Nobel and other Prizes

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Nobel and other Prizes

Economics Nobel for Natural Experiments

Note4Students

From UPSC perspective, the following things are important :

Prelims level : Natural Experiments, Nobel Prize

Mains level : Not Much

The 2021 Nobel Prize in Economic Sciences was awarded to three US-based economists.

Do you know?

The Nobel Prize is officially called as Sveriges Riksbank Prize!

Who are the awardees?

  • Nobel Committee awarded half the Prize to David Card for his “empirical contributions to labour economics”
  • Other half to Guido Imbens and Joshua Angrist “for their methodological contributions to the analysis of causal relationships”

What makes this year’s award special?

  • This is the first time the economic prize has been divided in this fashion with one half going to one awardee and other half divided across two awardees.
  • In the past, prize money was divided equally between the awardees even if the prize was for different topics as is the case this time around.
  • It may appear that the Nobel Prize has been given for two different contributions, but there is a common theme: “natural experiments.”

What are Natural Experiments?

  • Economists are often interested in causal questions such as the impact of education on incomes, impact of COVID-19 on poverty and so on.
  • They are also interested is understanding the direction of causality.
  • Economists have used two kinds of experiments to study these causality and direction of causality questions: random experiments and natural experiments.

(I) Random experiments

  • Under randomized experiments, the researchers allocate say medicines to a treatment group and compare the effect of the medicine with the control group which is not given the medicine.
  • In 2019, the Nobel Committee gave awards to three scholars for their contribution to the field of randomized experiments.
  • However, one cannot randomize experiments to study issues such as why certain people and regions are more unequal or have fewer educational opportunities and so on.

(II) Natural experiments

  • In natural experiments, economists study a policy change or a historical event and try to determine the cause and effect relationship to explain these developments.
  • The trio used such natural experiments to make some landmark contributions to economic development.
  • Natural experiments are more difficult for two reasons. The first is to identify what will serve as a natural experiment.
  • Second, in a random experiment, the researcher knows and controls the treatment and control groups which allows them to study the cause and effect of medicine.
  • But in natural experiments, such clear differentiation is not possible because people choose their groups on their own and even move between the two groups.
  • Despite the limitations, the researchers could use the natural setting to answer some big policy questions.

Natural experiments conducted by David Card

  • One question of interest for policymakers is to understand the impact of higher minimum wages on employment.
  • Earlier studies showed that increasing minimum wages leads to lower unemployment.
  • Economists were also not sure of the direction of causation between minimum wages and employment.
  • Say a slowdown in the economy leads to higher unemployment amid lower income groups.
  • This could lead to lower income groups demanding higher minimum wages. In such a case, it is higher unemployment which leads higher minimum wages.

Contribution of Angrist and Imbens

  • Angrist and Imbens showed how natural experiments can be used to identify cause and effect precisely.
  • We have discussed above how natural experiments make it difficult to separate control and treatment groups. This makes it difficult to establish causal relations.
  • In the 1990s, the duo developed a methodology – Local Average Treatment Effect (or LATE) – which uses a two-step process to help grapple with these problems of natural experiments.
  • Say, one is interested in finding the impact of an additional year of schooling on the incomes of people.
  • By using the LATE approach, they showed that effect on income of an additional year of education is around 9%.
  • While it may not be possible to determine individuals in the group, one can estimate the size of the impact.

What is the importance of the award today?

  • Earlier it was difficult to identify natural experiments and even if one identified them, it was difficult to generate data from these experiments.
  • With increased digitalization and dissemination of archival records, it has not just become easier to identify natural experiments but also get data.
  • Economists have been using natural experiments to help us understand the impact of past policies.
  • As the 2020 pandemic struck, economists used the natural experiments approach extensively to analyse how previous pandemics impacted different regions and tried to draw policy lessons.

India context

  • The methodology date back to the early and mid-90s and they have already had a tremendous influence on the research undertaken in several developing countries such as India.
  • For instance, in India, too, it is commonly held that higher minimum wages will be counterproductive for workers.
  • It is noteworthy that last year, in the wake of the Covid-induced lockdowns, several states, including UP, had summarily suspended several labour laws.
  • This included the ones regulating minimum wages, arguing that such a move will boost employment.
  • The main learning is that minimum wages can be increased in India without worrying about reducing employment.

 

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By Root

Caretaker @civilsdaily

Nobel and other Prizes

Chemistry Nobel to duo for developing Organo-Catalysis

Note4Students

From UPSC perspective, the following things are important :

Prelims level : Nobel Price, BioCatalysts

Mains level : NA

The Nobel Prize for chemistry has been awarded to German scientist Benjamin List of the Max Planck Institute and Scotland-born scientist David WC MacMillan of Princeton University for their work on developing an organo-catalyst.

What are Catalysts?

  • When two or more compounds react to form new compounds, the process is often aided by other chemicals that do not change themselves but help speed up the reaction.
  • These catalysts have been known at least since the middle of the 19th century, and are used in virtually every chemical process these days.
  • Till around 2000, only two kinds of chemicals were known to act as effective catalysts: metals, mainly heavier metals; and enzymes, naturally occurring heavy molecules that facilitate all life-supporting biochemical processes.
  • Both these sets of catalysts had limitations.

Issues with conventional catalysts

  • Heavier metals are expensive, difficult to mine, and toxic to humans and the environment.
  • Despite the best processes, traces remained in the end product; this posed problems in situations where compounds of very high purity were required, like in the manufacture of medicines.
  • Also, metals required an environment free of water and oxygen, which was difficult to ensure on an industrial scale.
  • Enzymes on the other hand, work best when water is used as a medium for the chemical reaction.
  • But that is not an environment suitable for all kinds of chemical reactions.

Nobel invention: Organo-catalysis

  • List and MacMillan, the both, started experimenting with simple organic compounds.
  • Organic compounds are mostly naturally occurring substances, built around a framework of carbon atoms and usually containing hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, sulfur, or phosphorus.
  • Life-supporting chemicals like proteins, which are long chains of amino acids (carbon compounds containing nitrogen and oxygen) are organic.
  • Enzymes are also proteins, and therefore, organic compounds.
  • List and MacMillan started working with individual amino acids in enzymes — and struck gold.

What are asymmetric catalysis?

  • Substances can have exactly the same chemical composition and molecular formula; yet differ widely in their properties. They are known as isomers.
  • One type of isomers are those that differ in the way individual atoms are oriented in three-dimensional space.
  • Two molecules could be exactly the same, except that they are mirror images of each other, like our hands.
  • For simplicity, scientists often refer to these molecules as left-handed or right-handed.
  • This simple difference can sometimes have enormous consequences because it allows the molecules to bind in different locations when they interact with other molecules.
  • The end product in a chemical reaction is usually a mixture of left-handed and right-handed molecules.
  • List and MacMillan discovered that by using a natural compound like an amino acid as a catalyst, they were obtaining only one specific mirror image of the end-product.
  • This was later named asymmetric catalysis.

Significance of their discovery

  • The new catalysts, derived from naturally occurring chemicals, were greener and cheaper and ensured that the end product of the chemical reaction was of a specific variety.
  • The end product need not go through a purification process to yield the desired type of compound.
  • The discovery being awarded the Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2021 has taken molecular construction to an entirely new level.
  • Its uses include research into new pharmaceuticals and it has also helped make chemistry greener.

 

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Caretaker @civilsdaily

Nobel and other Prizes

First Nobel for Climate Science

Note4Students

From UPSC perspective, the following things are important :

Prelims level : Nobel Price

Mains level : Climate Change Assessment

Three scientists received the Nobel Prize in Physics for work that is essential to understanding how the Earth’s climate is changing, pinpointing the effect of human behaviour on those changes and ultimately predicting the impact of global warming.

Who are the laureates?

  • The winners were Syukuro Manabe, Klaus Hasselmann of Germany, and Giorgio Parisi from Italy.
  • In 2015, at a UK-based climate-focused online publication sought to identify the three most influential climate change research papers ever published.
  • The paper that received the most votes was one by Syukuro Manabe and Richard Wetherald way back in 1967.
  • These reports for the first time, had described the impact of carbon dioxide and water vapour on global warming.

Citation for their Climate Model

  • Manabe is a senior meteorologist and climatologist at Princeton University.
  • In the 1960s, he led ground-breaking research into how increased levels of carbon dioxide lead to higher temperatures on the surface of the Earth.
  • This laid the foundation for the development of current climate models.
  • Hasselmann is a German physicist and oceanographer who greatly advanced public understanding of climate change through the creation of a model that links climate and chaotic weather systems.
  • Parisi has focused on quantum field theory and complex systems.

Why it is significant feat?

  • This is the first-time climate scientists have been awarded the Physics Nobel.
  • The IPCC had won the Peace Nobel in 2007, an acknowledgement of its efforts in creating awareness for the fight against climate change.
  • A Chemistry Nobel was also awarded to Paul Crutzen in 1995, for his work on the ozone layer, is considered the only other time someone from atmospheric sciences has won this honour.
  • The recognition of Manabe and Hasselmann, therefore, is being seen as an acknowledgement of the importance that climate science holds in today’s world.

 

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By Root

Caretaker @civilsdaily

Nobel and other Prizes

Physiology Nobel for work on temperature and touch

Note4Students

From UPSC perspective, the following things are important :

Prelims level : Nobel Price, Genes controling senses

Mains level : Read the attached story

 

U.S. scientists David Julius and Ardem Patapoutian have won the Nobel Medicine Prize for discoveries on receptors for temperature and touch.

Who are the Laureates?

  • David Julius and Ardem Patapoutian, working independently in the United States, made a series of discoveries in the late 1990s and early 2000s.
  • They figured out the touch detectors in our body and the mechanism through which they communicate with the nervous system to identify and respond to a particular touch.

What did they discover?

  • They discovered the molecular sensors in the human body that are sensitive to heat, and to mechanical pressure, and make us “feel” hot or cold, or the touch of a sharp object on our skin.
  • n 1997, Dr. Julius and his team published a paper in Nature detailing how capsaicin, or the chemical compound in chili peppers, causes the burning sensation.
  • They created a library of DNA fragments to understand the corresponding genes and finally discovered a new capsaicin receptor and named it TRPV1.
  • This discovery paved the way for the identification of many other temperature-sensing receptors.
  • They identified another new receptor called TRPM8, a receptor that is activated by cold. It is specifically expressed in a subset of pain-and-temperature-sensing neurons.
  • They identified a single gene PIEZO2, which when silenced made the cells insensitive to the poking. They named this new mechanosensitive ion channel Piezo1.

How do they work?

  • The human ability to sense heat or cold and pressure is not very different from the working of the many detectors that we are familiar with.
  • When something hot, or cold, touches the body, the heat receptors enable the passage of some specific chemicals, like calcium ions, through the membrane of nerve cells.
  • It’s like a gate that opens up on a very specific request. The entry of the chemical inside the cell causes a small change in electrical voltage, which is picked up by the nervous system.
  • There is a whole spectrum of receptors that are sensitive to different ranges of temperature.
  • When there is more heat, more channels open up to allow the flow of ions, and the brain is able to perceive higher temperatures.

Therapeutic implications

  • Breakthroughs in physiology have often resulted in an improvement in the ability to fight diseases and disorders. This one is no different.
  • There are receptors that make us feel pain. If these receptors can suppress, or made less effective, the person had felt less pain.
  • Chronic pain is present is a number of illnesses and disorders. Earlier, the experience of pain was a mystery.
  • But as we understand these receptors more and more, it is possible that we gain the ability to regulate them in such a way that the pain is minimized.

[Note: We will compile all Nobel Prizes into a single post once all are awarded.]

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By Root

Caretaker @civilsdaily

Nobel and other Prizes

2020 Millennium Technology Prize  

Note4Students

From UPSC perspective, the following things are important :

Prelims level : Next-generation DNA sequencing

Mains level : Not Much

The 2020 Millennium Technology Prize has been awarded to Shankar Balasubramanian and David Klenerman, for their development of revolutionary Next-generation DNA sequencing techniques.

About Millennium Technology Prize

  • The Millennium Technology Prize is one of the world’s largest technology prizes.
  • It is awarded once every two years by Technology Academy Finland, an independent fund established by Finnish industry and the Finnish state in partnership.

What is next-generation DNA sequencing?

  • Next-generation sequencing (NGS) is a massively parallel sequencing technology that offers ultra-high throughput, scalability, and speed.
  • The technology is used to determine the order of nucleotides in entire genomes or targeted regions of DNA or RNA.
  • These technologies allow for sequencing of DNA and RNA much more quickly and cheaply than the previously used sequencing.
  • NGS has revolutionized the biological sciences, allowing labs to perform a wide variety of applications and study biological systems at a level never before possible.
  • More than a million base pairs can be sequenced, which translates to hundreds of genes or even the whole genome of an organism.
  • This is made possible by simultaneously sequencing hundreds of pieces of DNA at the same time.

What is sequencing, btw?

  • DNA (or RNA, in some viruses), the genetic material of life forms, is made of four bases (A, T, G and C; with U replacing T in the case of RNA).
  • A chromosome is the duplex of a long linear chain of these – and in the DNA sequence is information – the blueprint of life.
  • Life famously can replicate, and DNA replicates when an enzyme, DNA polymerase, synthesises a complementary strand using an existing DNA strand as the template.
  • The breakthrough idea of Balasubramanian and Klenerman was to sequence DNA (or RNA) using this process of strand synthesis.
  • They cleverly modified their ATGC bases so that each shone with a different colour.
  • When copied, the “coloured” copy of DNA could be deciphered from the colours alone, using miniature optical and electronic devices.

What about the cost of all this sequencing?

  • When the Human Genome Project delivered the first, near-complete sequence of our genome, the cost was estimated to have been 3 billion dollars.
  • As all our chromosomes together have 3 billion base pairs, it becomes an easy calculation – One dollar per sequenced base.
  • By the year 2020, NGS technologies has pushed the price for sequencing to a few thousands of rupees.

Back2Basics:

What is the Human Genome Project?

By Root

Caretaker @civilsdaily

Nobel and other Prizes

Sainath awarded 2021 Fukuoka Prize

Note4Students

From UPSC perspective, the following things are important :

Prelims level : Fukuoka Prize

Mains level : Not Much

Noted journalist P. Sainath has been selected as one of the three recipients of the Fukuoka Prize for 2021.

Fukuoka Prize

  • The Fukuoka Prize is given annually to distinguished people to foster and increase awareness of Asian cultures, and to create a broad framework of exchange and mutual learning among the Asian people.
  • The Prize was established in 1990 by the city of Fukuoka in Japan and the Fukuoka City International Foundation.
  • The Grand Prize has earlier been awarded to Muhammad Yunus from Bangladesh, historian Romila Thapar, and sarod maestro Amjad Ali Khan. Eleven Indians have received the Fukuoka Prize so far.
  • 115 people from 28 countries and areas have received the Prize in the past 30 years.

Citation for the award

  • In a statement issued Mr. Sainath was described as a “very deserving recipient of the Grand Prize of Fukuoka Prize”.
  • The Secretariat noted his work for creating a new form of knowledge through his writings and commentaries on rural India and for “promoting civil cooperation”.

By Root

Caretaker @civilsdaily

Nobel and other Prizes

Explained: Auction theory

Note4Students

From UPSC perspective, the following things are important :

Prelims level : Auction Theory, Nobel Prizes

Mains level : Auction theory and its utility

This year, the Nobel Prize for Economics was awarded to Paul R Milgrom and Robert B Wilson for “improvements to auction theory and inventions of new auction formats”.

Do you remember the 2G spectrum scam, Coalgate scam etc. that rocked the nation? Can you relate this auction theory for bidding public assets to private entities?

What is Auction?

  • Essentially, it is about how auctions lead to the discovery of the price of a commodity.
  • Auction theory studies how auctions are designed, what rules govern them, how bidders behave and what outcomes are achieved.
  • When one thinks of auctions, one typically imagines the auction of a bankrupt person’s property to pay off his creditors.
  • Indeed, this is the oldest form of auction. This simple design of such an auction — the highest open bidder getting the property (or the commodity in question) — is intuitively appealing as well.

Evolving definitions of auction

  • Over time, and especially over the last three decades, more and more goods and services have been brought under auction.
  • The nature of these commodities differs sharply. For instance, a bankrupt person’s property is starkly different from the spectrum for radio or telecom use.
  • Similarly, carbon dioxide emission credits are quite different from the spot market for buying electricity, which, in turn, is quite different from choosing which company should get the right to collect the local garbage.
  • In other words, no one auction design fits all types of commodities or seller.

The Auction Theory

Three key variables need to be understood before we move to actual propositions.

(1) Rules of the auction

  • Imagine participating in an auction. Your bidding behaviour is likely to differ if the rules stipulate open bids as against closed/sealed bids.
  • The same applies to single bids versus multiple bids, or whether bids are made one after another or everyone bids at the same time.

(2) Commodity or service

  • The second variable is the commodity or service being put up for auction. In essence, the question is how each bidder values an item.
  • This is not always easy to ascertain. In terms of telecom spectrum, it might be easier to peg the right value for each bidder because most bidders are likely to put the spectrum to the same use.
  • This is called the “common” value of an object.

(3) Uncertainty

  • The third variable is uncertainty.
  • For instance, which bidder has what information about the object, or even the value another bidder associates with the object.

The theory

  • Wilson developed the theory for auctions of objects with a common value — a value which is uncertain beforehand but, in the end, is the same for everyone”.
  • Wilson showed what the “winner’s curse” is in an auction and how it affects bidding.
  • As shown in the illustration, it is possible to overbid — $50 when the real value is closer to $25. In doing so, one wins the auction but loses out in reality.
  • Milgrom “formulated a more general theory of auctions that not only allows common values but also private values that vary from bidder to bidder”.
  • He analysed the bidding strategies in a number of well-known auction formats, demonstrating that a format will give the seller higher expected revenue when bidders learn more about each other’s estimated values.

Significance of Auction theory

  • Throughout history, countries have tried to allocate resources in various ways.
  • Some have tried to do it through political markets, but this has often led to biased outcomes. For Ex: The rationing of essential goods worked in State-controlled economies. People who were close to the bureaucracy and the political class came out ahead of others.
  • Lotteries are another way to allocate resources, but they do not ensure that scarce resources are allocated to people who value it the most.
  • Auctions, for a good reason, have been the most common tool for thousands of years used by societies to allocate scarce resources.
  • When potential buyers compete to purchase goods in an auction, it helps sellers discover those buyers who value the goods the most.
  • Further, selling goods to the highest bidder also helps the seller maximise his or her revenues. So, both buyers and sellers benefit from auctions.
  • Whether it is the auction of spectrum waves or the sale of fruits and vegetables, auctions are at the core of allocation of scarce resources in a market economy.

What are the criticisms levelled against auctions and what are the economists contribution?

1.Issue of Winner’s Curse

  • The most common one is that auctions can lead buyers to overpay for resources whose value is uncertain to them.
  • This criticism, popularly known as the ‘winner’s curse’, is based on a study that showed how buyers who overpaid for U.S. oil leases in the 1970s earned low returns. Dr. Wilson was the first to study this matter.
  • The rational bidders may decide to underpay for resources in order to avoid the ‘winner’s curse’, and Dr. Wilson argued that sellers can get better bids for their goods if they share more information about it with potential buyers

2.Auction formats

  • Economists traditionally working on auction theory believed that all auctions are the same when it comes to the revenues that they managed to bring in for sellers. The auction format, in other words, did not matter.
  • This is known as the ‘revenue equivalence theorem’.
  • But Dr. Milgrom showed that the auction format can actually have a huge impact on the revenues earned by sellers.
  • The most famous case of an auction gone wrong for the seller was the spectrum auction in New Zealand in 1990.
  • In what is called a ‘Vickrey auction’, where the winner of the auction is mandated to pay only the second-best bid, a company that bid NZ$1,00,000 eventually paid just NZ$6 and another that bid NZ$70,00,000 only paid NZ$5,000.
  • In particular, Dr. Milgrom showed how Dutch auctions, in which the auctioneer lowers the price of the product until a buyer bids for it, can help sellers earn more revenues than English auctions.
  • In the case of English auctions, the price rises based on higher bids submitted by competing buyers. But as soon as some of the bidders drop out of the auction as the price rises, the remaining bidders become more cautious about bidding higher prices.

Conclusion

  • The contributions of Dr. Milgrom and Dr. Wilson have helped governments and private companies design their auctions better.
  • This has, in turn, helped in the better allocation of scarce resources and offered more incentives for sellers to produce complex goods.

By Root

Caretaker @civilsdaily

Nobel and other Prizes

What is World Food Programme?

Note4Students

From UPSC perspective, the following things are important :

Prelims level : World Food Programme

Mains level : Not Much

The Nobel Peace Prize was awarded to the World Food Programme (WFP) for feeding millions of people from Yemen to North Korea, with the coronavirus pandemic seen pushing millions more into hunger.

Tap here to read more about Nobel Prizes here at:

Nobel and other Prizes

World Food Programme

  • The WFP is the food-assistance branch of the United Nations and the world’s largest humanitarian organization focused on hunger and food security.
  • Founded in 1961, it is headquartered in Rome and has offices in 80 countries.
  • In addition to emergency food aid, WFP focuses on relief and rehabilitation, development aid, and special operations, such as making food systems more resilient against climate change and political instability.
  • It is an executive member of the United Nations Development Group, which collectively aims to fulfil the 17 Sustainable Development Goals (SDG), and has prioritized achieving SDG 2 for “zero hunger” by 2030.

By Root

Caretaker @civilsdaily

Nobel and other Prizes

Nobel Prize in Chemistry for CRISPR Technology

Note4Students

From UPSC perspective, the following things are important :

Prelims level : CRISPR, Cas9

Mains level : Gene Editing

French-American duo Emmanuelle Charpentier and Jennifer Doudna have been awarded the 2020 Nobel Prize for the chemistry of CRISPR, which allows scientists to ‘cut-paste’ inside a genetic sequence.

Try this PYQ:

Q.What is Cas9 protein that is often mentioned in news?

(a) A molecular scissors used in targeted gene editing

(b) A biosensor used in the accurate detection of pathogens in patients

(c) A gene that makes plants pest-resistant

(d) A herbicidal substance synthesized in genetically modified crops

The CRISPR technology

  • The CRISPR is an acronym for Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats, developed in the year 2012
  • CRISPR has made gene editing very easy and simple, and at the same time extremely efficient.
  • The technology works in a simple way — it locates the specific area in the genetic sequence which has been diagnosed to be the cause of the problem, cuts it out, and replaces it with a new and correct sequence that no longer causes the problem.
  • The technology replicates a natural defence mechanism in some bacteria that use a similar method to protect itself from virus attacks.

Working of CRISPR

  • An RNA molecule is programmed to locate the particular problematic sequence on the DNA strand.
  • A special protein called Cas9, often described in popular literature as ‘genetic scissor’, is used to break and remove the problematic sequence.
  • A DNA strand, when broken, has a natural tendency to repair itself. But the auto-repair mechanism can lead to the re-growth of a problematic sequence.
  • Scientists intervene during this auto-repair process by supplying the desired sequence of genetic codes, which replaces the original sequence.
  • It is like cutting a portion of a long zipper somewhere in between and replacing that portion with a fresh segment.
  • Because the entire process is programmable, it has a remarkable efficiency and has already brought almost miraculous results.

Uses of CRISPR

  • There are a whole lot of diseases and disorders, including some forms of cancer, that are caused by an undesired genetic mutation.
  • These can all be fixed with this technology. There are vast applications elsewhere as well. Genetic sequences of disease-causing organisms can be altered to make them ineffective.
  • Genes of plants can be edited to make them withstand pests, or improve their tolerance to drought or temperature.

Ethical concerns

  • In November 2018, a Chinese researcher in Shenzen created an international sensation with his claim that he had altered the genes of a human embryo that eventually resulted in the birth of twin baby girls.
  • This was the first documented case of a ‘designer babies’ being produced using the new gene-editing tools like CRISPR.
  • What made matters worse was that the gene-editing was probably done without any regulatory permission or oversight.

By Root

Caretaker @civilsdaily

Nobel and other Prizes

[op-ed snap] Nobel for poverty warriors

Note4Students

From UPSC perspective, the following things are important :

Prelims level : Nobel in Economics

Mains level : New approach to Poverty

Context

So far, development economics has treated the poor either as lifeless objects that could be moved around or seen as unable to make the best of opportunities that governments offered them. 

Novel approach

    • The three development economists who have been awarded the 2019 Nobel Prize for Economics have overturned that status quo. 
    • They have redeveloped the field of development economics with the aid of new experimental methods that put researchers in direct contact with the poor. 
    • This was started by Angus Deaton, who won the Economics Nobel in 2015 for his work on the consumption choices of the poor as well as how to accurately measure poverty

Vanguards of change

    • From the view of poor – Development challenges are now viewed through an appropriate lens, the lives of the poor rather than large statistical models, with a special focus on how incentives, information, and constraints shape actual choices. 
    • RCTs – Their use of randomized control trials has lent credibility to poverty research and helped solve old riddles of causality. 
    • Evidence-based – Their expertise has led to the formulation of policies that go by evidence, not assumptions.

Result

    • Huge insights – The result has been a burst of insights and fresh answers to good questions. 
    • Few examples
      • Does microfinance actually boost entrepreneurship among the poor? 
      • Why do the poor spend so much on entertainment? 
      • How does subsidized healthcare impact the investment that have-nots make in their own health? 

Critics

    • Universality – Some argue that the findings may not be universally applicable. 
    • Policy maker’s challenge – Tracing the causal links of one phenomenon to another could baffle those who frame policy. It really doesn’t help knowing if today’s farm investments in technology depend on whether the area’s land tenure system was based on zamindari or ryotwari a hundred years ago.
    • Field trials – Field trials tend to miss the big structural changes that influence the political economy of a country.

The  big lesson – Developing Economies

    • They published a 2005 paper Growth Theory through the Lens of Development Economics
    • They argue that people and firms in developing economies are unable to adopt modern tools and make the most of all that’s available.
    • They are held back by things such as government failure, lack of access to credit, behavioral snags and factors beyond their control. 
    • Aim of development policy – It should be to identify these constraints and figure out how to ease them. 

Conclusion

Banerjee, Duflo, and Kremer have shifted the spotlight from grand plans to actual poverty as a lived reality in all its microscopic detail.

By Root

Caretaker @civilsdaily

Nobel and other Prizes

[op-ed snap] Prize for peace

Note4Students

From UPSC perspective, the following things are important :

Prelims level : Nothing much

Mains level : Nobel Peace Prize

Context

The Norwegian Nobel Committee’ awarded this year’s Peace Prize to Abiy Ahmed, the Prime Minister of Ethiopia.

Reasons for the prize

  • It is a recognition of his efforts for peace in East Africa.
  • Mr. Abiy, became Prime Minister in April 2018 after his predecessor Hailemariam Desalegn resigned amid a political crisis and social unrest.
  • He has taken steps to politically stabilise the country and establish peace on its borders
  • The committee recognised his “decisive initiative to resolve the border conflict with neighbouring Eritrea”. 

Conflict with Eritrea

  • Eritrea gained independence from Ethiopia in 1991 and has fought a disastrous border war during 1998-2000 with its big neighbour. 
  • It split thousands of families and killed about 80,000 people. 
  • In Eritrea, the dictatorship used the prolonged border conflict as a convenient excuse for conscription and repression of its critics leading to a mass refugee outflow. 
  • Mr. Abiy took steps to resume the stalled peace process. He led Ethiopia’s first state visit to Eritrea and met its President, Isaias Afwerki. Within days both countries declared the end of the border war.

Reforms at home

  • He also initiated reforms at home, such as lifting the ban on opposition political parties, releasing political prisoners and jailed journalists and removing media curbs. 
  • Half of his Cabinet members are women and his government has welcomed the dissidents who were living in exile to return. 
  • Mr. Abiy, himself hailing from the Oromo ethnic group, persuaded the Oromo Liberation Front to join a wide-ranging peace process with the government. 

Challenges ahead

  • His biggest challenge is to calm ethnic tensions in his conflict-ridden country. 
  • Ethiopia is a multi-ethnic federation ruled by the Ethiopian People’s Revolutionary Democratic Front with a tight grip. 
  • Mr. Abiy has loosened this grip and called for a pan-Ethiopian identity and a freer economy and polity
  • His reform agenda was challenged by ethno-nationalists both within and outside his party. 
  • His government remained a spectator when ethnic violence was unleashed in several parts of the country over the past year, and sub-nationalisms emerged stronger. 
  • The Oromia and Amhara regions remain tense. Ethnic Gedeos and Gujis are in conflict in the south. Earlier this year, at least 5,22,000 Ethiopians were displaced by ethnic conflicts. 
  • The country is set to go to elections next year. Many fear that violence could escalate. 

Conclusion

Being a Nobel peace prize winner, he should come up with a national action plan to end violence, ease ethnic tensions and resettle the thousands displaced by the violence. 

By Root

Caretaker @civilsdaily

Nobel and other Prizes

[op-ed snap] How things work

Note4Students

From UPSC perspective, the following things are important :

Prelims level : Nobel Prize winners and discoveries

Mains level : Frontiers of science

Context

The first Nobel prizes of this year are announced.

The prize

  • The prize honors fundamental discoveries of the processes which run the universe and living things in it. 
  • The prizes also look ahead to a better and more interesting future

Physiology

  • William G Kaelin Jr, Sir Peter J Ratcliffe, and Gregg L Semenza have won the prize for physiology or medicine for discovering the pathways by which cells adapt to oxygen availability.
  • It is of considerable medical use towards understanding cellular respiration.
  • It is the most significant step since 1937 when Hans Adolf Krebs and William Arthur Johnson discovered the cycle mediated by ATP, which powers life.

Physics

  • Half of the prize in physics went to James Peebles, whose theoretical framework describing the universe from the Big Bang to the present underpins all of physical cosmology. 
  • He concluded that we can sense only 5% of the universe. The rest is dark matter and dark energy, whose presence can only be inferred by their influence on phenomena. 
  • The other half of the physics Nobel prize is shared by Michel Mayor and Didier Queloz, for the discovery in 1995 of the first exoplanet, orbiting the star 51 Pegasi
  • Their technique, using Doppler spectroscopy, supplemented the traditional transit method and has led to the discovery of 4,000 planets circling distant suns.

Conclusion

Is there life on exoplanets? Peebles appears to be convinced that even if there is, we may not recognise it, because it may not use Hans Krebs’ cycle at all.

By Root

Caretaker @civilsdaily

Cells’ Toolbox for DNA repair honoured with Nobel Prize in Chemistry


The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2015 is awarded to Tomas Lindahl (UK), Paul Modrich (USA) and Aziz Sancar (USA) for having mapped, at a molecular level, how cells repair damaged DNA and safeguard the genetic information.

Their work has provided fundamental knowledge of how a living cell functions and is, for instance, used for the development of new cancer treatments.

What’s the DNA repair toolbox ?

Each day our DNA is damaged by UV radiation, free radicals and other carcinogenic substances, but even without such external attacks, a DNA molecule is inherently unstable.

Thousands of spontaneous changes to a cell’s genome occur on a daily basis. Furthermore, defects can also arise when DNA is copied during cell division, a process that occurs several million times every day in the human body.

The reason our genetic material does not disintegrate into complete chemical chaos is that a host of molecular systems continuously monitor and repair DNA.

The Nobel laureate scientists, who have mapped how several of repair systems function at a detailed molecular level.



 

Tomas Lindahl – Puts together the pieces of base excision repair

In the early 1970s, scientists believed that DNA was an extremely stable molecule, but Tomas Lindahl demonstrated that DNA decays at a rate that ought to have made the development of life on Earth impossible. This insight led him to discover a molecular machinery, base excision repair, which constantly counteracts the collapse of our DNA.

This was the start of 35 years of successful work, during which Tomas Lindahl has found and examined many of the proteins in the cell’s toolbox for DNA repair.

Bit by bit, Lindahl pieced together a molecular image of how base excision repair functions, a process in which glycosylases, enzymes similar to the one he had found in 1974, are the first step in the DNA repair process.

Base excision repair also occurs in human beings and, in 1996, Tomas Lindahl managed to recreate the human repair process in vitro.

The decisive factor for Tomas Lindahl was the realisation that DNA inevitably undergoes change, even when the molecule is located in the cell’s protective environment. However, it had long been known that DNA can be damaged by environmental assaults such as UV radiation.

The mechanism used by the majority of cells to repair UV damage, nucleotide excision repair, was mapped by Aziz Sancar, born in Savur, Turkey, and professionally active in the USA.

Base Excision repair

Aziz Sancar’s Nucleotide excision repair

Aziz Sancar has mapped nucleotide excision repair, the mechanism that cells use to repair UV damage to DNA. People born with defects in this repair system will develop skin cancer if they are exposed to sunlight. The cell also utilises nucleotide excision repair to correct defects caused by mutagenic substances, among other things.

Aziz Sancar’s ability to generate knowledge about the molecular details of the process changed the entire research field. He published his findings in 1983.

He mapped the next stages of nucleotide excision repair. In parallel with other researchers, including Tomas Lindahl, Sancar investigated nucleotide excision repair in humans.

The molecular machinery that excises UV damage from human DNA is more complex than its bacterial counterpart but, in chemical terms, nucleotide excision repair functions similarly in all organisms.

nucleotide_excision_repair

 

Paul Modrich – illustrating DNA mismatch repair

Once his father, a biology teacher, said: “You should learn about this DNA stuff.” This was in 1963, the year after James Watson and Francis Crick had been awarded the Nobel Prize for discovering the structure of DNA.

A few years later, that “DNA stuff” really became central to Paul Modrich’s life.

Paul Modrich has demonstrated how the cell corrects errors that occur when DNA is replicated during cell division. This mechanism, mismatch repair, reduces the error frequency during DNA replication by about a thousandfold. Congenital defects in mismatch repair are known, for example, to cause a hereditary variant of colon cancer.

In conclusion, the basic research carried out by the 2015 Nobel Laureates in Chemistry has not only deepened our knowledge of how we function, but could also lead to the development of lifesaving treatments.

In the words of Paul Modrich: “That is why curiosity-based research is so important. You never know where it is going to lead… A little luck helps, too.”


 


Irish-born William Campbell and Japan’s Satoshi Omura won half of the prize for discovering avermectin, a derivative of which has been used to treat hundreds of millions of people with river blindness and lymphatic filariasis, or elephantiasis.

China’s Tu Youyou was awarded the other half of the prize for discovering artemisinin, a drug that has slashed malaria deaths and has become the mainstay of fighting the mosquito-borne disease. She is China’s first Nobel laureate in medicine.

Lets’s talk about Satoshi Omura’s invention

Satoshi Ōmura

So, how did the journey start for Satoshi Omura?

Satoshi Omura, a Japanese microbiologist and expert in isolating natural products, focused on a group of bacteria, Streptomyces, which lives in the soil and was known to produce a plethora of agents with antibacterial activities (including Streptomycin discovered by Selman Waksman, Nobel Prize 1952).

Equipped with extraordinary skills in developing unique methods for large-scale culturing and characterization of these bacteria, Omura isolated new strains of Streptomyces from soil samples and successfully cultured them in the laboratory.

From many thousand different cultures, he selected about 50 of the most promising, one of these cultures later turned out to be Streptomyces avermitilis, the source of Avermectin, a medicine that has nearly eradicated river blindness and radically reduced the incidence of filariasis, which can cause the disfiguring swelling of the lymph system in the legs and lower body known as elephantiasis.

 

Bacteria.


Puzzle about River Blindness?

Also known as onchocerciasis or Robles’ Disease, is caused by transmission of the parasitic worm Onchocerca volvulus by black flies of the genus Simulium. Vector lives near rivers, thus the name.Inside the host, the worms create larvae that travel to the skin, and infect other flies that bite the victim.

Symptoms include severe itching, eruptions under the skin, and blindness. About 17-25 million are infected; some 0.8 million have some degree of vision loss. Most infections in sub-Saharan Africa.

Then, what about Lymphatic Filariasis or Commonly known as elephantiasis ?

It is tropical disease caused by transmission of parasites classified as nematodes (roundworms) of the family Filariodideato, to humans by mosquitoes.

Adult worms lodge in lymphatic system and disrupt immune system. Causes abnormal enlargement of body parts, pain, severe disability and social stigma.

Over 120 million people are infected, about 40 million disfigured or incapacitated. About 1.23 billion in 58 countries are threatened, 80% of whom live in 10 countries, including India, Bangladesh and Nepal.


Our next Pioneer William C. Campbell

William C. Campbell

An expert in parasite biology working in the USA, acquired Omura’s Streptomyces cultures and explored their efficacy.

Campbell showed that a component from one of the cultures was remarkably efficient against parasites in domestic and farm animals.

The bioactive agent was purified and named Avermectin, which was subsequently chemically modified to a more effective compound called Ivermectin. 

Ivermectin was later tested in humans with parasitic infections and effectively killed parasite larvae (microfilaria) .

Collectively, Omura and Campbell’s contributions led to the discovery of a new class of drugs with extraordinary efficacy against parasitic diseases.

 

Scheme.


 

What a breakthrough, China’s first Nobel laureate in medicine, Let’s talk about it?

 

Youyou Tu

Ms. Youyou Tu, won Nobel in Medicine for a therapy against malaria.

Malaria was traditionally treated by chloroquine or quinine, but with declining success. By the late 1960s, efforts to eradicate Malaria had failed and the disease was on the rise.

At that time, Youyou Tu in China turned to traditional herbal medicine to tackle the challenge of developing novel Malaria therapies.

Tu revisited the ancient literature and discovered clues that guided her in her quest to successfully extract the active component from Artemisia annua. 

Tu was the first to show that this component, later called Artemisinin, was highly effective against the Malaria parasite, both in infected animals and in humans.

Artemisinin represents a new class of antimalarial agents that rapidly kill the Malaria parasites at an early stage of their development, which explains its unprecedented potency in the treatment of severe Malaria.

 

Herbal medicine


 

How do you think these inventions will change the world?

The discoveries of Avermectin and Artemisinin have fundamentally changed the treatment of parasitic diseases.

Ivermectin is highly effective against a range of parasites, has limited side effects and is freely available across the globe.

The importance of Ivermectin for improving the health and wellbeing of millions of individuals with River Blindness and Lymphatic Filariasis, primarily in the poorest regions of the world, is immeasurable.

Treatment is so successful that these diseases are on the verge of eradication, which would be a major feat in the medical history of humankind. Malaria infects close to 200 million individuals yearly.

Artemisinin is used in all Malaria-ridden parts of the world. When used in combination therapy, it is estimated to reduce mortality from Malaria by more than 20% overall and by more than 30% in children. For Africa alone, this means that more than 100 000 lives are saved each year.

The discoveries of Avermectin and Artemisinin have revolutionized therapy for patients suffering from devastating parasitic diseases.

Campbell, Ōmura and Tu have transformed the treatment of parasitic diseases. The global impact of their discoveries and the resulting benefit to mankind are immeasurable.

Published with inputs from Arun

By Root

Caretaker @civilsdaily

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