Starting 2nd April – APSIP Essay Course with K Siddhartha
Target 140+ | Click to see how & register for the module
Established in April 1987, it is a voluntary association of 35 countries and 4 “unilateral adherents” that follow its rules: Israel, Romania, Slovakia, Macedonia.
The group aims to slow the spread of missiles and other unmanned delivery technology that could be used for chemical, biological and nuclear attacks.
The regime urges members, which include most of the world’s major missile manufacturers, to restrict exports of missiles and related technologies capable of carrying a 500 kg payload at least 300 km, or delivering any type of weapon of mass destruction.
It is possible China may now seek some kind of bargain, whereby it is given entry to the MTCR in return for letting India get into the NSG, where it wields a veto.
Following India’s 1974 nuclear tests, the US pushed for setting up a club of nuclear equipment and fissile material suppliers.
The 48-nation group frames and implements agreed rules for exporting nuclear equipment, with a view to controlling the spread of nuclear weapons; members are admitted only by consensus.
India has been trying, since 2008, to join the group, which would give it a place at the high table where the rules of nuclear commerce are decided — and, eventually, the ability to sell equipment.
Many countries that initially opposed its entry, like Australia, have changed stance; Mexico and Switzerland are the latest to voice support. India’s effort has been to chip away at the resistance, leaving only one holdout — China. But until China accepts India’s entry, there is no hope of membership.
The answer lies in the US effort to strengthen the global nuclear non-proliferation regime, whose centrepiece is the 1968 Nuclear Non-proliferation Treaty, or NPT.
The NPT defines “nuclear weapons states” as those that tested devices before January 1, 1967 — which means India cannot ever be one.
India — like Israel and Pakistan — thus refused to sign the treaty. From 2005, though, President George W Bush’s administration sought ways to deepen strategic cooperation with India.
Nuclear energy was a key means to strengthen cooperation, but since India wasn’t a member of the NPT, technology couldn’t be shared. Then, a way forward was found — the US-India Civil Nuclear Agreement.
India agreed to separate its civilian and military nuclear programmes, and put the civilian part under International Atomic Energy Agency safeguards.
India also changed its export laws to line up with the NSG, MTCR, Wassenaar Arrangement, and Australia Group — the 4 key nuclear control regimes.
The US agreed to shepherd India’s entry into these regimes, which meant India would for all practical purposes be treated like an NPT member, even though it wasn’t one.
The Pakistani argument is that giving India easy access to fissile material and technology for its civilian nuclear programme means it would have that much more material for its military nuclear programme.
Thus, Pakistan says, the move to give India NSG membership is fuelling a nuclear arms race.
But this argument falls apart because Pakistan is resolutely opposed to a key international agreement called the Fissile Material Cut-Off Treaty (FMCT), which would cap the military nuclear stockpiles of all countries. The FMCT ought to put an end to Pakistan’s fears, but Islamabad has refused to sign.
Chinese diplomats say Beijing wants NSG entry to be norm-based , in other words, whatever rules govern Indian entry should apply to others too.
Norm-based entry would, presumably, help Pakistan gain entry, something many in the NSG are certain to resist because of the country’s record as a proliferator of nuclear-weapons technology to Iran, Libya and North Korea.
The 2008 one-time waiver allowed nuclear commerce between NSG members and India — the agreement that now allows Westinghouse, and its competitors in France or South Korea, to bid to set up civilian reactors in India.
The waiver came only after President Bush rang President Hu Jintao and called in a favour. Back then, US-China relations were riding high — on the back of surging trade, and a common vision of how the international order should be structured.
Today, President Barack Obama and President Xi Jinping are at odds over Chinese muscle-flexing in the South China Sea. The odds of a phone call changing the state of play are next to zero.
The underlying problems:
An agreement that was called a deal:
India’s energy planners and government should relook at the cost-benefit analysis on the nuclear power balance sheet. The op-ed has points on the costs of nuclear reactor, make note of these for Mains.
No First Use:
Use of chemical weapons:
A game changer:
At the end of the day, nuclear weapons are not just another weapon in the military toolkit but a game changer and dangerous too. A good op-ed from Mains PoV.
North Korean atomic crisis:
Critical of China:
North Korea effecting Japan:
Denuclearising North Korea:
A world of nuclear powers:
Critical of the new nuclear forces:
Keep track of this news on increasing the nuclear arsenals in the world that could be disastrous for the world at large.
Other views by Chinese representative
Note the term ‘double suspension’ for prelims. The views expressed in nuclear issue as well as others are important for mains as to what is Chinese approach to these issues.
The “Trump” card:
The unmanaged fear:
In the world where every country proudly possesses nuclear weapons, you never know what sparks into a nuclear war. North Korea has already been declared a Rogue nation previously. This launch of four missiles by North Korea is an important international event that cannot be ignored by an UPSC aspirant.
Terminal High Altitude Area Defense (THAAD):
Be abreast of the issue as it develops. Know about INF treaty in b2b; it is important for prelims.
1. A cruise missile is a guided missile used against terrestrial targets that remains in the atmosphere and flies the major portion of its flight path at approximately constant speed. Cruise missiles are designed to deliver a large warhead over long distances with high precision.
2. The Intermediate-Range Nuclear Forces Treaty (INF Treaty):
Know about the location of different nuclear plants in India, kinds of nuclear reactors etc. for prelims.
This is important for prelims as well as for mains. This can be point in your environment essay which depicts encroachment on arctic glaciers.
Discuss: Considering ongoing geopolitical conflicts across the world, do you think Non- Nuclear States should push Nuclear States towards disarmament of their nuclear weapons? What factors have determined India’s stance on disarmament?
Archipelago where infamous Bikini Atoll test took place tells international court that nuclear powers have not lived up to disarmament obligations.
It was established in April 1987 by Canada, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, Great Britain, and the United States.
Although the deal has been termed a potential “diplomatic blockbuster”, its inherent contradictions may make it difficult to sell in both the US and Pakistan.
Overall completes the vicious circle that has long complicated the triangular relationship between India, Pakistan and the US.
In 2 summits with the U.S. in 4 months, Indian government addressed lingering differences with the U.S. on nuclear liability, injected new energy into defence and economic cooperation, and explored pragmatic ways forward on IPR issues and climate change.