Irrigation In India – PMKSY, AIBP, Watershed Management, Neeranchan, etc.

Everything you need to know about Neeranchal Project, a very important component of PM Krishi Sinchai Yojana.

Irrigation In India – PMKSY, AIBP, Watershed Management, Neeranchan, etc.

Buddah Nullah

Note4Students

From UPSC perspective, the following things are important :

Prelims level : Buddah Nullah

Mains level : Canal irrigation system and its limitations

The Punjab govt. has approved ₹650 crore in the first phase for rejuvenation of the highly polluting Buddah Nullah — a seasonal tributary of Sutlej in Ludhiana.

Buddah Nullah

  • Buddah Nullah or Budha Nala is a seasonal water stream that runs through the Malwa region of Punjab.
  • It passes through highly populated Ludhiana and drains into Sutlej River, a tributary of the Indus river.
  • It has also become a major source of pollution in the region as well the main Sutlej river, as it gets polluted after entering the highly populated and industrialized Ludhiana city, turning it into an open drain.
  • Also, since a large area in south-western Punjab solely depend on the canal water for irrigation, and water from Buddha Nullah enters various canals after Harike waterworks.

Why such move?

  • The pollution in the Buddah Nullah is a major threat to public health and environment and the main sources of pollution in the nullah are direct flow of pollutants by industries and dairies.
  • Also, treated effluents from existing STPs, based on UASB technology, does not meet the required quality and overflow from sewer lines add to the problem.
  • The NGT has already directed the government to take proactive steps to immediately address the problem.

Irrigation In India – PMKSY, AIBP, Watershed Management, Neeranchan, etc.

Asia’s biggest surge pool

Note4Students

From UPSC perspective, the following things are important :

Prelims level : Kaleshwaram Lift Irrigation Project

Mains level : Lift Irrigation


Stage is all set for the filling of the Asia’s biggest surge pool (open to sky) with the waters of the Kaleshwaram Lift Irrigation Project.

What is Surge Pool?

  • Surge pool or tank is a water storage device used as pressure neutralizer in hydropower water conveyance system to resists excess pressure rise and pressure drop conditions.
  • It is a standpipe or storage reservoir at the downstream end of a closed aqueduct, feeder, dam, barrage pipe to absorb sudden rises of pressure, as well as to quickly provide extra water during a brief drop in pressure.

About the Kaleshwaram surge pool

  • Constructed on the hillocks on the outskirts of Thippapur village in Illanthakunta mandal, the surge pool measures 92 meters deep and 56 meters diameter and would store one tmc feet of water.
  • Water would be lifted by using four motors to the Ananthagiri Reservoir.
  • The water would reach the surge pool from Mid Manair Dam — Sri Raja Rajeshwara reservoir — by travelling 3.4 km through gravity canal and 7.6 km through tunnel.
  • Incidentally, the open-to-sky Surge pool was constructed in a record time of 13 months at a cost of ₹ 2,700 crore.
  • The four motors in this pool would use 106 MWs of power and accordingly a 440 KVA sub-station was constructed at the vicinity of the pool.

Back2Basics

Kaleshwaram Lift Irrigation Project (KLIP)

Irrigation In India – PMKSY, AIBP, Watershed Management, Neeranchan, etc.

Meghdoot mobile app to assist farmers

Note4Students

From UPSC perspective, the following things are important :

Prelims level : Meghdoot app and its functions

Mains level : Read the attached story


Meghdoot App

  • The Ministries of Earth Sciences and Agriculture have launched a mobile application that will provide location, and crop and livestock-specific weather-based agro advisories to farmers in local languages.
  • It has been developed by experts from the India Meteorological Department and Indian Institute of Tropical meteorology and the Indian Council of Agricultural Research.
  • To begin with, the service would be available for 150 districts in different parts of the country.
  • It will be extended to rest of the country in a phased manner over the next one year.

Utilities of the app

  • It will provide forecast relating to temperature, rainfall, humidity, and wind speed and direction, which play critical roles in agricultural operations and advisories to the farmers on how to take care of their crops and livestock.
  • The app would provide information in the form of images, maps and pictures to help the farmer to have a clearer picture of what is in store.
  • It has been integrated with WhatsApp and Facebook as well to help farmers share advisories among themselves. It will also be integrated with YouTube in future.

Irrigation In India – PMKSY, AIBP, Watershed Management, Neeranchan, etc.

[op-ed snap] : Transforming livelihoods through farm ponds

Note4Students

From UPSC perspective, the following things are important :

Prelims level : Understand what water harvesting is

Mains level : Importance of water harvesting for water conservation

CONTEXT

Prime Minister Narendra Modi explicated the need to implement innovative water management measures, stressing particularly the importance of rainwater harvesting both at the household and community levels. One intervention that has been tried out in various States, and needs to be taken up on a bigger scale, is the construction of farm ponds.

Background

  • With an increased variability of monsoons and rapidly depleting groundwater tables, large parts of India are reeling under water stress.
  • A number of peninsular regions like Bundelkhand, Vidarbha and Marathwada have been facing recurring drought-like situations.

Benefits of Farm ponds:

  • Farm ponds can be cost-effective structures that transform rural livelihoods.
  • They can help enhance water control, contribute to agriculture intensification and boost farm incomes. A recent study on farm ponds in Jharkhand and West Bengal found that they aided in superior water control through the harvesting not just of rainfall but also of surface run-off and subsurface flows. Some of them functioned exclusively as recharge points, contributing to groundwater replenishment.
  • They also helped in providing supplemental irrigation in the kharif season and an enhanced irrigation coverage in rabi. The yield of paddy, the most important crop in kharif, stabilised, thus contributing to greater food security.
  • However, this is possible only if they act as rainwater harvesting structures and not as intermediate storage points for an increased extraction of groundwater or diversion of canal water. The latter will cause greater groundwater depletion and inequitable water distribution.
  • Water retention: Farm ponds retained water for 8-10 months of the year; thus farmers could enhance cropping intensity and crop diversification within and across seasons. The area used to cultivate vegetables and other commercial crops also increased.
  • Figures indicate that the ponds were also a financially viable proposition, with a fairly high Internal Rate of Return, of about 19%, over 15 years.

Challenges:

  • In parts of peninsular India, the idea of a farm pond as an in-situ rainwater harvesting structure has taken a complete U-turn. Some of them are benefiting farmers at an individual level, but not contributing to water conservation and recharge.
  • They are being used as intermediate storage points, accelerating groundwater depletion and increasing evaporation losses as the groundwater is brought to the surface and stored in relatively shallow structures.
  • Need for inlet, outlet provisions – Maharashtra government is promoting farm ponds under a flagship programme that aims to dig over one lakh structures by offering a subsidy of up to ₹50,000 per farmer.
    • Most of them are being constructed without inlet and outlet provisions and their walls are raised above the ground level by only a few feet.
    • They cannot arrest the excess run-off as there is no inlet, and therefore they cannot be used effectively for rainwater harvesting.
    • Further, farmers line them at the bottom with plastic, restricting seepage and converting the ponds into intermediate storage points.
  • Such farm ponds have an adverse impact on the water tables and accelerate water loss. The usual practice here is to lift water from a dug well and/or a borewell, store it in the pond and then draw it once again to irrigate the fields, often using micro-irrigation. This intensifies competition for extraction of groundwater from the aquifer, which is a common pool resource.
  • In such cases, in the command area of the irrigation project, farmers fill up their farm ponds first when the canal is in rotation and then take it from the pond to the field. This can impede circulation of water.
  • During canal rotation, the aquifer will get recharged because of the return flow of water coming from the irrigated fields. This return flow benefits all, as most of the farmers access water though wells in this command. But if canals fill up the farm ponds first, it restricts their benefits only to the pond owners and, in the long term, reduces the overall return flow at the system level.

Farm ponds can act as effective harvesting structures and also yield healthy financial returns. But if they are promoted merely for on-farm storage of groundwater and canal water, they could accelerate, rather than reduce, the water crisis in the countryside.

Irrigation In India – PMKSY, AIBP, Watershed Management, Neeranchan, etc.

Kaleshwaram Lift Irrigation Project (KLIP)

Note4Students

From UPSC perspective, the following things are important :

Prelims level : Kaleshwaram Lift Irrigation Project

Mains level : Lift Irrigation

  • Kaleshwaram Lift Irrigation Project (KLIP) claimed as the world’s largest multi-stage and multi-purpose lift irrigation scheme, was inaugurated.

About the Kaleshwaram Lift Irrigation Project

  • The Kaleshwaram project is an off-shoot of the original Pranahitha-Chevella Lift Irrigation Scheme taken up by the government in 2007 when Andhra Pradesh was not divided.
  • It is aimed to make Telangana drought proof by harnessing the flood waters of the Godavari.
  • Waters of the Godavari will be tapped by reverse pumping and storage, thereby facilitating agriculture on over 38 lakh acres.
  • It would help rejuvenate thousands of tanks, providing water for industries, and supplying drinking water to Hyderabad and Secunderabad by creating a series of storage tanks and a network of pipelines.

Which rivers are involved?

  • The project starts at the confluence point of Pranahita River (amajor tributary of Godavari River) and Godavari River.
  • Pranahita river is a confluence of various other smaller tributaries like Wardha, Penganga and Wainganga Rivers.

Irrigation In India – PMKSY, AIBP, Watershed Management, Neeranchan, etc.

Policy bias against Rainfed agriculture

Note4students

Mains Paper 3: Agriculture | Different types of irrigation and irrigation systems storage

From UPSC perspective, the following things are important:

Prelims level: Not Much

Mains level: Rainfed agriculture in India


News

Rainfed Agriculture Atlas

  1. A new rainfed agriculture atlas has been released this week to map the agro biodiversity and socio-economic conditions prevailing in areas.
  2. The Revitalizing Rainfed Agriculture Network (RRAN) has published the atlas.
  3. It has laid out the stark differences in government policy and expenditure.
  4. It also attempts to document the policy biases that are making farming unviable for many in these areas.

Rainfed Agriculture in India

  1. Three out of five farmers in India grow their crops using rainwater, instead of irrigation.
  2. Even though rainfed agriculture contributes to 60 per cent of the value of agriculture GDP of India, there is a clear-cut bias towards irrigated areas.
  3. However, per hectare government investment into their lands may be 20 times lower.
  4. Government procurement of the crops is a fraction of major irrigated land crops, and many of the flagship schemes are not tailored to benefit them.

Their importance

  1. Rain-fed areas account for 89 per cent of millets production, 88 per cent of pulses, 73 per cent of cotton, 69 per cent of oilseeds and 40 per cent rice production in the country.
  2. Besides, they support 64 per cent of cattle, 74 per cent of sheep and 78 per cent of goat population in the country.
  3. About 61 per cent of India’s farmers rely on rain-fed agriculture and 55 per cent of the gross cropped area is under rain-fed farming.

Due negligence on Rainfed Farmers

  1. There has been negligence toward rainfed areas which is leading to lower incomes for farmers in these areas.
  2. Farmers in rainfed areas are receiving 40% less of their income from agriculture in comparison to those in irrigated areas.
  3. Lands irrigated through big dams and canal networks get a per hectare investment of ₹5 lakh.
  4. Watershed management spending in rainfed lands is only ₹18,000-25,000 and the difference in yield is not proportionate to the difference in investment.

Procurement bias

  1. When it comes to procurement, over the decade between 2001-02 and 2011-12, the government spent ₹5.4 lakh crore on wheat and rice.
  2. Coarse cereals, which are grown in rainfed areas, only had ₹3,200 crore worth of procurement in the same period.

Schemes are often unfit

  1. Flagship government schemes, such as seed and fertiliser subsidies and soil health cards, are designed for irrigated areas and simply extended to rainfed farmers without taking their needs into consideration.
  2. For example, many hybrid seeds notified by the government scheme need plenty of water, fertiliser and pesticides to give high yields and are thus not useful to most rainfed farmers.
  3. Commercial fertilizers will simply burn out the soil without sufficient water.
  4. The government has no system to channelize indigenous seeds or subsidize organic manure in the same way.

Way Forward

  1. A more balanced approach is needed, to give rainfed farmers the same research and technology focus, and production support that their counterparts in irrigation areas have received over the last few decades.
  2. In the long run, cash incentives and income support like the PM-KISAN scheme announced in the budget earlier this month were better than extensive procurement.

Irrigation In India – PMKSY, AIBP, Watershed Management, Neeranchan, etc.

Maharashtra farmers to get sops for using solar pumps

Note4students

Mains Paper 3: Agriculture | Different types of irrigation and irrigation systems storage

From UPSC perspective, the following things are important:

Prelims level: ASKP Scheme

Mains level: Facilitating Irrigation through solar power


News

  • To encourage farmers to use solar agriculture pumps, the Maharashtra government has decided to give two LED bulbs, a DC fan and a mobile charging socket as freebies.

Atal Solar Krishi Pump (ASKP) Yojana

  1. Maharashtra govt. has launched ASKP scheme for farmers to provide subsidy of upto 95% on solar agriculture pumpsets.
  2. Farmers with less than 5 acres of land just need to day 5% i.e. Rs. 12,000 and get three horse power pump
  3. Farmers with more than 5 acres of land just need to pay Rs. 30,000 and get five horse power solar powered pump

Benefits of the Initiative

  1. The State aims to reduce losses due to non-payment of electricity bills and also promote solar energy by implementing the scheme.
  2. The scheme would be beneficial to farmers who reside in remote areas where the agricultural feeder is not possible.

Irrigation In India – PMKSY, AIBP, Watershed Management, Neeranchan, etc.

Heritage tag for 2 irrigation facilities in Telangana

Note4students

Mains Paper 3: Agriculture | Different types of irrigation & irrigation systems storage

From UPSC perspective, the following things are important:

Prelims level: ICID, HIS, Ana-katta, Pedda-Cheruvu

Mains level: Irrigation systems in India


News

Context

The International Commission on Irrigation and Drainage (ICID) has accepted Telangana’s nomination of Sadarmatt anicut across river Godavari in Nirmal district and Pedda Cheruvu in Kamareddy district in the ICID Register of Heritage Irrigation Structures (HIS).

Sadarmatt anicut

  1. The HIS award is a deserving recognition to this irrigation facility which has provided precious water for paddy crops in its designed ayacut of 13,100 acres since its construction in 1891-92.
  2. It has also served as a picnic spot for people from an area which may not be as vast its catchment area of nearly 40,000 sq miles but is spread over old undivided Adilabad, Karimnagar and Nizamabad districts.
  3. The anicut, which is English word for Telugu’s ana-katta, meaning a rainfall bund, was built by Nawab Ikbal-ud-Dowla who bore the tile of Vicar-ul-Umrah Bahadur in 1891-92 about 50 km downstream of the Sri Ram Sagar Project (SRSP).
  4. Ottley was the engineer and Khanapur was a jagir of the Nawabs during the rule of the Nizam of Hyderabad.
  5. Sadarmatt bund is 437.4 m long on its left flank and 23.8 m on its right flank.
  6. The left canal is 21.5 km long while the right canal is 10 km and the distributory is 12 km in length irrigating 5,700 acres, 3,400 acres and 4,000 acres respectively.

Pedda Cheruvu

  1. The Pedda Cheruvu (big tank in Telugu) located on the outskirts of this district headquarters town is spread over an area of 618 acres.
  2. It was built in 1897 during the rule of Mir Mahaboob Ali Khan, the sixth Nizam of Hyderabad State.
  3. It has a 1.8-km-long tank bund and 145-metre weir and three sluices. It’s catchment area is spread over 68.97 sq. km.
  4. With a capacity of 0.175 tmcft it provides water for irrigation to over 900 acres in Kamareddy, Sarampally, Narsampally and old Rajampet.
  5. It also provides drinking water for residents of the area.
  6. Womenfolk play Bathukamma during the Navaratrotsavalu on its bund and immerse them in its waters.
  7. This tank was taken up under the second round of Mission Kakatiya to be developed as a mini tank bund with an estimated outlay of ₹ 6.6 crore.

Back2Basics

International Commission on Irrigation and Drainage (ICID)

  1. The ICID is a Technical and Voluntary Not-for-profit, International NGO, dedicated to enhance the world-wide supply of food and fibre for all people by improving water and land management, and the productivity of irrigated and drained lands.
  2. The ICID By-laws have been enacted its International Executive Council for the due implementation of the provisions of the Constitution of the Commission.
  3. It is headquartered in New Delhi.
  4. ICID has been involved in the global discussions leading to Agenda 21, World Water Vision, World Water Forums etc., which have become the focal point of several of its technical activities.
  5. In recognition of its significant contribution to the programs and objectives of International Year of Peace proclaimed by the UN General Assembly, on 15 September 1987 ICID was designated as a Peace Messenger by the UN Secretary General.

Irrigation In India – PMKSY, AIBP, Watershed Management, Neeranchan, etc.

[pib] Bansagar Canal Project

Note4students

From UPSC perspective, the following things are important:

Prelims level: Bansagar Canal Project, Mapping of Son River

Mains level: Not Much


News

  1. PM Modi  dedicated the Bansagar Canal Project to the Nation.
  2. This project will provide a big boost to irrigation in the region, and will be greatly beneficial for the farmers of Mirzapur and Allahabad districts of Uttar Pradesh.

Bansagar project

  1. Bansagar or Ban Sagar Dam is a multipurpose river Valley Project on Son River situated in the Ganges Basin in Madhya Pradesh, India with both irrigation and 435 MW of hydroelectric power generation.
  2. It was commissioned in 2008.
  3. The project was called “Bansagar” after Bana Bhatt, the renowned Sanskrit scholar of the 7th century in the court of Harsha (who also wrote Harshacharita).
  4. After 2014, this project was made a part of the Pradhan Mantri Krishi Sinchai Yojana, and all efforts were made to complete it.
  5. Bansagar will irrigate an area of 2,490 km² in Madhya Pradesh, 1,500 km²; in Uttar Pradesh and 940 km² in Bihar.

About Son River

  1. Son River of central India is the second largest of the Ganges’s southern tributaries after Yamuna River.
  2. The Son originates near Amarkantak in Madhya Pradesh just east of the headwater of the Narmada River, and flows north-northwest through Madhya Pradesh state before turning sharply eastward where it encounters the southwest-northeast-Kaimur Range.

Irrigation In India – PMKSY, AIBP, Watershed Management, Neeranchan, etc.

[op-ed snap] India needs to focus on water efficiency

Note4students

Mains Paper 3: Agriculture | Different types of irrigation & irrigation systems storage

From UPSC perspective, the following things are important:

Prelims level: Composite Water Management Index (CWMI)

Mains level: Impending water crisis in India and ways to tackle it


Context

Water scarcity in India

  1. Over the past few months, concern and awareness about water resources have reached an unprecedented high
  2. Two successive events have led to such a watershed change in discussion on water resources
  3. First, the news came in that Shimla is running out of water and was forced to turn away tourists that drive the city’s economy during summer
  4. Second, NITI Aayog released the Composite Water Management Index (CWMI) in June

Findings in CWMI

  1. The CWMI is a pioneering exercise that seeks to identify, target and improve key water resources-related indicators
  2. The index has a set of 28 key performance indicators (KPIs) covering irrigation status, drinking water and other water-related sectors. Critical areas such as source augmentation, major and medium irrigation, watershed development, participatory irrigation practices, sustainable on-farm water use practices, rural drinking water, urban water supply and sanitation
  3. This index highlighted the current plight, showing how low-performing states house approximately 50% of India’s population, and how 21 major cities may run out of the groundwater by 2021

Water usage pattern in India

  1. Presently, irrigation water use accounts for 80% of the available water, i.e. 700 BCM
  2. Within the limited availability of 1,137 BCM, we need to cater to the growing demand of the population, including domestic water requirement, industrial requirement, ecology sustenance, and power generation requirement
  3. The present level of irrigation efficiency for surface and groundwater is 30% and 55%, respectively

Measures that need to be taken

First, Punjab, Haryana, Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, Maharashtra, Telangana and other water-deficient states should promptly move towards micro-irrigation systems

  • Conventional surface irrigation provides 60-70% efficiency, whereas, higher efficiency of up to 70-80% with sprinkler and 90% with drip irrigation systems can be achieved

Second, the states should continue to focus on command area development (CAD)

  • This is now part of Pradhan Mantri Krishi Sinchayee Yojana (PMKSY) which focuses on “more crop per drop”
  • CAD will play a critical role in bridging the gap between irrigation potential created (IPC) and irrigation potential utilized (IPU)

Third, the cropping patterns in the states should be changed as per the agro-climatic zones

  • Improper cropping patterns affect both crop productivity and irrigation efficiency
  • Now it is time to focus on more nuanced aspects of water-use efficiency and agriculture productivity

Fourth, we need to address the issue of fragmentation in farming

  • There are two measures to tackle this issue
  • States can expedite the adoption of the Model Agricultural Land Leasing Act, 2016—which can lead to consolidation of small farms
  • The second option may provide early gains—creating and ramping up farmer producer organizations (FPO)
  • FPOs provide a sense of ownership to farmers and encourage community-level involvement with lower transaction costs
  • Almost 70% farmers in India are marginal farmers and the average farm size is 1.15 hectares. Therefore, there is a huge opportunity in forming the FPOs
  • This will lead to economies of scale on farm produce, water-usage and cost of production

Way Forward

  1. The above measures have huge scope for changing the landscape of water efficiency in the irrigation sector, which accounts for the majority of water resource consumption in India
  2. Doubling farmers income by 2022 is a noble vision, but preserving water resources for the sustainable growth of India is as critical

Irrigation In India – PMKSY, AIBP, Watershed Management, Neeranchan, etc.

[op-ed snap] Using agriculture to tackle the water crisis

 Note4students

Mains Paper 3: Agriculture | Major crops cropping patterns in various parts of the country

From UPSC perspective, the following things are important:

Prelims level: Composite Water Management Index, Agriculture genomics

Mains level: Impact of Green revolution on cropping patterns in India


Context

NITI Aayog’s Composite Water Management Index

  1. It underscores the looming threat of India’s water crisis
  2. Current proportions are severe—about 200,000 people die every year due to inadequate access to water—and are set to become far more so

Agriculture is the biggest user

  1. It consumes about 83% of India’s freshwater resources
  2. The roots of the problem may lie in the Green Revolution
  3. Green revolution included skewed incentive structures—heavily subsidized electricity, water and fertilizers for farmers
  4. This has also played a significant role in the misalignment of crop patterns in the country

Misalignments in cropping

  1. The production of water-thirsty crops like paddy and sugarcane takes place in the Punjab-Haryana belt and Maharashtra respectively
  2. Environmentalists have often argued that sugar cane is the cause of chronic drought in Marathwada
  3. The Nabard-Icrier report makes an argument for moving such high water-reliant crops to other, relatively water-abundant areas
  4. In regions with high irrigation water productivity better suited to water-intensive crops—such as Jharkhand and Chhattisgarh—poor power supply and other such problems make cultivation of water-intensive crops non-remunerative

Using science

  1. India’s public sector agriculture research institutions led by the Indian Council of Agricultural Research had released a record 313 new crop varieties during 2016-17
  2. These crops would increase farm production while minimizing the use of inputs
  3. The list of new crops includes an early maturing (52-55 days) variety of mung pulse—the first of its kind in the world
  4. Developments like these have the potential to help states adopt a more sustainable cropping pattern without disrupting the flow of their income streams

Other interventions

  1. Investing in readjusting irrigation patterns is equally important for fulfilling the “more crop per drop” objective
  2. Natural water systems lose their dilution capacity on becoming hydrologically deficient, leading to a higher concentration of pollutants
  3. To deal with such water-management challenges in rivers and groundwater, boosting alternative irritation techniques such as drip irrigation is a necessity
  4. Irrigation techniques such as the alternate wetting and drying method (AWD)—a widely practiced technique in the Philippines and Vietnam can also be used

Way Forward

  1. The tasks of making agriculture remunerative as well as water-friendly eventually coincide
  2. India still lags behind its Asian neighbors in agriculture genomics—the process of increasing agricultural productivity by developing crops with promising agronomic traits
  3. Research and development in multi-resistant, water-efficient and high-yielding crops along with investment in alternative modes of irrigation need to be taken up

Irrigation In India – PMKSY, AIBP, Watershed Management, Neeranchan, etc.

Why is Telangana’s Kaleshwaram Lift Irrigation Project important?

Note4students

Mains Paper 3: Agriculture | Different types of irrigation and irrigation systems

From UPSC perspective, the following things are important:

Prelims level: Kaleshwaram Lift Irrigation Project, Rivers involved in it.

Mains level:  Read the attached story


News

What’s the project?

  1. The Kaleshwaram project is an off-shoot of the original Pranahitha-Chevella Lift Irrigation Scheme taken up by the government in 2007 when Andhra Pradesh was not divided.
  2. After conducting a highly advanced Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) survey for a couple of months, the government separated the original component serving the Adilabad area as the Pranahitha project.
  3. The project is designed to irrigate 7,38,851 hectares (over 18.47 lakh acres) uplands in the erstwhile districts of Karimnagar, Nizamabad, Warangal, Medak, Nalgonda and Ranga Reddy.

Why is it Unique?

  1. Claimed to be the costliest irrigation project to be taken up by any State till date with an estimated cost of ₹80,500 crore.
  2. KLIP has many unique features, including the longest tunnel to carry water in Asia, running up to 81 km, between the Yellampally barrage and the Mallannasagar reservoir.
  3. The project would also utilize the highest capacity pumps, up to 139 MW, in the country to lift water.

Irrigation In India – PMKSY, AIBP, Watershed Management, Neeranchan, etc.

[pib] Water circuits to be developed on the lines of power circuits

Note4students

Mains Paper 3: Agriculture | Different types of irrigation & irrigation systems storage

From UPSC perspective, the following things are important:

Prelims level: Water circuits

Mains level: Water management


News:

  • There is a need for river connectivity, construction of Barrages, Dams, Rubber dams and Bandhas, drip and piped irrigation in the country
  • There is also a need for water circuits in the country on the lines of power circuits for better water conservation
  • Availability of water is not the problem but we have to learn to manage and conserve it

Achieving water efficiency:

  • To double the income of farmers by the year 2022 cannot be achieved without proper water management
  • Enhancing drip and pipe irrigation will reduce wastage of water and will be cost effective for farmers
  • River connectivity programme can reduce water crisis in critical areas like Tamil Nadu, Karnataka, Telangana, and Maharashtra.

Why is this cause taking place?

  • Declining level of groundwater in many parts of the country
  • Per capita availability of water is also reducing

Result:

  • A definite strategy has been prepared for conservation of water resources and cleaning Ganga

Irrigation In India – PMKSY, AIBP, Watershed Management, Neeranchan, etc.

Innovations in place for irrigation projects

  1. Purpose: To ensure that these projects are completed
  2. Funding: The key hindrance used to be that States lacked funds to complete projects but now rules have been amended to allow them to get loans from NABARD for their projects
  3. States can also borrow additional funds from NABARD
  4. Through NABARD, the government will provide 15-year loans at 6% interest and ensure that a project is sanctioned only if panchayats and local water-use associations are closely involved
  5. The average cost over-run of projects so far has been 352% with some more than 2000%
  6. Monitoring: The status of a project with an app
  7. To ensure efficiency we need more participation from end-users

Irrigation In India – PMKSY, AIBP, Watershed Management, Neeranchan, etc.

Centre mulls mega fund flow to push irrigation

  1. NABARD will manage a Rs. 77,000-crore corpus as part of a Central government push to complete 99 unfinished irrigation projects across the country by 2019
  2. This would help bring water to 76.03 lakh hectares
  3. These projects are part of PM Krishi Sinchayee Yojana
  4. Priority: All drought and suicide-prone districts will be first covered
  5. There will be short-cut (sic) appraisals & incentives will be given to States who complete their projects before time
  6. Background: The 99 projects are part of 149 irrigation projects across the country, overdue since 1997
  7. At least Rs. 67, 539 crore has been spent on these until March 2015 to build dams and irrigation projects but with little water actually making it to farmers’ fields
  8. Traditionally the Central government apportioned money to States to complete projects

Irrigation In India – PMKSY, AIBP, Watershed Management, Neeranchan, etc.

India water week: Addressing critical water issues

  1. Organised by: Ministry of Water Resources, River Development & Ganga Rejuvenation
  2. Outcomes: Need to prioritise a multi-disciplinary approach to water
  3. Laws should inculcate a respect for the principle that water is a common legacy
  4. Government’s Initiatives: Krishi Sinchayee Yojana, Nirmal Bharat Abhiyan and Integrated Watershed Management Programme
  1. Organised by: Ministry of Water Resources, River Development & Ganga Rejuvenation
  2. Outcomes: Need to prioritise a multi-disciplinary approach to water
  3. Laws should inculcate a respect for the principle that water is a common legacy
  4. Government’s Initiatives: Krishi Sinchayee Yojana, Nirmal Bharat Abhiyan and Integrated Watershed Management Programme

Irrigation In India – PMKSY, AIBP, Watershed Management, Neeranchan, etc.

Modi likely to unveil Mission Kakatiya pylon

  1. PM would unveil a pylon of Mission Kakatiya, one of the flagship programmes of the State Govt taken up for revival of minor irrigation tanks.
  2. unique identity number will be allocated to every tank being taken up for revival.
  3. The target for second phase of the programme this year was revival of 10,308 tanks.
  4. The govt had already taken a decision to take the help of IIT and BITS here in its endeavour to revive chain-link tank system.
  1. PM would unveil a pylon of Mission Kakatiya, one of the flagship programmes of the State Govt taken up for revival of minor irrigation tanks.
  2. unique identity number will be allocated to every tank being taken up for revival.
  3. The target for second phase of the programme this year was revival of 10,308 tanks.
  4. The govt had already taken a decision to take the help of IIT and BITS here in its endeavour to revive chain-link tank system.

Irrigation In India – PMKSY, AIBP, Watershed Management, Neeranchan, etc.

India signs a agreement with World Bank for Watershed Project

  1. The Govt of India signed a loan agreement with World Bank for the Neeranchal National Watershed Project.
  2. The project will be implemented by the Ministry of Rural Development over a six-year period (2016-21).
  3. It will support the Pradhan Mantri Krishi Sinchayi Yojana in hydrology and water management, agricultural production systems, capacity building and monitoring and evaluation.
  4. All the 29 states which implement the watershed projects will benefit from Neeranchal.
  5. 12% of the wasteland area will be targeted through this project to make about 336 lakh hectares of land arable.
  1. The Govt of India signed a loan agreement with World Bank for the Neeranchal National Watershed Project.
  2. The project will be implemented by the Ministry of Rural Development over a six-year period (2016-21).
  3. It will support the Pradhan Mantri Krishi Sinchayi Yojana in hydrology and water management, agricultural production systems, capacity building and monitoring and evaluation.
  4. All the 29 states which implement the watershed projects will benefit from Neeranchal.
  5. 12% of the wasteland area will be targeted through this project to make about 336 lakh hectares of land arable.

Irrigation In India – PMKSY, AIBP, Watershed Management, Neeranchan, etc.

Linking PMKSY & MGNREGS

  1. The aim is to ensure smooth availability of labour.
  2. MNREGS labourers are usually engaged in irrigation projects, one of the main focus of the scheme — but a formal arrangement does not exist.
  3. It would also ensure availability of adequate hands for agrarian work as rural India had seen a shortage of labourers for agriculture work after MGNERS was rolled out.
  4. PMKSY is under Ministry of Agriculture and MGNERS is under Ministry of Rural Development.
  1. The aim is to ensure smooth availability of labour.
  2. MNREGS labourers are usually engaged in irrigation projects, one of the main focus of the scheme — but a formal arrangement does not exist.
  3. It would also ensure availability of adequate hands for agrarian work as rural India had seen a shortage of labourers for agriculture work after MGNERS was rolled out.
  4. PMKSY is under Ministry of Agriculture and MGNERS is under Ministry of Rural Development.

Irrigation In India – PMKSY, AIBP, Watershed Management, Neeranchan, etc.

States get more time to spend funds on micro irrigation

  1. Under the scheme, States were supposed to restore water bodies and converge micro irrigation projects.
  2. The schemes had to be implemented by States but if they failed to do so, then they would stand to lose the funds.
  3. Against a target of 5 lakh hectares, only 1.32 lakh hectares had been brought under micro irrigation.
  4. The programme envisages drought proofing, drip and sprinkler irrigation and tying up with MGNREGA schemes, all of which are within the purview of State governments.

The Agriculture Ministry has extended by a month the deadline for States to utilise funds under the Pradhan Mantri Krishi Sinchai Yojana (PMKSY).

  1. Under the scheme, States were supposed to restore water bodies and converge micro irrigation projects.
  2. The schemes had to be implemented by States but if they failed to do so, then they would stand to lose the funds.
  3. Against a target of 5 lakh hectares, only 1.32 lakh hectares had been brought under micro irrigation.
  4. The programme envisages drought proofing, drip and sprinkler irrigation and tying up with MGNREGA schemes, all of which are within the purview of State governments.

Irrigation In India – PMKSY, AIBP, Watershed Management, Neeranchan, etc.

CCEA approves World Bank Assisted Project – Neeranchal

  1. Neeranchal for Watershed Component of Pradhan Mantri Krishi Sinchayi Yojana.
  2. What’s this new initiative going to aid to? 3 things, actually!
  3. Watershed Component of the Pradhan Mantri Krishi Sinchayi Yojana (PMKSY)
  4. Ensuring access to irrigation to every farm (Har Khet Ko Pani)
  5. Efficient use of water (Per Drop More Crop).
  1. Neeranchal for Watershed Component of Pradhan Mantri Krishi Sinchayi Yojana.
  2. What’s this new initiative going to aid to? 3 things, actually!
  3. Watershed Component of the Pradhan Mantri Krishi Sinchayi Yojana (PMKSY)
  4. Ensuring access to irrigation to every farm (Har Khet Ko Pani)
  5. Efficient use of water (Per Drop More Crop).

Neeranchal National Watershed Project

As a part GS-3 – Irrigation systems, We need to focus on relevant projects/schemes launched in 2015-16. We will try to bring all such important projects/schemes. One such project is, “Neeranchal” for the Watershed Component of the Pradhan Mantri Krishi Sinchayi Yojana (PMKSY), Let’s see it in brief!

What is a watershed?

A watershed also known as drainage basin is an extent or an area of land where surface water from rain, melting snow or ice converges to a single point at a lower elevation, usually the exit of the basin, where the waters join another waterbody, such as a river, lake etc.


 


What is watershed management?

  • Watershed management is an adaptive, comprehensive, integrated multi-resource management planning process that seeks to balance healthy ecological, economic, and cultural/social conditions within a watershed.
  • Watershed management serves to integrate planning for land and water; it takes into account both ground and surface water flow, recognizing and planning for the interaction of water, plants, animals and human land use found within the physical boundaries of a watershed.

What are the objectives of Neeranchal?

  • The Neeranchal Project will support PMKSY to improve watershed management practices and demonstrate measurable results in selected sub-watersheds
  • It will introduce new hydrological approaches and innovative tools for community participation with a more integrated watershed planning process
  • Pilot new field practices that will improve conservation outcomes, water availability, agricultural yields and climate resilience, and scale up a more effective monitoring and evaluation system to track performance
  • The project will be implemented by the Ministry of Rural Development over a six-year period (2016-21)

Let’s first learn about Pradhan Mantri Krishi Sinchai Yojana (PMKSY)

  • PMKSY is a central scheme that aims at providing irrigation facilities to every village in the country by converging ongoing irrigation schemes
  • The vision of extending the coverage of irrigation ‘Har Khet Ko Paani’ and improving water use efficiency ‘More crop per drop’ in a focused manner
  • With end to end solution on source creation, distribution, management, field application and extension activities
  • A dynamic annual fund allocation methodology mandates states, to allot more funds to irrigation sectors for becoming eligible to access funds under this scheme, is being considered

The Pradhan Mantri Krishi Sinchayee Yojana programme should concentrate on 2 important things –

  • First, it should quickly put to use 20–40 million ha of unutilised irrigation potential created in major, medium and minor irrigation projects
  • Second, it should provide better quality power rations to farmers during the time of peak irrigation demand.
  • Madhya Pradesh has done precisely this and multiplied the state’s irrigated area quickly, at small incremental cost, delivering double-digit agricultural growth

What about funding ?

  • The Government of India and the World Bank have signed a US$ 178.50 million credit for the Neeranchal National Watershed Project to improve watershed management in rural rainfed areas
  • The credit will support the watershed activities of the PMKSY in selected states of Andhra Pradesh, Telangana, Chhattisgarh, Gujarat, Jharkhand, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Odisha and Rajasthan
  • It will cover about 400 sub-watersheds of about 5,000 ha each and reach approximately 482,000 farmer households and two million people
  • The credit is from the International Development Association (IDA) – the World Bank’s concessionary lending arm with a maturity of 25 years, including a 5 year grace period

[IDA – International financial institution which offers concessional loans and grants to the world’s poorest developing countries. The IDA is a member of the World Bank Group]

Concerns that will be addressed by Neeranchal-

  • Bring about institutional changes in watershed and rainfed agricultural management practices in India
  • Build systems that ensure watershed programmes and rainfed irrigation management practices are better focused, and more coordinated, and have quantifiable results
  • Devise strategies for the sustainability of improved watershed. management practices in programme areas, even after the withdrawal of project support
  • Through the watershed plus approach, support improved equity, livelihoods, and incomes through forward linkages, on a platform of inclusiveness and local participation

 

 What are the benefits?

  • Lead to reducing surface runoff of rainwater
  • It will increase recharge of groundwater and better availability of water in rainfed areas
  • It resulting in incremental rainfed agriculture productivity, enhanced milk yield and increased cropping intensity through better convergence related programmes in project areas
  • It will strengthen and provide technical assistance to enhance delivery capacity
  • This is an area development programme and all people living in the project area will be benefitted

What are the challenges ahead?

  • Enhanced participation of communities, building stronger capacities and systems to plan, implement, monitor and post-project sustainability of local institutions and assets
  • These challenges, if not resolved, can result in implementation delays, slow disbursements and benefits

Want to read more?

Published with inputs from Arun
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