AYUSH – Indian Medicine System

AYUSH – Indian Medicine System

Colourful molecules of turmeric

Note4Students

From UPSC perspective, the following things are important :

Prelims level : Turmeric

Mains level : NA

Researchers have come forward with some interesting findings on Turmeric.

Turmeric

  • Turmeric has about 3% of the active component molecule called curcumin, a polyphenol diketone (and not a steroid).
  • Researchers point out that there is another molecule in turmeric called piperine, which is an alkaloid, responsible for the pungency of pepper that we use every day in our cooking, along with turmeric.
  • Piperine enhances curcumin absorption in the body. It gives turmeric its multivariate healing and protective power.

Benefits of turmeric consumption

  • Turmeric has been known for over 4,000 years in the Indian subcontinent, West Asia, Burma, Indonesia and China, and is used as an essential part of our daily food – what the colonials called curry powder.
  • It has also been known as a medicine for ages, and to have anti-bacterial, anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory properties.
  • Herbal medicine experts have used turmeric to treat painful symptoms of arthritis, joint stiffness, and joint pain.
  • They have also claimed that turmeric helps cure acute kidney injuries. Some of these claims need to be checked using controlled trials.

Against COVID-19

  • Most recently, an exciting study has recently been published by a group in Mumbai which shows that turmeric aids in the treatment of COVID-19 patients.
  • The researchers did a trial of about 40 COVID-19 patients and found that turmeric could substantially reduce morbidity and mortality.

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AYUSH – Indian Medicine System

[pib] SATYAM Programme

Note4Students

From UPSC perspective, the following things are important :

Prelims level : SATYAM Programme

Mains level : Yoga as a therapy

The Ministry of Science & Technology (MoST) is implementing the Science and Technology of Yoga and Meditation (SATYAM) Programme to explore the effect of yoga and meditation as add on therapy to fight COVID-19.

SATYAM Programme

  • The MoST is implementing SATYAM Programme since the year 2015-16 to promote scientific research in the field of yoga and meditation in order to understand its role in human wellbeing.
  • Its main objective is encouraging scientists, clinicians and experienced practitioners of yoga and meditation, with a proven track record, to submit concept notes.

Themes covered:

  • Investigations on the effect of Yoga and Meditation on physical and mental health and well being.
  • Investigations on the effect of Yoga and Meditation on the body, brain, and mind in terms of basic processes and mechanisms.

Focus on COVID

It shall focus on three dimensions of COVID related illness:

  • Mental Stress
  • Respiratory
  • Immune system

AYUSH – Indian Medicine System

AYUSH Health-Wellness Centres

Note4Students

From UPSC perspective, the following things are important :

Prelims level : AYUSH Health-Wellness Centres

Mains level : Self-care practices and its benefits

What is the news: The Union Cabinet has approved the inclusion of AYUSH Health and Wellness Centre (AYUSH HWC) component of Ayushman Bharat in the National AYUSH Mission (NAM).

  • A total of 12,500 Ayush health and wellness centres throughout the country will be operationalised within a period of five years.
  • The implementation of the proposal will establish a holistic wellness model based on Ayush principles and practices focusing on preventive promotive, curative, rehabilitative and palliative healthcare by integration with the existing public health care system.

Why such a move?

  • The move is aimed at establishing a holistic wellness model based on AYUSH principles and practices focusing on preventive, promotive, curative, rehabilitative and palliative healthcare by integration with the existing public health care system.
  • The National Health Policy 2017 has advocated mainstreaming the potential of AYUSH systems (Ayurveda, Yoga and Naturopathy, Unani, Siddha, Sows-rigpa and Homoeopathy) within a pluralistic system of Integrative healthcare.
  • The vision of the proposal is to establish a holistic wellness model based on AYUSH principles and practices, to empower masses for ‘self care’ to reduce the disease burden and out of pocket expenditure and to provide informed choice of the needy public.

What is National AYUSH Mission (NAM)?

  • Department of AYUSH, Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, Government of India has launched National AYUSH Mission (NAM) during 12th Plan for im­plementing through States/UTs.
  • The basic objective of NAM is to promote AYUSH medical systems through cost effective AYUSH services, strengthening of educational systems, facilitate the enforcement of quality control of ASU &H drugs and sustainable availability of ASU & H raw-materials.
  • It envisages flexibility of implementation of the programmes which will lead to substantial participation of the State Governments/UT.
  • The NAM contemplates establishment of a National Mission as well as corresponding Missions in the State level.

AYUSH – Indian Medicine System

[pib] ICoSDiTAUS-2020

Note4Students

From UPSC perspective, the following things are important :

Prelims level : ICoSDiTAUS-2020

Mains level : NA

ICoSDiTAUS-2020 a two-day International Conference on Standardisation of Diagnosis and Terminologies in Ayurveda, Unani and Siddha systems of Medicine was concluded in New Delhi.

ICoSDiTAUS-2020

  • The conference was jointly organized by the Ministry of AYUSH and the WHO at New Delhi
  • It adopted the “New Delhi Declaration on Collection and Classification of Traditional Medicine (TM) Diagnostic Data”.
  • The New Delhi declaration emphasised the commitment of the countries to Traditional Medicine (TM) as a significant area of health care.
  • It further sought the opportunity for including traditional systems of medicine like Ayurveda, Unani and Siddha in the International Classification of Diseases (ICD) of WHO which is the standard diagnostic tool for health management across the world.

AYUSH – Indian Medicine System

[pib] National Commission for Indian System of Medicines

Note4Students

From UPSC perspective, the following things are important :

Prelims level : Highlights of the bill

Mains level : Medical administartion in India and its loopholes

The Union Cabinet has given its approval for proposal of Official Amendments in the National Commission for Indian System of Medicine Bill, 2019 (NCIM) which is pending in the Rajya Sabha.

About the Commission

  • The main objective of establishing NCIM is to promote equity by ensuring adequate supply of quality medical professionals and enforce high ethical standards in all aspects of medical services in Indian System of Medicine.
  • The Commission will promote availability of affordable healthcare services in all parts of the country.
  • The Commission has been structured to streamline the functions related to academic standards, evaluation, assessment and accreditation of educational institutions pertaining to Indian System of Medicine.

Composition

  • The NCISM will consist of 29 members, appointed by the central government.
  • A Search Committee will recommend names to the central government for the post of Chairperson, part time members, and presidents of the four autonomous boards set up under the NCISM.
  • These posts will have a maximum term of four years.
  • The Search Committee will consist of five members including the Cabinet Secretary and three experts nominated by the central government (of which two should have experience in any of the fields of Indian System of Medicine).

Functions

Functions of the NCISM include:

  • framing policies for regulating medical institutions and medical professionals of Indian System of Medicine,
  • assessing the requirements of healthcare related human resources and infrastructure,
  • ensuring compliance by the State Medical Councils of Indian System of Medicine of the regulations made under the Bill, and
  • ensuring coordination among the autonomous boards set up under the Bill.

AYUSH – Indian Medicine System

[pib] National Institute of Sowa Rigpa (NISR)

Note4Students

From UPSC perspective, the following things are important :

Prelims level : Sowa Rigpa

Mains level : AYUSH

The Union Cabinet has approved the establishment of the National Institute for Sowa-Rigpa in Leh.

Sowa-Rigpa

  • “Sowa-Rigpa” commonly known as Tibetan system of medicine is one of the oldest, Living and well documented medical tradition of the world.
  • It has been originated from Tibet and popularly practised in India, Nepal, Bhutan, Mongolia and Russia.
  • In India, this system is widely practised in Sikkim, Arunachal Pradesh, Darjeeling (West Bengal), Dharamsala, Lahaul and Spiti(Himachal Pradesh) and Ladakh region of Jammu & Kashmir.

Similarities with Ayurveda

  • The majority of theory and practice of Sowa-Rigpa is similar to “Ayurveda” .
  • The first Ayurvedic influence came to Tibet during 3rd century AD but it became popular only after 7th centuries with the approach of Buddhism to Tibet.
  • Thereafter this trend of exportation of Indian medical literature, along with Buddhism and other Indian art and sciences were continued till early 19th century.

Major books

  • rGyud-bZhi (four tantra) the fundamental text book of this medicine was composed by Yuthog Yonten Gonpo who is believed to be the father of Sowa Rigpa.
  • The book is based on indigenous medicine of Tibet enriched with Ayurveda, Chinese and Greek Medicine.

About the Institute

  • The setting up of the National Institute of Sowa-Rigpa would provide an impetus for the revival of Sowa-Rigpa in the Indian Sub-continent.
  • The Institute will also provide opportunities for students of Sowa-Rigpa not only in India but also from other countries.
  • The Institute will be an autonomous National Institute under Ministry of AYUSH with the mandate to undertake interdisciplinary education and research programmes in Sowa-Rigpa.
  • The National Institute of Sowa Rigpa would identify the best treatment – including their standard procedures-within the framework of traditional principle and possible co-relation with bio-molecular western medicine in providing health care facilities to the general public.

AYUSH – Indian Medicine System

[pib] e-AUSHADHI Portal

Note4students

Mains Paper 2: Governance | Issues relating to development & management of Social Sector/Services relating to Health etc.

From the UPSC perspective, the following things are important:

Prelims level: e-Aushadhi Portal

Mains level: Need of promoting AYUSH system of medicines


News

e-AUSHADHI Portal

  • Ministry of AYUSH has launched the e-AUSHADHI portal, for online licensing of Ayurveda, Siddha, Unani and Homoeopathy drugs.
  • The portal is intended for increased transparency, improved information management facility, improved data usability and increased accountability. T
  • In this direction, this new e-portal is an acronym for Ayurveda, Unani, Siddha and Homeopathy Automated Drug Help Initiative. He further added that
  • This portal will aid the licensing authority, manufactures and consumers.
  • It will also provide real time information of the licensed manufactures and their products, cancelled and spurious drugs, contact details of the concerned authority for specific grievances.

AYUSH – Indian Medicine System

Nilavembu Kudineer

Note4students

Mains Paper 2: Governance | Issues relating to development & management of Social Sector/Services relating to Health, Education, Human Resources

From the UPSC perspective, the following things are important:

Prelims level: Nilavembu Kudineer

Mains level: Need of promoting AYUSH system of medicines


News

  • The Tamil Nadu government has distributed nilavembu kudineer (a Siddha medicine) concoction to treat people infected with dengue during the outbreak.

Nilavembu kudineer: Healing Dengue and chikungunya

  1. Under in vitro conditions, nilavembu kudineer (a Siddha medicine) was found to provide protection against chikungunya virus while it was effective as a treatment during acute phase of dengue infection.
  2. Dengue subtype-2, which is the most prevalent subtype in India, was used for testing the formulation.
  3. There was significant antiviral activity of the formulation at 3% of human dose onwards.
  4. Currently, there is no treatment for dengue and chikungunya.
  5. The mode of action is antiviral in the case of dengue while immuno-modulatory in chikungunya infection.

About Sidhha Medicines

  1. Siddha medicine is a system of traditional medicine originating in ancient Tamilakam (Tamil Nadu) in South India and Sri Lanka.
  2. Traditionally, it is taught that the siddhars laid the foundation for this system of medication.
  3. Siddhars were spiritual adepts who possessed the ashta siddhis, or the eight supernatural powers.
  4. Agastyar is considered the first siddha and the guru of all siddhars; the siddha system is believed to have been handed over to him by Shiva.
  5. Siddha is focused on “Ashtamahasiddhi,” the eight supernatural power. Those who attained or achieved these powers are known as Siddhars.
  6. There were 18 important Siddhars in olden days and they developed this system of medicine.
  7. The Siddhars wrote their knowledge in palm leaf manuscripts, fragments of which were found in parts of South India.
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