believe that this infrastructure has improved in India in the last five years.
  • The Planning Commission used to release data on infrastructural investment, but we have had none since its demise.

Despite all these shortcomings, it is yet important to be concerned with the ease of doing business in India, an aspect that has been given little or no importance in public policy for over 50 years, and to note that the EDB ranking for the country shows significant improvement since 2014.

Human Development Index: A true measure

  • It is the result of a rare India-Pakistan collaboration in the global discourse on public policy, having been devised by Amartya Sen and Mahbub ul Haq for the United Nations Development Programme.
  • The HDI is a combination of indicators of income, health and education in a country.

HDI’s conceptual basis has been critiqued:

  • It has been pointed out that the index combines incommensurate categories, as income, health and education are not substitutes.
  • Second, while it does go beyond purely economic measures of progress, in that it looks at the health and education achievements in a population, it can say little about the ‘quality’ of development.

Data can tell us only a part of the story about people’s lives

  • For instance, it is increasingly clear that it is not enough simply to count how many children are in school.
  • We need also to know whether they are learning anything.
  • Nevertheless the HDI has now gained reasonable acceptance globally as indicative of the development strides a country has taken.

India’s performance at HDI rankings since 2014

  • India’s ranking at HDI has not altered since 2014.
  • India was ranked 130 in 2014, and has remained in the same place out of 185 countries in 2018.
  • It is of relevance here that India’s HDI ranking has not improved despite it being the world’s fastest growing major economy in recent years.
  • This despite income being a component of the index.
  • What this reveals is that an economy can grow fast without much progress in human development.
  • Also, India’s HDI position in the bottom third of countries points to how much it needs to progress to earn the label ‘the world’s largest democracy’.

Environmental Performance Index: The Environmental costs

  • The EPI is produced jointly by Yale and Columbia Universities in collaboration with the World Economic Forum.
  • The index ranks countries on 24 performance indicators across several ‘issue categories’, each of which fit under one of two overarching objectives, namely, environmental health and eco-system vitality.
  • The issue categories are air quality, water and sanitation, water resources, agriculture, forests, fisheries, biodiversity and habitat, and climate and energy.
  • These metrics are meant to serve as a gauge at a national level of how close countries are to accepted environmental policy goals.

India’s performance at EPI rankings since 2014

  • In 2018 India ranked 177 out of 180 countries, having slipped from an already very low rank of 155 in 2014.
  • The country is today among the worst performing on the environmental front and its ranking has worsened over the past five years.


  • We now have indicators of the progress India has made in the past five years in the three crucial spheres of business, human development and the natural environment.
  • A clear picture emerges whereby the government has aggressively pursued an improvement in the business environment.
  • This appears to have yielded fruit in terms of an improvement in the EDB index.
  • However, at a time when it has been the fastest growing economy in the world, India’s rank on human development has remained unchanged and on environmental performance has slipped close to the last place.


  • The present government has marginally lowered health and education expenditure as a share of national income and distinctly lowered environmental standards.
  • An instance of the latter would be the Coastal Regulation Zone Notification of 2018 which allows construction and tourism development on land earlier considered inviolable due to its ecological value.
  • This de-regulation is a setback for India.
  • It is only one instance of the failure to recognise the plunder of India’s natural capital taking place at an accelerated pace.
  • Rankings by themselves do not reveal the level of attainment but they do convey how far a country is from the global frontier.

Human Development Report by UNDP

[op-ed snap] We have failed our children


Mains Paper 2: Governance | Issues relating to development & management of Social Sector/Services relating to Health, Education, Human Resources

From UPSC perspective, the following things are important:

Prelims level: World Development Report, Human Capital Index (HCI)

Mains level: India’s poor performance in global indexes related to health, education, nutrition and how to improve the situation


World Development Report 2019

  1. The World Bank publishes the World Development Report every year
  2. The Human Capital Index (HCI) is part of the annual report
  3. It is a measure of “the amount of human capital that a child born today can expect to attain by age 18”

HCI calculation & India’s position

  1. The index is measured in terms of the productivity of the next generation of workers relative to the benchmark of the complete education and full health
  2. An economy in which a child born today can expect to achieve complete education and full health will score a value of 1 on the index
  3. India’s HCI is 0.44 and rank is 115
  4. That places India in the bottom third of the world

Factors behind India’s poor performance

  1. HCI is based on six factors, each getting a score
  2. In the case of India, given the average household income, the probability of a child surviving to the age of 5 is satisfactory at 0.96
  3. The adult survival rate is reasonable at 0.83
  4. What pulls India down are the ‘Learning adjusted years of school’ and ‘Fraction of children under 5 not stunted’
  5. The score on the former is 5.8 years at school. On the latter, it is 0.62, meaning that 38 per cent of children under 5 years of age have a low height-for-age

Reasons behind this

  1. Poor design, faulty implementation and inadequate allocation of funds are the main reasons
  2. While ‘Right to Education’ vastly expanded enrolment of children, not enough attention was paid to the quality of the schools, the teachers and the instruction
  3. Likewise, anganwadis and ‘Right to Food Security’ were necessary interventions, but they have failed to provide sufficient food to pregnant and lactating mothers and to children during their first five years

Connecting HCI & Global Hunger Index

  1. The HCI must be read along with the Global Hunger Index (GHI) published by Deutsche Welthungerhilfe and Concern Worldwide
  2. One out of seven children in India is undernourished; two out of five are stunted (low height-for-age), and one out of five is wasted (low weight-for-height)
  3. The cause is undernutrition
  4. On the one hand, we have mountains of wheat and paddy and, on the other, we are unable to provide enough food to each child

Way forward

  1. MGNREGA and the Right to Food Security law were created to overcome this situation
  2. Due to the neglect of these legislations, the result is low HCI, high GHI (score 31.1, indicating ‘serious hunger’) and a low rank of 139 among 189 countries in the Human Development Index
  3. The focus should again be shifted on them to ensure that these interventions provide the expected outcomes

Human Development Report by UNDP

[op-ed snap] India’s abysmal human capital development


Mains Paper 2: Governance | Issues relating to development & management of Social Sector/Services relating to Health, Education, Human Resources

From UPSC perspective, the following things are important:

Prelims level: Nobel prizes, Global Human Capital Index, Global Innovation Index

Mains level: Human capital development in India


Nobel prize for Economics 2018

  1. The announcement for the 2018 Nobel Prize in Economics to William Nordhaus and Paul Romer calls for a moment of celebration for the field of development economics
  2. Romer’s endogenous growth theory, unlike previous growth models, assumes ‘technology’ as an endogenous or internal factor adding value to the growth capacity of a given nation through greater investments, made by profit-maximizing agents in the economy
  3. The distinguishing feature of the technology as an input is that it is neither a conventional good or a public good; it is a non-rival, partially excludable good

What does ‘non-rivalry’ lead to?

  1. The “non-rival” feature allows “technology” to act as a unique value-addition factor in growth diagnosis
  2. It is in the interest of profit-maximizing agents (firms, households, and government) to constantly invest in technology and seek “non-excludable” gains from tech-based advancements over time
  3. For example, making investments in geo-spatial technologies like GIS and Google Maps will distribute gains to everyone across sectors in a non-excludable manner while drastically increasing production capacities

Linking human capital development to technology

  1. There is a greater need for linking human capital development capacities (via complementary investments in education, health and skilling of workers across social groups) in proportion with the rate of technological investments required for ensuring consistently high levels of developmental growth
  2. The World Bank recently released its report on the Global Human Capital Index rankings, where India currently ranks 115th out of 157 nations (China being 46th, Indonesia 87th, Malaysia 55th)
  3. The research will help map investments in expanding technological growth and its adoption by the social fabric of the society through proportional investments in areas of human capital development

India’s scenario

  1. According to the index scores from the report, a child born in India is likely to be only 44% productive when (s)he grows up, if (s)he receives education and adequate healthcare
  2. India, in relation to other developing economies, does poorly in its ability to expand overall productivity with a rise in GDP per capita
  3. There is also a disconnect between our rate of technological growth and our inability to distribute the gains from it by adequately focusing on skilling (via knowledge, education) and health, critical for greater resilience and sustained productivity
  4. The scenario for technological growth in India over the last three decades reflects a mixed effect on its growth scenario

Tech advancements in India & less tricle down

  1. Information and communication and information technology (ICT), manufacturing industry, transportation, defence, and space technologies are some of the important sectors which have attempted to incorporate modern technologies in enhancing sector-wise growth capacities
  2. Most of such benefits (and investments) in the tech-based advancements are accrued by a few elitist sections of the society, occupationally involved in these sectors
  3. At a corporate level, too, only selected firms with visible monopolistic advantages (because of high capital bases) seem to have benefitted more from global advancements in certain kinds of technologies (say in mechanization of food-processing, automation of automobile manufacturing etc.)
  4. This has led to a widening of the asymmetric distribution of tech-accrued benefits which is seen in the distributional inequities of wages and employment patterns
  5. This has further raised concerns for the negligible trickle-down effect of knowledge bases from technology developments

Global Innovation Index (GII)

  1. The GII reflects the technological state of growth for around 180 economies, computing the progress made in technological advancements at a national level, ranging from intellectual property filing rates to mobile application creation, education spending, and scientific and technical publications
  2. India currently ranks 57th (out of 180) in GII’s latest ranking released in 2018
  3. It is vital to acknowledge that most technology-based innovations in any stage of development require two things to be ensured in continuum by a nation’s economic policy environment: growth of innovators and finance
  4. Unless the state and other regulatory agencies are able to nurture an environment for ensuring the right balance of incentive structures for both, innovators and financiers, the interests of innovators will perpetually outbalance the needs of the society, creating poor productive capacities for the economy to grow

Way forward

  1. Real-time data and increased frequency of credible measurement of investments made in education, health and areas of technological adoption require proper monitoring and evaluation
  2. This calls for a more robust state capacity and bureaucracy to implement state-sponsored programmes and to assist the private sector to further crowd in more social investments for sustained (inclusive) growth

Human Development Report by UNDP

[pib] World Bank’s Human Capital Index released


Mains Paper 2: Governance | Issues relating to development and management of Social Sector/Services relating to Health, Education, Human Resources

From UPSC perspective, the following things are important:

Prelims level: Human Capital Index Report and its findings

Mains level: HCI stats are refuted by India along with several other countries. The newscard discusses various parameters which reduces the credibility of the WB report.



  • The World Bank released today a Human Capital Index (HCI) as part of the World Development Report 2019.

Key observations in HCI for India 

  • Human Capital Index: A child born in India today will be only 44 per cent as productive when she grows up as she could be if she enjoyed complete education and full health.
  • Probability of Survival to Age 5: 96 out of 100 children born in India survive to age 5.
  • Expected Years of School: In India, a child who starts school at age 4 can expect to complete 10.2 years of school by her 18th
  • Harmonized Test Scores: Students in India score 355 on a scale where 625 represents advanced attainment and 300 represents minimum attainment.
  • Learning-adjusted Years of School: Factoring in what children actually learn, expected years of school is only 5.8 years.
  • Adult Survival Rate: Across India, 83 per cent of 15-year olds will survive until age 60.
  • Healthy Growth (Not Stunted Rate): 62 out of 100 children are not stunted. 38 out of 100 children are stunted, and so at risk of cognitive and physical limitations that can last a lifetime.
  • Gender Differences: In India, HCI for girls is marginally higher than for boys.

However, India has decided to ignore the HCI owing to following factors:

(A) Discontent with the Methodology

  1. Education quality is gauged using harmonized test scores from major international student achievement testing programs.
  2. The lack of availability of an authoritative and uniform test score, about 9 different test scores and systems using varying methodology have been claimed to have been harmonized by the World Bank.
  3. None of the 9 systems cover more than 100 countries, with some have very limited regional coverage.
  4. This makes the methodology quite complex and non-uniform.
  5. For some countries, average national scores in a particular year and in some cases in selected cities or states have been used as predictors of education potential and future economic growth.

(B) Assessment lacking Global Standard

  1. For India, the data for quality of education pertains to 2009 assessment by PISA, which was conducted for only two states, namely Himachal Pradesh and Tamil Nadu.
  2. The use of PISA and TIMSS scores is the methodology for testing is largely controlled by non UN agencies.
  3. It is not globalized unlike the methodology of UNICEF and WHO that are used for health and survival indicators.

(C) Gross negligence of important measures

  1. The differences in development outcomes arising from governance issues, political systems, socio-cultural context, and legacy issues have been totally ignored.
  2. The metric of HCI is too simplistic at one level and too ignorant of development realities at another.
  3. Various initiatives such as SBM, Samagra Shiksha, PMJDY, and ABP etc. are transforming human capital in India at rapid pace.
  4. The HCI score for India does not reflect the key initiatives that are being taken for developing human capital in the country.

Way Forward

  1. The qualitative aspects of improved governance that have a strong correlation with human capital development have not been captured by the way the HCI has been constructed.
  2. The gap in data and methodology overlook the initiatives taken by a country and, in turn, portray an incomplete and pre-determined picture.
  3. This infact makes the case for an adoption of the Index by more countries somewhat remote.
  4. With the emphasis on country scores and rankings, the HCI could trivialize the importance of the Human Capital Project.
  5. Hence the Government of India has decided to ignore the HCI and will continue to undertake its path breaking programme for human capital development.


Human Capital Project

  1. As part of this World Development Report (WDR), the World Bank has launched a Human Capital Project (HCP).
  2. The HCP programme is claimed to be a program of advocacy, measurement, and analytical work to raise awareness and increase demand for interventions to build human capital.
  3. There are three components of HCP:
  • a cross-country human capital measurement metric called the Human Capital Index (HCI),
  • a programme of measurement and research to inform policy action
  • a programme of support for country strategies to accelerate investment in human capital.

Human Capital Index (HCI)

  1. The HCI has been constructed for 157 countries.
  2. It claims to seek to measure the amount of human capital that a child born today can expect to attain by age 18.
  3. The HCI has three components:
    • Survival: as measured by under-5 mortality rates
    • Expected years of Quality-Adjusted School:which combines information on the quantity and quality of education
    • Health environment:Using two proxies of (a) adult survival rates and (b) the rate of stunting for children under age 5


  1. UNDP constructs Human Development Index (HDI) for several years.
  2. The HCI uses survival rates and stunting rate instead of life expectancyas measure of health, and quality-adjusted learning instead of merely years of schooling as measure of education.
  3. HCI also excludes per capita income whereas the HDI uses it.

Human Development Report by UNDP

[op-ed snap] The Tripura model

Image source


Mains Paper 2: Governance | Government policies & interventions for development in various sectors & issues arising out of their design & implementation.

From UPSC perspective, the following things are important:

Prelims level: Armed Forces (Special Powers) Act, National Family Health Survey (NFHS), infant mortality rate (IMR), MGNREGA

Mains level: How Tripura model can be adopted by other northeastern states for their development


Tripura’s peace model

  1. In the late 1990s and early 2000s, Tripura embarked on a unique path to peace
  2. It was not dependent solely on security measures but involved investment in human development and people’s participation in the implementation of socio-political and economic policy as well
  3. More than a decade later, the human development consequences of peace have been remarkable

Peace process in the state

  1. Economic and social investments and people’s involvement are essential components of the peace process in the State
  2. The landmark repeal of the Armed Forces (Special Powers) Act, or AFSPA, in 2015 in the State was an outstanding symbol of the success of this policy
  3. There is now a palpable atmosphere of peace and personal safety in the State, even in its most remote reserved-forest settlements
  4. The progress achieved over the last 10 years in several indicators of human development — especially in education, health, and employment — is the State’s peace dividend

Growing literacy and health indicators

  1. Literacy has been described as being “the basic personal skill that underlies the whole modernizing sequence.”
  2. Separatist militancy in Tripura was an obstacle to the spread of literacy and schooling
  3. According to the Census, the share of literate persons above the age of seven years rose from 73% to 87% between 2001 and 2011
  4. Data from the National Family Health Survey (NFHS) indicate that the infant mortality rate (IMR) in Tripura almost halved between 2005-6 and 2014-15

Employment and labour force participation

  1. Peace and security enable the expansion of employment and livelihoods
  2. A labour force, by definition, includes those in work and seeking work
  3. For the last five to six years, Tripura has ranked first among the States of India with respect to the implementation of the Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act (MGNREGA)
  4. An important feature of Tripura’s economy over the last decade has been a rise in labour force participation and work force participation, particularly among women
  5. This is in marked contrast to India as a whole, where data show a decline in female labour force participation and work force participation over time
  6. An important factor in the dramatic rise in work participation rates, especially among women, has been the improvement in the security environment, which encouraged women to enter the labour force in much larger numbers than before

Positive achievement and a challenge

  1. The rise in work and labour force participation rates, particularly among women, is both a positive achievement and a challenge
  2. The challenge is to generate adequate employment opportunities to absorb the increasing number of women who will join the work force

Tripura’s inclusive model

  1. Tripura’s path of development is one that respects administrative autonomy for regions where people of the Scheduled Tribes are predominant in the population, and the principle of unity of its diverse people
  2. An inclusive path of development, one that encompasses the poorest in the population and the most far-flung of forest-based human settlements, is a precious legacy

Human Development Report by UNDP

Sri Lanka tops South Asia in human development

  1. The report, which studied a total of 188 countries and territories, has determined the HDI values.
  2. By assessing long-term progress in 3 basic dimensions of human development — a long and healthy life, access to knowledge and a decent standard of living.
  3. India and Bhutan fall under the category of medium human development countries.
  4. India is placed at 130th rank and Pakistan, 147th.
  5. Within the region of South Asia, Afghanistan tops the list with the value of 1.89 for 1990-2014 followed by Bangladesh (1.64), Nepal (1.49) and India (1.48).

As for the growth rate during 1990-2014, South Asia’s figure was 1.38, the highest among all regions.

  1. The report, which studied a total of 188 countries and territories, has determined the HDI values.
  2. By assessing long-term progress in 3 basic dimensions of human development — a long and healthy life, access to knowledge and a decent standard of living.
  3. India and Bhutan fall under the category of medium human development countries.
  4. India is placed at 130th rank and Pakistan, 147th.
  5. Within the region of South Asia, Afghanistan tops the list with the value of 1.89 for 1990-2014 followed by Bangladesh (1.64), Nepal (1.49) and India (1.48).

Human Development Report by UNDP

Inequality pulls back India

  1. India is ranked 130 of 188 countries on the HDI in 2014, up marginally from 135 in 2013.
  2. The annual HDI report looks at the role of work in improving human development.
  3. India loses over one-fourth of its HDI value, when inequality is factored in, .
  4. Workforce participation rates for women have dropped globally, driven largely by declines in the last decade in India and China.
  5. The HDR report calls for a new social contract among govts, society, and the private sector to ensure everyone has a say in policy formulation.
  6. Over half of India’s population is multi-dimensionally poor, while a further 18% are close to this line.

India is ranked 130 of 188 countries on the HDI in 2014, up marginally from 135 in 2013.

  1. The annual HDI report looks at the role of work in improving human development.
  2. India loses over one-fourth of its HDI value, when inequality is factored in, .
  3. Workforce participation rates for women have dropped globally, driven largely by declines in the last decade in India and China.
  4. The HDR report calls for a new social contract among govts, society, and the private sector to ensure everyone has a say in policy formulation.
  5. Over half of India’s population is multi-dimensionally poor, while a further 18% are close to this line.
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