Internal Security Architecture Shortcomings – Key Forces, NIA, IB, CCTNS, etc.

Internal Security Architecture Shortcomings – Key Forces, NIA, IB, CCTNS, etc.

National Security Act (NSA), 1980 Priority 1


From UPSC perspective, the following things are important :

Prelims level : National Security Act (NSA)

Mains level : NSA and its situational implementation, Issue of misuse


  • The Indore district administration invoked the National Security Act (NSA), 1980,against four persons accused of instigating residents of a locality to pelt stones and chase away health workers.
  • Health workers were in the locality to trace the contact history of a Covid-19 patient.

What is the National Security Act, 1980?

  • The National Security Act of 1980 is a law that aims to provide for preventive detention in certain cases that can pose a threat to the security of the country.
  • This Act, consisting of 18 sections, applies to the whole of India.
  • It empowers the Central Government and state governments to detain an individual to prevent him/her from acting in any manner that may hurt India’s security, its relations with foreign countries, for the maintenance of public order, or the maintenance of supplies and services essential to the community.
  • The law also gives power to the governments to detain foreign nationals to regulate his/her presence or expel from the country.

How did the National Security Act come to be?

  • The National Security Act is not the first law of its kind to be enacted in India.
  • Preventive detention laws in India date back to early days of the colonial era when the Bengal Regulation III of 1818 was enacted to empower the government to arrest anyone for defence or maintenance of public order without giving the person the judicial proceedings.
  • A century later, the British government enacted the Rowlatt Acts of 1919 that allowed confinement of a suspect without trial.
  • The Rowlatt Acts empowered the state to detain citizens without giving detainees any right to move to the court and even get the assistance of lawyers.
  • The Jallianwalla Bagh tragedy was a direct result of the protest against these Rowlatt Bills.
  • The Government of India Act, 1935 empowered the state to undertake preventive detention for reasons related to defence, external affairs or discharge of functions of the Crown in its relations with the Indian States.
  • After the enactment of the Indian Constitution, Article 21 guaranteed every individual the right to life and liberty, which could not be denied to him/her without honouring the due procedure established by law.
  • In K. Gopalan’s case, the Supreme Court distinguished “the procedure established by law” from the “due process of law”, saying that any procedure duly enacted would be a “procedure established by law”.
  • However, this view currently stands reversed after Maneka Gandhi’s case where the top court held that the “procedure established by law” must also be just, fair and reasonable.
  • Article 22 of the Indian constitution laid down procedures under which a preventive detention law could be enacted.
  • After independence, India got its first preventive detention rule when the Nehru Government enacted the Preventive Detention Act of 1950, which expired on 31st December 1969.
  • In the year 1971, Prime Minister Indira Gandhi had brought in the controversial Maintenance of Internal Security Act (MISA), giving similar powers to the government.
  • Later, the MISA was repealed in 1977 and was replaced by the National Security Act (NSA).

What are the provisions of NSA?


  • The power to preventively detain an individual under the National Security Act is given to the Police Commissioner or District Magistrate if the state government is satisfied that it is “necessary to do so”.
  • The Act provides that a detained individual have to be informed of the grounds of detention within 5 days of detention, which may extend up to 10 days in exceptional circumstances.
  • At the same time, the Act also states that the authority has the right to not disclose the facts, which it deems to be against the public interest to disclose.
  • The maximum permissible period of detention under the NSA is 12 months.
  • However, the order for preventive detention can be modified or revoked any time earlier or can be extended indefinitely beyond 12 months.

ii.Grounds of Detention:

  • An individual can be detained under the NSA in the presence of the following grounds:
  • Acting in a manner prejudicial to India’s defence, foreign relations or security
  • Regulating the continued presence of any foreigner in India or to make arrangements for his expulsion from India
  • To maintain public order
  • To maintain supplies and services that are essential to the community

iii.Constitution of Advisory Board:

  • Under the NSA, if any detention is made, then it has to be referred to an Advisory Board within three weeks from the date of detention.
  • This Advisory Board has to submit its report within 7 weeks from the date of detention.
  • The Central or State government shall constitute one or more Advisory Boards.
  • An Advisory Board consists of 3 persons who are qualified to be appointed as judges for the High Courts
  • Here, the detained person does not have the right to be legally represented.
  • Also, the board proceedings are not brought to the public and the reports are confidential.
  • The Advisory Board analyses whether or not the grounds of detention is sufficient or not.
  • If the Advisory Board finds that the grounds are sufficient, then the appropriate government may confirm the order for detention.
  • However, if the Advisory Board finds no appropriate grounds to permit detention, the government should release the detenu.

iv.No legal proceedings against governments:

  • Section 16 states that no suit or other legal proceedings can be taken against Central or State governments, or any other person, for anything that is being done in good faith or intended to be done in pursuance of this Act.

Why is NSA criticised?

  • Under the normal circumstances, if an individual is arrested, he/she is guaranteed certain fundamental rights.
  • These include the right to be informed of the reasons behind the arrest.
  • Section 50 of the Criminal Procedure (CrPC) mandates that the arrested individual should be informed of the grounds of arrest and the rights to bail.
  • Sections 56 and 76 of the CrPC also provide that an individual has been produced before a court within 24 hours of arrest.
  • Furthermore, Article 22(1) of the Constitution states that an arrested person cannot be denied the right to consult and to be defended by a legal practitioner of his/her choice.
  • However, none of these aforementioned rights is allowed under the NSA.
  • Article 22(3) of the Constitution does not extend the safeguards of the criminal system to preventive detention.
  • NSA provides major loopholes for the government and the police to circumvent the formalities of the Criminal Procedure Code and the justice system.
  • This Act provides neither transparency nor accountability of the government.
  • Furthermore, the National Crime Records Bureau (NCRB), which collects data pertaining to crime in India, doesn’t list out the cases under the NSA as no FIRs are registered in this regard. This makes it impossible to know the exact number of detentions that have been made under this Act.
  • These limitations allow the government to use the law arbitrarily and without any reasonable cause.

Some of the instances of government misusing this NSA include:

  • Uttar Pradesh government, in January 2019, arrested three individuals under the NSA in connection with alleged cow slaughter.
  • In December 2018, a journalist from Manipur was detained for 12 months under the NSA, where he has posted an offensive post against the Chief Minister on Facebook
  • Though this Act provides for maintenance of law and order within the country, it lacks reasonableness.
  • Currently, there is no recourse available against these provisions, allowing for the ignorance of basic human rights for the detained persons.

Way Forward

  • It needs to be noted that the Act is 40 years old. Changes are required to ensure that the Act is not used arbitrarily.
  • Arbitrary use of the Act hampers democracy and basic rights of an individual.
  • Even, the Supreme Court has held that the law of preventive detention has to be strictly construed and meticulous compliance with the procedural safeguards, is mandatory and vital.
  • Given that India occasionally staggers through spasmodic bouts of violence and disorder, it is possible that very narrowly tailored preventive detention laws with stringent judicial controls could be appropriate to counter such threats, at least in times of particular unrest.
  • Increasing the accountability of the governmental authorities,
  • Tailoring the law more narrowly to the truly serious threats to India’s security, and
  • Refining the language of the NSA so as to make it less vague and, therefore, less susceptible to abuses and creative interpretations from executive authorities, are fundamental if abuses are to be checked.
Internal Security Architecture Shortcomings – Key Forces, NIA, IB, CCTNS, etc.

[op-ed snap] Seeking truth and reconciliation in Chhattisgarhop-ed snap


From UPSC perspective, the following things are important :

Prelims level : Nothing much

Mains level : Human Rights violations by security forces


The Indian government claims that it is winning the war against Maoist guerillas in India’s forested regions. 

Government actions

  • It has dismissed accusations of human rights violations as propaganda by Maoists or their supporters.
  • It has jailed human rights activists and lawyers working in these areas. 
  • A recent report by a government-appointed inquiry commission shows that these accusations are credible and need to be addressed.

Anti-Maoist action

  • Seven-and-a-half years ago, 17 unarmed villagers, including six minors, were killed by security forces at Sarkeguda village in Chhattisgarh.
  • The commission established that the CRPF and police version of events was false.
  • It said that 15 of the villagers were killed at close quarters while fleeing in a ‘totally disproportionate and unwarranted use of force.” 
  • One man was killed in his home the next morning, while one succumbed to his injuries in hospital. 
  • The judge relied only on circumstantial evidence. The CRPF/police version was dismissed because the lawyers for the villagers picked holes in their claims.

Villagers’ testimony

  • The defence charge on delay is completely unwarranted because the villagers spoke to the press. 
  • They did not file an FIR with the police. It shows their complete and justified lack of faith in the system. 
  • The police was involved in the firing and the government’s own affidavits in the Supreme Court in the ongoing Salwa Judum case have established that the police have never acted on complaints from villagers.
  • The only point where the judge differs from the villagers is in arguing that the meeting that the villagers were attending was not an innocuous one to prepare for a seed-sowing festival because it was held at night and some people with ‘criminal antecedents’ were present. 
  • In an area where anyone can be arbitrarily accused and jailed, people with criminal antecedents are a dime a dozen. 
  • For the security forces, everybody is “hostile”. 

Holes in the judgement

  • Even after exposing the violations by security forces, the judge rewarded the perpetrators. 
  • He did not recommend any prosecutions, or compensation; only better training, better gadgets and better intelligence for the forces.
  • There are issues such as the 2012 Sarkeguda massacre and the Tadmetla arson, murder and rape a year earlier, as well as the accompanying attack on Swami Agnivesh and Art of Living representatives.

Human rights violations

  • High-level committees were appointed to look into releasing adivasi prisoners as well as examine the cases of journalists.
  • There has been no progress on addressing the widespread human rights violations, deaths, rapes and arson caused by Salwa Judum and Operation Green Hunt, despite severe indictments by the National Human Rights Commission in 2008 as well as by the Supreme Court in 2011. 
  • In an internal closure report on Tadmetla, the CBI pointed to the larger systemic issues of deliberate obfuscation by the security forces to ensure impunity. 
  • These include not keeping records of personnel on particular operations or details of ammunition used, deliberately fudging evidence etc.,
  • There have been several more cases of fake encounters, the most recent being of two villagers in the Munga jungle on November 5.

Supreme Court

  • The Supreme Court’s 2011 ban on the use of surrendered Naxalites in frontline counterinsurgency has also been ignored by governments.
  • The Court has let this contempt pass without hearing for the last seven years. 
  • A ‘final hearing’ of the Salwa Judum case began in 2018, but one year on, there have been no dates for hearing.
  • The Sarkeguda inquiry raised the callous killing of 17 innocent villagers.

Way ahead

  • Announce a Truth and Reconciliation Commission, which would catalogue and compensate for all deaths, and prosecute those responsible. 
  • Action against security personnel in Sarkeguda must be the start, but must not be allowed to become the end.
Internal Security Architecture Shortcomings – Key Forces, NIA, IB, CCTNS, etc.

[op-ed snap] Bolster the first line of defence”Mains Onlyop-ed snap


From UPSC perspective, the following things are important :

Prelims level : Nothing Much

Mains level : Police reforms are the key stone for internal security.


In the wake of the 26/11 terrorist attack in 2008, a slew of measures were taken to strengthen the police forces, reinforce coastal security and decentralise the deployment of National Security Guard. However, after that, a complacency of sorts seems to have set in, mainly because there has been no major terrorist attack since then. Whatever upgradation of police has happened during the intervening period has essentially been of a cosmetic nature.

Challenges ahead for Police Forces 

1.ISIS –

  • The ISIS, which is committed to spreading “volcanoes of jihad” everywhere, recently perpetrated a horrific attack in Sri Lanka.
  • The organisation has made significant inroads in Tamil Nadu and Kerala and has sympathisers in other areas of the country.
  • It recently announced a separate branch, Wilayah-e-Hind, to focus on the Subcontinent.
  • In the neighborhood, the ISIS has support bases in Bangladesh and Maldives. The government has been playing down the ISIS’s threat.
  • It has been arguing that considering the huge Muslim population of the country, a very small percentage has been drawn to or got involved in the ISIS’s activities.
  • That may be true, but a small percentage of a huge population works out to a significant number and it would be naïve to ignore the threat.

Pakistan and militancy –

  • Pakistan has taken some half-hearted measures against terrorist formations in the country, which are euphemistically called non-state actors — largely due to pressure from the Financial Action Task Force (FATF.)
  • These measures are more for show than substance.
  • Besides, the ISI has been, for years, making well-orchestrated attempts to revive militancy in Punjab and trying to disrupt our economy by flooding the country with counterfeit currency.

Way Forward

  • It is necessary, therefore, that the country’s internal security is beefed up.
  • The first responders to a terrorist attack or a law and order problem is the police and, unfortunately, it is in a shambles.
  • Police infrastructure — its manpower, transport, communications and forensic resources — require substantial augmentation.
  • The directions given by the Supreme Court in 2006 appear to have created a fierce reaction in the establishment and led to a consolidation of, to use Marxist jargon, counterrevolutionary forces.
  • The government must appreciate that any effort to strengthen national security without reforming, reorganising or restructuring the police would be an exercise in futility.
Internal Security Architecture Shortcomings – Key Forces, NIA, IB, CCTNS, etc.

[op-ed snap] India is not better prepared than 2008op-ed snap


Mains Paper 3: Internal Security | Role of external state & non-state actors in creating challenges to internal security

From the UPSC perspective, the following things are important:

Prelims level: NATGRID

Mains level: Shortcomings in India’s counter-terrorism apparatus and need of strengthening it


10 Years of Mumbai Terror Attack

  1. Ten years ago on this day, Pakistan carried out one of the most heinous of terror attacks perpetrated anywhere in the world
  2. The 26/11 Mumbai terror attack, named after the date in 2008 when the attack took place, is in some respects comparable to the September 11, 2001 terror attacks in the U.S.

Changes in terrorist tactics

  1. Terrorism is hardly a post-modern phenomenon
  2. Several of the terror attacks in the 21st century, however, reflect a paradigmatic change in the tactics of asymmetric warfare, and the practice of violence
  3. The kaleidoscopic features of modern terrorism have befuddled even advanced countries with better interdiction capability
  4. Today’s attacks carried out in different corners of the world by al-Qaeda and its affiliates, the Islamic State, al-Shabaab, and similar terror outfits, are very different from those witnessed in the previous century
  5. The tactics employed may vary, but the objective is common, viz. achieving mass casualties and widespread destruction

State involvement in terrorism

  1. The 26/11 Mumbai terror attack was one of a kind and not a mere variant of previous instances of terrorist violence
  2. It was the rarest of rare cases, where one state’s resources, viz. Pakistan’s were employed to carry out a series of terror attacks in a major Indian city
  3. It was a case of ‘war by other means’, in which the authorities in Pakistan, the Inter-Services Intelligence Directorate, the Pakistani armed forces, were involved
  4. It is difficult to recall any recorded instance in modern times where a state and its various agencies were directly involved in carrying out a terror attack of this nature
  5. The degree of involvement of the Pakistani deep state in the planning and preparation of the attack is evident from many aspects that have come to light subsequently
  6. Seldom has any terrorist group then, or for that matter even now, used such highly sophisticated, state-of-the-art communications, including Voice over Internet Protocol
  7. Planning for the attack involved the use of a third country address
  8. Handlers in Pakistan were given unfettered freedom to provide instructions to the terrorists during the entire four-day siege
  9. The choice of the sea route aimed at deception and avoiding detection was again dictated by official agencies

Lacunae in counter-terrorism network

  1. The first major difficulty is that terrorism is handled by different state police systems with no legal role by the central government under Schedule 7 of our Constitution
  2. It is true that under Article 355, the central government is duty-bound “to protect every state against external aggression and internal disturbances”
  3. But the Constitution did not provide any implements to the central government to carry out this obligation except in emergencies when it can take over the administration of the state under articles 352 or 356
  4. In all other situations, central forces that are supplied to the states are under the control of state authorities
  5. Similarly, the intelligence provided by the central government to the states is only of advisory nature
  6. Thus, in our system, all peacetime CT activities are the legal responsibility of the states
  7. Situations might arise when the states concerned might ignore terrorism-related alerts

International best practices for counterterrorism

  1. In all countries, a centrally directed CT architecture is provided to watch the global developments in terrorist methodology to advise all components of the country to take preventive measures
  2. In many countries concurrent powers are given to the central government to intervene when a state fails to take security measures
  3. After 9/11 the private sector was involved in a big way in other countries in supplementing security and resistance measures
  4. This is because several key infrastructure projects are now managed by private companies
  5. In some countries, they even participate in intelligence sharing so that they could take preventive action on their own with their security personnel

Initiatives taken by India after 26/11

  1. In the wake of the terror attack, several steps were initiated to streamline the security set-up
  2. Coastal security was given high priority, and it is with the Navy/Coast Guard/marine police
  3. A specialised agency to deal with terrorist offences, the National Investigation Agency, was set up and has been functioning from January 2009
  4. The National Intelligence Grid (NATGRID) has been constituted to create an appropriate database of security related information
  5. Four new operational hubs for the NSG have been created to ensure rapid response to terror attacks
  6. The Multi Agency Centre, which functions under the Intelligence Bureau, was further strengthened and its activities expanded
  7. The Navy constituted a Joint Operations Centre to keep vigil over India’s extended coastline

Way forward for India

  1. One new variant is the concept of ‘enabled terror’ or ‘remote controlled terror’, viz. violence conceived and guided by a controller thousands of miles away
  2. Today the ‘lone wolf’ is, more often than not, part of a remote-controlled initiative, with a controller choosing the target, the nature of the attack and even the weaponry to be used. Internet-enabled terrorism and resort to remote plotting is thus the new threat
  3. Operating behind a wall of anonymity, random terror is likely to become the new terror imperative
  4. We have to go a long way to claim that we are safer in 2018 than what we were in 2008

With inputs from the editorial: Ten years after the Mumbai attack

Internal Security Architecture Shortcomings – Key Forces, NIA, IB, CCTNS, etc.

[op-ed snap] At digital warop-ed snap


Mains Paper 3: Internal Security | Challenges to internal security through communication networks

From UPSC perspective, the following things are important:

Prelims level: PRISM, AFNET

Mains level: Need for having indigenous technological equipment in India


The vision of a Digital Armed Force

  1. The government has sanctioned the raising of a cyber agency that will steer the planning and conduct of cyber warfare in the military
  2. Once the doctrine has matured, the cyber agency will be expanded to a much-needed cyber command

Snooping via technology companies

  1. The existence of the PRISM programme, under which the United States National Security Agency (NSA) collected data from internet communications, was revealed by Edward Snowden in June 2013
  2. The program used US technology companies like Microsoft, Google, Yahoo, Facebook and Apple for data interception
  3. NSA employees also intercepted Cisco routers, intended for organisations targeted for surveillance, and implanted them with backdoors before shipping them on
  4. A recent Bloomberg report pointed out that China’s intelligence services had ordered subcontractors in China to plant malicious chips in Supermicro server motherboards bound for the US

The ban on imported communication equipments

  1. Faced with these dangers, countries have moved to restrict foreign products from use in critical networks
  2. In 2014, Beijing banned government offices from buying Microsoft Windows, and security software from Symantec and Kaspersky Lab
  3. One year later, the ban was also applied to Cisco and Apple products
  4. In August 2018, President Trump signed a bill banning the use of Chinese Huawei and ZTE technology by the US government
  5. Australia has banned Huawei from supplying equipment for 5G mobile network, citing national security risks

Usage still prevalent in India

  1. In India, though, we seem oblivious to the vulnerabilities that exist in our critical networks due to foreign hardware and software
  2. Over 60 per cent of software and hardware being used by BSNL is sourced from either Huawei or ZTE
  3. This is despite Huawei being probed for hacking a BSNL network in 2014
  4. In September 2017, BSNL signed a memorandum of understanding with ZTE for research and commercialisation of future 5G technology
  5. The Air Force Network (AFNET) was launched in 2010 & Cisco was a major supplier of equipment for AFNET
  6. The army’s latest communication backbone, Network for Spectrum (NFS), also uses Cisco equipment
  7. The Indian Army mostly uses the Microsoft Windows operating system on its official computers

Threats for India

  1. Windows is an outstanding system but is a closed-source software owned by a company that is bound by US laws and historically tied to the American intelligence community
  2. India is a prime target for American spying. In the overall list of countries targeted by PRISM, India stood at the fifth place

Some measures taken by India

  1. In 2015, the Northern Command of the army decided to adopt the Bharat Operating System Solutions (BOSS) for all its official computers
  2. BOSS is an indigenously developed open-source system by the Centre for Development of Advanced Computing, an R&D organisation of the Ministry of Electronics and Information Technology

Way forward

  1. Despite the clear dangers in cyberspace, we remain inexorably tied to past practices and show little desire to make changes that are essential to protect our national interests
  2. A policy decision to indigenise our cyberspace will have greater and more far-reaching national security implications
Internal Security Architecture Shortcomings – Key Forces, NIA, IB, CCTNS, etc.

[op-ed snap] A security architecture without the mortarop-ed snap


Mains Paper 3: Internal Security | Security challenges & their management in border areas

From UPSC perspective, the following things are important:

Prelims level: Strategic Policy Group, Defence Planning Committee

Mains level: Shortcomings in India’s security architecture and need of a national security vision


New security architecture provisions

  1. In April this year, the Union government set up a Defence Planning Committee (DPC) to assist in the creation of national security strategy, international defence engagement strategy, roadmap
  2. Earlier this month, it also decided to revive the Strategic Policy Group (SPG) within the overall National Security Council (NSC) system
  3. The DPC aims to
  • build a defence manufacturing ecosystem
  • strategy to boost defence exports
  • prioritize capability development plans

Security scenario in India

  1. India’s national security environment has steadily deteriorated since 2014
  2. Both the overall violence in Jammu and Kashmir and ceasefire violations on the Line of Control reached a 14-year high in 2017, a trend that refuses to subside in 2018
  3. There are far more attacks on security forces and security installations in J&K, and militant recruitments and violence against civilians in the State than at any time in the past decade-and-a-half
  4. The pressure from China is on the rise
  5. The surgical strikes hardly made any significant gains, and the Chinese forces (by all accounts including a report of the Parliamentary Standing Committee on External Affairs) are back in the Doklam plateau with more force
  6. New Delhi’s neighbourhood policy continues to be in the doldrums and there is a clear absence of vision on how to balance, engage and work with the many great powers in the regional and the broader international scene

Lacunae in India’s defence structure

    1. India spends close to $50 billion annually on defence and yet there are serious concerns about the level of our defence preparedness
    2. India might be ill-equipped to fight the wars of the modern age
    3. There is a little conversation between the armed forces and the political class, and even lesser conversation among the various arms of the forces
    4. One of the most serious lacunas in our defence management is the absence of jointness in the Indian armed forces
    5. Our doctrines, command structures, force deployments and defence acquisition continue as though each arm is going to fight a future war on its own

China & Pakistan’s policy vis a vis India

  1. China has progressed a great deal in military jointmanship, and Pakistan is doing a lot better than India
  2. In India, talk of appointing a Chief of Defence Staff (CDS) has all but died down
  3. Even the key post of military adviser in the National Security Council Secretariat (NSCS) remains vacant
  4. The NSC, which replicates the membership of the Cabinet Committee on Security, almost never meets under the new regime, and the National Security Advisory Board, initially set up by the Vajpayee government, to seek ‘outside expertise’ on strategic matters, is today a space for retired officials
  5. As a result, there is little fresh thinking within the government or perspective planning on the country’s national security or defence

Outcomes expected from SPG & DPC

  1. All that the SPG and DPC would achieve is to further bureaucratise the national security decision making and centralise all national security powers under the PMO
  2. Top-heavy systems hardly work well unless supported by a well-oiled institutional mechanism

Need of national vision on security

  1. Many of India’s national security inadequacies stem from the absence of a national security/defence vision
  2. Ideally, the country should have an overall national security document from which the various agencies and the arms of the armed forces draw their mandate and create their own respective and joint doctrines which would then translate into operational doctrines for tactical engagement
  3. In the absence of this, as is the case in India today, national strategy is broadly a function of ad hocism and personal preferences
Internal Security Architecture Shortcomings – Key Forces, NIA, IB, CCTNS, etc.

Strategic Policy Group to assist National Security CouncilDOMR


Mains Paper 3: Internal Security | Challenges to Internal Security

From UPSC perspective, the following things are important:

Prelims level: SPG, NSC

Mains level: Decision making apparatus of the government in context to National Security.


Strategic Policy Group (SPG)

  1. The central government has set up the Strategic Policy Group (SPG) headed by National Security Advisor Ajit Doval to assist the National Security Council.
  2. The other members of the SPG will include NITI Aayog vice chairman, a cabinet secretary, chiefs of the three defence services, RBI governor, a foreign secretary, a home secretary, a finance secretary and a defence secretary.
  3. The secretary of the Department of Defence Production and Supplies, scientific adviser to the defence minister and secretary (R) will also be members of the panel.
  4. The group will assist the National Security Council and undertake among other tasks, a long-term strategic review of the country’s security affairs.
  5. Representatives of other ministries and departments will be invited to the meetings of the group as and when necessary.

Tasks assigned to SPG

  1. The Strategic Policy Group is the first level of the three tier structure of the National Security Council.
  2. It forms the nucleus of the decision-making apparatus of the NSC.
  3. Earlier, Cabinet Secretary was its chairman, but now National Security Advisor is the chairman of the group.
  4. SPG will assist the National Security Council and undertake among other tasks, a long-term strategic review of country’s security affairs.
  5. It will act as a principal mechanism for inter-ministerial coordination and integration of relevant inputs in the formulation of national security policies.
  6. The NSA will convene the meetings of the SPG and the cabinet secretary will coordinate implementation of the group’s decisions by Union Ministries and Departments, and State Governments.


National Security Council

  1. The NSC of India is an executive government agency tasked with advising the Prime Minister’s Office on matters of national security and strategic interest.
  2. It was established by Former PM Vajpayee on 19 November 1998.
  3. Prior to the formation of the NSC, these activities were overseen by the Principal Secretary to the Prime Minister.
  4. Besides the National Security Advisor (NSA), The Deputy National Security Advisor (DNSA), The Ministers of Defence, External Affairs, Home, Finance, and the Deputy Chairman of the NITI Aayog are members.
Internal Security Architecture Shortcomings – Key Forces, NIA, IB, CCTNS, etc.

[op-ed snap] National surgical strike day: celebrating failuresop-ed snapPriority 1


Mains Paper 3: Internal Security | Security challenges & their management in border areas

From UPSC perspective, the following things are important:

Prelims level: Not much

Mains level: The relevance of surgical strikes in present security scenario


Celebration of Surgical strikes anniversary

  1. Last week, the government unveiled its plans to celebrate surgical strike Day on 29 September, to commemorate the cross-border operation India had carried out against terror camps in Pakistan two years ago
  2. Almost on cue, the Indian army chief general Bipin Rawat called out for another “stern action” against Pakistan to avenge the recent death of Indian soldiers on the border, alluding to another surgical strike

Significance of this move

  1. These developments are indicative of a fundamental transformation of India’s strategic culture
  2. New Delhi now seems to be making strategic choices based on psychological gratification rather than to achieve well-thought-out goals.
  3. This is a dangerous trend that is likely to further worsen the already deteriorating security situation in South Asia

Was surgical strike a success?

  1. From a goal-oriented perspective, the choice to carry out the strike has proved to be an abject failure
  2. In the last two years since the strike, India’s security vis-à-vis Pakistan has degraded by all metrics
  3. The Kashmir insurgency has worsened since the strikes
  4. There were 358 insurgency-related fatalities in 2017, compared to 267 the year before
  5. Estimated infiltrations went up to 406 in 2017 from 371 in 2016
  6. Civilian deaths increased by 166% in 2017

Pakistan’s role

  1. By all indicators, Islamabad’s covert support for the insurgency has also ramped up in the last two years
  2. This period has seen several Pakistan-sponsored terror attacks on the Indian armed forces, which specifically replicated the Uri attack which had prompted the surgical strike
  3. Border violence between Indian and Pakistani armies has become disturbingly brutal and regular like clockwork
  4. India-Pakistan ceasefire violations more than doubled in 2017, compared to the year before
  5. Both sides are now employing weapons of a higher calibre than the prior years

Options that were used previously

  1. If the decision-makers think that the conditions are favourable, they may use a diplomatic approach and bring international pressure upon Pakistan to change its policy
  2. India employed this route in the aftermath of the 2008 Mumbai terror attack
  3. Otherwise, the decision-makers may choose to precipitate a crisis by threatening Pakistan with a disproportionate military action in order to compel it to change its ways
  4. India tried this strategy in 2001 after the terror attack on the Indian Parliament, in what is today known as the Twin Peaks Crisis
  5. Both of these options are fraught with risks and other problems and aimed at achieving certain security goals

Does surgical strike really help?

  1. An operation like the surgical strike, which is really just a half-way measure, does little to enhance India’s security, although it does provide instinctive gratification
  2. In the long run, it ends up harming India’s overall security by eroding the credibility of its deterrence

Root cause analysis

  1. The root cause is the weakening normative sanctity of the line of control (LoC)
  2. Much of India’s security problems in Kashmir today stem from the fact that over the decades, the legitimacy and inviolability of the LoC has been steadily collapsing
  3. This cheapening of LoC’s notional value allows Pakistan to run elaborate cross-border terror networks, support constant infiltration, engage the Indian army in a continuous low-intensity conflict, and repeatedly challenge basic facts on the ground in international forums

Way Forward

  1. Successive governments have unwittingly gone along with Pakistan in reducing the LoC’s value and the celebration of surgical strike Day would be another egregious step in this direction
  2. Essentially what India would be celebrating is its decision to violate the LoC
  3. In effect, it would be admitting that LoC is not a sacred border endowed with all the legal and normative strengths of an international boundary, but rather simply a frontline that either countries may choose to violate whenever they please
  4. Indian policy should be to constantly prop up the normative strength of the LoC and insist on its legitimacy and unassailability
Internal Security Architecture Shortcomings – Key Forces, NIA, IB, CCTNS, etc.

MHA merges Police forces of 6 UTsPrelims OnlyPriority 1


Mains Paper 3: Internal Security | Various Security forces & agencies & their mandate

From UPSC perspective, the following things are important:

Prelims level: Details of the merger

Mains level: Policing Reforms


Non-IPS officers to be at direct disposal of MHA

  1. The Ministry of Home Affairs notified new rules amalgamating police forces in six Union Territories.
  2. The rules effectively mean that officers who are not direct IPS recruits could be posted in any of the six UTs and will be at the disposal of the Ministry.
  3. The MHA has notified this under the National Capital Territory of Delhi, Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Lakshadweep, Daman and Diu, Dadra and Nagar Haveli and Chandigarh (Police Service) Rules 2018.

How will this benefit?

  1. This is the first step towards the creation of a central police cadre allowing for the posting of police personnel across the country irrespective of the force they are initially inducted into.
  2. A central pool allowing inter-transferability would also ensure that local police personnel do not fall prey to serving vested interests in their home services and ensure that they don’t become complacent.

Other details

  1. There are around 533 posts that will be covered under the new rules; they include assistant commissioners of police and deputy superintendent of police.
  2. The Rules will come into effect upon the promotion or direct recruitment of Inspectors to the post of ACP.
  3. Half of the posts at the ACP rank will be filled through direct recruitment and the other half through promotion.
  4. Earlier these postings were decided by the respective UT administrators.
Internal Security Architecture Shortcomings – Key Forces, NIA, IB, CCTNS, etc.

[pib] Serious Fraud Investigation OfficePIBPrelims Only


Mains Paper 3: Internal Security | Various Security forces & agencies & their mandate

From UPSC perspective, the following things are important:

Prelims level: SFIO

Mains level: Curbing corporate frauds in India.


Serious Fraud Investigation Office

  1. The Serious Fraud Investigation Office (SFIO) is a fraud investigating agency in India.
  2. It is under the jurisdiction of the Ministry of Corporate Affairs, Government of India.
  3. The SFIO is involved in major fraud probes and is the co-ordinating agency with the Income Tax Department and the Central Bureau of Investigation.
  4. It is a multi-disciplinary organization having experts from financial sector, capital market, accountancy, forensic audit, taxation, law, information technology, company law, customs and investigation.
  5. These experts have been taken from various organizations like banks, Securities and Exchange Board of India, Comptroller and Auditor General and concerned organizations and departments of the Government.
  6. Based on the recommendation of Naresh Chandra Committee on corporate governance in the backdrop of stock market scams as also the failure of non-banking companies resulting in huge financial loss to the public.
  7. Agency headquarters is in the Indian capital, New Delhi, with field offices located in major cities throughout India. The SFIO draws most of its officers from the IAS, ICLS, IPS and IRS.
Internal Security Architecture Shortcomings – Key Forces, NIA, IB, CCTNS, etc.

[op-ed snap] Keep The Army Out Of ItGovt. Schemesop-ed snap


Mains Paper 3: Internal Security | Various Security forces and agencies and their mandate

The following things are important from UPSC perspective:

Prelims Level: Not much

Mains level: The article talks about an important issue. It shows how military contribution in civilian duties can negatively effect any country.



  1. Diversion of the armed forces for routine civilian tasks has long-term costs.

Historical Background

  1. In 1953, following riots against Ahmadiyyas, martial law was imposed in Lahore
  2. After bringing the law and order situation under control, the Pakistan army proceeded to launch the “Cleaner Lahore Campaign”
  3. This initiative created a positive image of army efficiency
  4. In 1958, Ayub Khan became the military dictator of Pakistan
  5. Around the same time, in India, 4 Infantry Division was undertaking the construction of 1,450 barracks and family accommodation in Ambala using troop labour
  6. The construction was completed in a record seven months
  7. By end-1959, 4 Infantry Division was moved to NEFA (now Arunachal Pradesh)
  8. And when India and China went to war in October-November 1962, it faced the brunt of Chinese assault and suffered a humiliating loss

Link between two incidents given above

  1. These two incidents are not directly linked but both hold lessons to be kept in mind while employing soldiers for routine civilian tasks
  2. Recent announcement of using army engineers to construct three railway footbridges in Mumbai has brought the issue into the spotlight
  3. This is, however, not the first time the army has been used for such tasks

How Mumbai situation is different?

  1. One, it is not an area where civilian agencies are unavailable
  2. The Railways in Mumbai have the engineering resources, technical expertise, funds and experience of constructing such a bridge
  3. Even private infrastructure creation agencies are available
  4. Two, this is a permanent infrastructure while the army is employed to make bridges which are needed temporarily(say for Kumbh)
  5. Three, the army comes in a public emergency where relief is needed in days, if not hours
  6. A month has already passed since the incident at Elphinstone Bridge

It is tempting to employ army in civilian duties

  1. Before the 1962 war, soldiers were growing crops in vast swathes of military lands
  2. And recently, the army was asked to clean the trash left behind by civilian tourists as part of the Swachh Bharat campaign
  3. But this violates a fundamental premise of a modern military that during peace-time, it must be left free to prepare for war

The way forward

  1. The government must also realise the institutional dangers inherent in employing soldiers in non-emergency civilian duties
  2. Such employment is an acknowledgement of civilian institutional failure
  3. An unthinking diversion of the armed forces for routine civilian tasks seems highly affordable but has long-term costs for the country
  4. The government should remember the lessons from the 1950s
Internal Security Architecture Shortcomings – Key Forces, NIA, IB, CCTNS, etc.

ITBP raises maiden mechanised column

Image Source


Mains Paper 3: Internal Security | Security challenges and their management in border areas

From the UPSC perspective following things are important:

Prelims Level: Not much

Mains Level: Specially mentioned in the Mains Syllabus

Maiden Mechanized Column of Indo-Tibetan Border Police (ITBP)

  1.  The ITBP is raising and deploying a mechanised column of power vehicles and machines
  2. Why: to quickly mobilise troops along the India-China border during Chinese military transgressions and Doklam-like standoffs

Decision by the Home Ministry

  1. The decision to raise such a military-style combat wing in the paramilitary force was taken by the Union Home Ministry recently
  2. HM has approved deployment of snow scooters at all high-altitude border outposts of the mountain-warfare trained force along the 3,488-km-long frontier

Particulars of the planned mechanized column

  1. It may comprise over 250 sports utility vehicles (SUVs), all-terrain vehicles (ATVs), snow scooters, excavators and a few other medium-lift four-wheeled vehicles

Why is this step essential?

  1. While the Army has the mechanised infantry, it was essential to have a mechanised column in the ITBP
  2. Because the ITBP  secures the border in peacetime and will bear the first onslaught in case of a war or a conflict


Mechanized infantry

  1. Mechanized infantry are infantry equipped with armored personnel carriers (APCs) or infantry fighting vehicles (IFVs) for transport and combat (see also mechanized force)
  2. Mechanized infantry is distinguished from motorized infantry in that its vehicles provide a degree of protection from hostile fire, as opposed to “soft-skinned” wheeled vehicles (trucks or jeeps) for motorized infantry
  3. Most APCs and IFVs are fully tracked or are all-wheel drive vehicles (6×6 or 8×8), for mobility across rough ground. Some nations distinguish between mechanized and armored infantry, designating troops carried by APCs as mechanized and those in IFVs as armored
Internal Security Architecture Shortcomings – Key Forces, NIA, IB, CCTNS, etc.

[op-ed snap] New Pattern Of Urban Terrorop-ed snap

Image Source


Mains Paper 3: Internal Security | Challenges to internal security through communication networks, role of media and social networking sites in internal security challenges,

From the UPSC perspective following things are important:

Prelims Level: Not much

Mains Level: Important suggestions are given in this article that can be mentioned in mains answers.



  1. The article talks about the recent sniper attack by a “lone wolf”, which took a heavy toll of innocent lives at a Sunday night country music concert in Las Vegas
  2. The article compares the response of the US and India to such kind of attacks

Change in the pattern of global urban terrorist attacks

  1. Large groups of trained and armed terrorists attacking targets selected by their masters, are not famous these days
  2. Instead, we see lone wolf attackers targeting large gatherings

Comparison of the recent Las Vegas mass shooting with 26/11 attacks of India
Las Vegas

  1. In the US, police agencies, local and federal, were on the same page
  2. The electronic media was not overreacting or speculating
  3. The people on the streets of the city that never sleeps were quiet, not indulging in rumour mongering or spreading panic
  4. There was no politicking, blame games or mudslinging

26/11 of India

  1. Mumbai Police, one of the finest metropolitan police forces in the country, was taken by surprise and was ill-prepared to respond to such an attack
  2. About the role of certain sections of the electronic media, the less said the better. The blame game over intelligence and police failure went on and on
  3. A committee was constituted to go into the lapses and some progress has been made in training and equipping the Maharashtra and Mumbai Police with their own commandos

Issues with Indian Police System

  1. Indian police officers and men are second to none in bravery and courage but they need to be trained and equipped
  2. But our political and bureaucratic leadership is not willing to pay attention to this need
  3. Similarly, raising the strength of our police thanas and posts in cities, needs to be stepped up on a war footing
  4. But unfortunately, the limited resources of the Central and state home ministries are being mindlessly spent in rapidly expanding the para military forces
  5. And hordes of policemen and officers continue to be deployed on so-called VIP security duties

What should be done?

  1. Untrained and ill-equipped policemen must be replaced by meticulously planned operations on the ground
  2. Audit of the work done(by the forces) has to be an ongoing process and obstacles must be addressed with urgency without waiting for a repeat of a disaster
  3. Finally, Informing the nation about the need to understand security threats, is an important task that shoud be carried out
  4. A nation which understands the importance of the issue is well prepared. An alert citizenry is a powerful countermeasure, perhaps the most effective preventive weapon
Internal Security Architecture Shortcomings – Key Forces, NIA, IB, CCTNS, etc.

Indian Navy foils piracy attempt on Liberian vessel in Gulf of Aden


Mains Paper 3 | Security challenges

Prelims:  INS Sharda, INS Mumbai, INS Tarakash, Navy’s ‘Marcos’ commandos

Mains level: The Information from this article can be cited as recent incidents of piracy in Gulf of Aden and how Indian navy successfully thwarted such attempts.


Indian Navy Thwarted a piracy attempt

  1. The Indian Navy has thwarted a piracy attempt on a Liberian vessel in the Gulf of Aden, in a swift operation involving marine commandos and an armed chopper.
  2. The Navy’s warship INS Sharda, deployed in Gulf of Aden for anti-piracy mission, swung into action after it received a distress call and proceeded at best speed to investigate the incident.
  3. After reaching out to the vessel, the Navy’s ‘Marcos’ commandos with support from the helicopter onboard the ship, carried out a ‘board and search’ operation on two dhows and five skiffs which had shown “malicious intent”.
  4. Three skiffs fled the area at high speeds on sighting the Indian warship.
  5. One automatic Kalashnikov rifle and 28 rounds of magazines were also recovered from one of the dhows

Recent Incidents

  1. Indian Naval assets have been increasingly deployed in recent times to address the various maritime concerns of the region
  2. The navies of India and China last month had rescued a merchant ship in the Gulf of Aden after it was hijacked by Somali pirate Indian Navy’s two frontline warships, INS Mumbai and INS Tarkash were part of the operation while the Chinese Navy had deployed missile frigate Yulin. However, China had not acknowledged participation of Indian Navy in the operation.



  1. They were raised as the Indian Marine Special Forces (IMSF) in 1985. Two years later, they were renamed the Marine Commando Force (MCF). Their motto is – The Few The Fearless.
  2. It is the special forces unitof the Indian Navy.
  3. The MCF is specially organized, trained and equipped for the conduct of special operations in a maritime environment.
  4. The MARCOS are capable of undertaking operations in all types of terrain, but are specialized in maritime operations.

INS Sharda

  1. INS Sharada is a Sukanya class patrol vesselof the Indian Navy.
  2. The Sukanya class are named after notable women from Indian epics.
  3. They are utilized primarily for offshore patrol of India’s exclusive economic zone. However, they are capable of being heavily armed and upgraded to light frigates should the need arise.

INS Mumbai

  1. It is the third of the Delhi-class guided-missile destroyers in active service with the Indian Navy.
  2. Mumbai was built at Mazagon Dock Limited in her namesake city Mumbai, commissioned in 2001.


INS Tarakash

  1. INS Tarkash is the fifth Talwar-class guided missile frigateconstructed for the Indian Navy by Russia.
  2. These ships use stealth technologies and a special hull design to ensure a reduced radar cross section.
  3. In March 2015, Tarkash was deployed with INS Mumbai and INS Sumitra as part of Operation Raahat to provide protection and support to Indian ships and aircraft involved in the evacuation of Indian citizens from Yemen during the military intervention.
Internal Security Architecture Shortcomings – Key Forces, NIA, IB, CCTNS, etc.

About 1,000 Chinese troops still near Doklam standoff area


Mains Paper3 | Security challenges and their management in border areas

Prelims: Doklam area

Mains level: This news item gives insights about the current situation in Dok La in the background of initiation of the process of disengagement and post BRICS summit.


  1. More than five weeks after India and China stepped back from a standoff at Doklam on the Sikkim border, Indian soldiers remain on high alert with around 1,000 Chinese troops still present on the plateau, a few hundred metres from the faceoff site,.
  2. But, India does not expect another “flashpoint” at the same site between the two countries.

The Continued presence of People’s Liberation Army (PLA) in the Chumbi Valley

  • The presence of PLA was also acknowledged by Air Chief Marshal B S Dhanoa recently and it has subsequently thinned in the area after the process of “disengagement” began but one PLA battalion remains on the plateau.
  • The deployment is expected to be reduced by two-thirds to brigade-level in the coming weeks.
  • The Chinese have not dismantled any of their tents, temporary construction in the vicinity and they still have road construction equipment and other stores.
  • But everything is under surveillance by the Indian Army.

Post BRICS Conference

  • Indian soldiers returned to their posts at Doka La but their numbers have since been strengthened.
  • The tracks leading to Doka La were improved during the faceoff, leading to enhanced logistics supply lines.
  • Road construction equipment, such as bulldozers and JCBs, have also been kept on location.


Internal Security Architecture Shortcomings – Key Forces, NIA, IB, CCTNS, etc.

[op-ed snap] Tri-Service Integration or Consolidation?



Mains Paper 3| Various Security forces and agencies and their mandate


From UPSC perspective, the following things are important:

Prelims level: Apache helicopters, Chief of Defence Staff, Permanent Chiefs of Staff Committee, Four/Five-star officers, Teeth to tail ratio

Mains level: Jointmanship among the three services (Army, Navy & Air-Force), Reforms in Armed forces, Lt General D. B Shekatkar Committee report



  1. The article bats for tri-service integration of the armed forces.
  2. It argues that there is a need to avid friction between the three services and also stop the fight for asserting one’s supremacy over the other.
  3. It also talks about the need to avoid duplication of capabilities within the three services.

Understanding the title of the article-

Consolidation– Simply bringing together two or more previously independent entities
Integration- Not just bringing together but also eliminating unnecessary duplication and comprehensive management of the country as whole



  1. Recent statement by the Army Chief Gen. Bipin Rawat- The supremacy and primacy of Army should be maintained in any tri-service environment. This is because the war will be to ensure territorial integrity of nation on ground.
  2. In addition to this, there have been demands from the three forces for developing their own fleet of air force (helicopters for the army and aircraft carriers for the navy).

Why do we need tri-service integration-

Statement by the Air Marshal S. B. Deo- Ours is a growing country, our budget is limited. We cannot afford duplicating capabilities.

Issue of Chief of Defence Staff-

  1. Any friction between the three forces will cause delay in several important decisions on tri-service integration such as the Chief of Defence Staff (CDS), specialised commands for cyber, space and Special Forces
  2. One of the recommendations in the report given by Gen. D. B. Shekatkar Committee is appointment of a single point military adviser to the Prime Minister on strategic issues; a Permanent Chairman Chiefs of Staff Committee (CoSC), a four-star officer equivalent in rank to the three service chiefs.
  3. However, if CoSC comes into picture then there would be more opposition to the creation of post of Chief of Defence Staff.
  4. We need to have a permanent full-fledged five star officer at the post of Chief of Defence Staff and should avoid appointing four star officer as this will further complicate protocol.



  1. Such statements showcase friction amongst the three armed forces and this is detrimental to the joint management of defence of the country.
  2. Although India has been primarily a land power but the threat matrix in the Indian Ocean region is changing with increasing forays by the Chinese navy and building up of regional navies with the help of China. In such a scenario the three forces need to be ready for swift and agile actions in unison with each other.


  1. Apache helicopters (AH-64-E): Multi-role combat helicopters with night-fighting features. Till now Indian Army did not have its own fleet of helicopters, it was using Mi-25 and Mi-35 helicopters with the help of the Indian Air Force.
  2. Four Star officer: Officer with rank equivalent to chief of an armed force
  3. Five Star officer: Field Marshal in the Army, Admiral of the Naval fleet and Marshal of the Air Force.
  4. The Ministry of Defence had constituted a Committee of Experts under the Chairmanship of Lt Gen (Retd) (Dr.) DB Shekatkar with a mandate to recommend measures for enhancing of Combat Capability & Rebalancing Defence Expenditure of the Armed Forces with an aim to increase “teeth to tail ratio”.
  5. Teeth to Tail ratio- it refers to the amount of military personnel it takes to supply and support (tail) each combat soldier (tooth).
  6. Chief of Defence Staff: The CDS will be a single-point military advisor to the defence ministers on military matters. He should have authority over the three chiefs but the chiefs are over all responsible for the functioning of the three forces.
  7. Kargil Review Committee or K Subrahmanyam Committee: The committee was mandated to analyse Indian intelligence failures during the Kargil War (1999). This was the committee which first gave the idea of the need to have a Chief of Defence Staff.
Internal Security Architecture Shortcomings – Key Forces, NIA, IB, CCTNS, etc.

Indian Army strikes Naga insurgents along India-Myanmar border


Mains Paper 3: Internal Security | Role of external state and non-state actors in creating challenges to internal security.

From UPSC perspective, the following things are important:

Prelims level: Particulars of the NSCN(K)

Mains level: These kind of issues are specially mentioned in the syllabus, and is therefore very important for the Mains Papers.


Operation against National Socialist Council of Nagaland-Khaplang(NSCN-K)

  1. Indian Army soldiers gunned down “a large number” of members of the insurgent Naga group the NSCN(K) along the India-Myanmar border
  2. An officer on the ground said the insurgents suffered as many as 30 casualties

Border rules with Myanmar

  1. The 1,643 km-long border with Myanmar is extremely porous primarily
  2. Because we have an agreement wherein people from across the border are permitted up to 16 kilometers into Indian territory for trade purposes

Abrogation of cease fire agreement

  1. The NSCN(K) abrogated a 2001 ceasefire agreement with India on 27 March 2015, a month before it was scheduled to be renewed


For a comprehensive overview of the issue, Click here

Internal Security Architecture Shortcomings – Key Forces, NIA, IB, CCTNS, etc.

Digital police portal launched, to create national crime database

Image Source


Mains Paper 3: Internal Security | Challenges to internal security through communication networks, role of media and social networking sites in internal security challenges,

From UPSC perspective, the following things are important:

Prelims level: What is CCTNS?

Mains level: Effective step for countering criminal activities.


Digital Police Portal

  1. Union Home Ministry has launched digital police portal under the CCTNS( Crime and Criminal Tracking Networks and Systems) project
  2. It is meant to create a national database of crimes and criminals
  3. The portal will allow for registration of online complaints and requests for antecedent verification


What is CCTNS?

  1. The Crime and Criminal Tracking Networks and Systems, abbreviated to CCTNS, is a project under Indian government for creating a comprehensive and integrated system for effective policing through e-Governance
  2. The system includes nationwide online tracking system by integrating more than 14,000 police stations across the country
  3. The project is implemented by National Crime Records Bureau
Internal Security Architecture Shortcomings – Key Forces, NIA, IB, CCTNS, etc.

BRO gets more financial powers

Image Souece


Mains Paper 3: Internal Security | Security challenges and their management in border areas

From the UPSC perspective, the following things are important:

Prelims level: Particulars of the BRO

Mains level: These steps have become more important because of the increased crisis between India and China


 Efforts to improve the functioning of the Border Roads Organisation (BRO)

  1. The Defence Ministry has delegated administrative and financial powers right up to the level of Chief Engineer and task force commander, of the BRO
  2. Why: To bring in transformational changes in the BRO

Enhanced Powers

  1. Now, a Chief Engineer of BRO can accord administrative approval up to Rs. 50 crore
  2. Additional Director-General (ADG) up to Rs. 75 crore
  3. Director-General (DG) up to Rs. 100 crore
  4. Earlier, a Chief Engineer in the BRO could give administrative approval of works up to Rs. 10 crore and ADG up to Rs. 20 crore for departmental works

A Little Background of the BRO

  1. The BRO is engaged in road construction to provide connectivity to difficult and inaccessible regions
  2. It was brought under the control of the Defence Ministry in 2015
Internal Security Architecture Shortcomings – Key Forces, NIA, IB, CCTNS, etc.

Maoists to observe their military wing’s formation week from Friday

  1. What: The outlawed Communist Party of India (Maoist) will observe the 16th anniversary of the formation of its military wing the People’s Liberation Guerrilla Army (PLGA) from December 2 to December 8 in the Dandakaranya region (which includes Bastar region of Chhattisgarh and Gadchiroli district of Maharashtra).
  2. Banners and posters were posted in various parts of Bastar by the outlaws on Wednesday and Thursday which asked the people to celebrate the 16th anniversary of the PLGA with “full enthusiasm and fanfare” in every village and town.
  3. The banners and posters put up by the CPI (Maoist) urge the villagers to defeat the Operation Green Hunt and to boycott the proposed Bastaria battalion in the region.


  1. The Ministry of Home Affairs recently approved a proposal to form a ‘special battalion’ called ‘Bastaria battalion’ in Central Reserve Police Force (CRPF) comprising of only tribal men and women to fortify the fight against Maoists in Chhattisgarh.
  2. This move is expected to combat the Maoist problem more effectively and also enhance employment in the state.
  3. Operation Green Hunt was the name used by the Indian media to describe the “all-out offensive” by GOI’s paramilitary forces and the States’ forces against the Naxalites.
  4. The operation is believed to have begun in November 2009 along five states in the ‘Red Corridor’.


Take note of the B2b portion. Important for Prelims and Mains.


Internal Security Architecture Shortcomings – Key Forces, NIA, IB, CCTNS, etc.

Only 0.05% of money in circulation utilised in Terror Funding, says govt report

  1. Source: Govt report compiled with inputs from Intelligence Bureau (IB) on impact of demonetization
  2. Finding: It says only 0.05% of currency in circulation pegged at Rs 700-800 crores is utilised every year for terror funding
  3. But with scrapping of Rs 500 and Rs 1,000 notes, the funding of extremist groups have taken a major hit
  4. The report further says north east insurgent groups raise funds for subversive activities to the tune of Rs 350-400 crores every year
  5. They are followed by left wing extremist (LWE) groups who were pegged at 300-350 crores annually
  6. Separatists groups from Kashmir only channelize Rs 20-30 crores every year while other jehadi and Islamic fundamentalist groups were generating Rs 5-10 crores every year
Internal Security Architecture Shortcomings – Key Forces, NIA, IB, CCTNS, etc.

[op-ed snap] Beginning of the end of Naxalite movement in the country II

  1. The gap still remains wide, enabling movements such as those of the Maoists to exploit the situation
  2. Till the turn of the century, the movement retained at least some of its original ideological underpinnings and intellectual effervescence
  3. Change in working of the Maoists: Today, it has become a highly rigid and militaristic movement, more intent on terrorising segments of population than on supporting people’s causes
  4. It maintains its own small arms factories where it fashions much of its weaponry
  5. It has a well-established arms trail to obtain state-of-the-art weapons from sources outside the country
  6. It is extremely adept in the use of IEDs, and in resorting to unconventional methods to deploy them
  7. At its inception, it had proper credentials to be listed as a true Marxist-Leninist movement. Today the story has changed
Internal Security Architecture Shortcomings – Key Forces, NIA, IB, CCTNS, etc.

[op-ed snap] Beginning of the end of Naxalite movement in the countryop-ed snap

  1. Context: CPI (M) lost around 30 of its cadres in a covert operation
  2. Jointly organised by the Greyhounds of Andhra Pradesh and the Special Operations Group of Odisha
  3. Initial stages: The movement had strong ideological moorings but over the years it became more brutal and sanguinary
  4. Spread of Maoism: In West Bengal economic and developmental measures appear to have weakened the Maoist stranglehold
  5. But in other parts of India there are few signs that the movement is in retreat
  6. In Telangana and Andhra Pradesh, there is growing concern at the manner in which the movement seems to have resurfaced
  7. Ideology of the Naxals: Major strides between Maoists and forces have undoubtedly been made over the years to improve the condition of the ‘poorest of the poor’ and the ‘wretched of the Earth’
Internal Security Architecture Shortcomings – Key Forces, NIA, IB, CCTNS, etc.

NIA probe reveals procedural lapses- II

  1. There is possibility of the four terrorists involved in the attack having sneaked in from PoK through Haji Peer Pass & stayed put at Sukhdar village
  2. This village is at a vantage point allowing an unhindered view of the layout of the Army base and the movement of personnel inside it
  3. The growth of wild grass and bushes around the perimeter of the brigade is seen as one of the factors that could have facilitated undetected movement of the terrorists close to the fencing, which was cut by the ultras to sneak inside the base
  4. No SOP done: Standard security procedures provide for mowing any tall grass and cutting of bushes around vital security installations, but it was not followed around the target site
Internal Security Architecture Shortcomings – Key Forces, NIA, IB, CCTNS, etc.

NIA probe reveals procedural lapses- I

  1. Context: The terror attack on a highly guarded Army camp in Uri in Kashmir
  2. The perimeter of the highly sensitive Brigade Headquarters of the Army is not properly fenced in several places
  3. The probe also pointed towards the failure of two manned guard posts, located barely 150 feet from each other, to detect the intrusion inside the base by the terrorists
  4. It could have been due to lack of coordination between the two guard posts
Internal Security Architecture Shortcomings – Key Forces, NIA, IB, CCTNS, etc.

Publish FIRs online within 24 hours: SC- IISC Judgements

  1. SC, however, exempted from publication FIRs in certain cases- insurgency, child abuse, sexual offences and terrorism
  2. Why? Issues of privacy and national interest
  3. In case of complaint against such non-publication of FIRs, the Superintendent of Police in rural areas and Police Commissioner in metros, will form a committee of three officers, which will decide on the complaint in three weeks
  4. In areas where Internet access is limited, the Bench extended the deadline for publishing the FIR on websites to 48 hours, which can still further be stretched to a maximum of 72 hours
  5. Accused persons cannot take advantage of delay in uploading of FIRs and seek anticipatory bail on that ground
Internal Security Architecture Shortcomings – Key Forces, NIA, IB, CCTNS, etc.

Publish FIRs online within 24 hours: SC- ISC Judgements

  1. What? Supreme Court ordered States and Union Territories to upload, on police or government websites, First Information Reports (FIRs) within 24 hours of their registration in police stations
  2. Significance: Upholding the right of an accused to information to usher in transparency in police work
  3. Also, putting a check on the authority of the police to deprive a person of his liberty
  4. SC: An accused has every right to know what he was accused of
  5. Context: The court order came on a writ petition by the Youth Bar Association of India earlier this year seeking such a direction to the Union government, States and Uts
  6. Background: The Delhi HC in its judgment on December 6, 2010, had upheld the right of the accused to get copies of FIRs even before the local Magistrate ordered the police to do so under Section 207 of the Code of Criminal Procedure
Internal Security Architecture Shortcomings – Key Forces, NIA, IB, CCTNS, etc.

Maharashtra under pressure, to tweak draft of internal security Act

  1. News: The Maharashtra Govt has decided to tweak the newly-drafted Maharashtra Protection of Internal Security Act following public outcry over its contentious clauses
  2. Three changes:
  • reduction in punishment from the current three years to half,
  • increase in restrictions on public assembly to 2,500 from the proposed 100,
  • including a clause defining that the draft of the Act will not be applicable on private functions such as marriages and parties
Internal Security Architecture Shortcomings – Key Forces, NIA, IB, CCTNS, etc.

327% rise in agrarian riots in 2015, NCRB report shows- II

  1. Contradicting data: The decrease in communal riots recorded by NCRB does not mesh with data released by the Ministry of Home Affairs in July 2016
  2. Ministry data showed a slight increase from 644 incidents in 2014 to 751 in 2015
  3. NCRB data are based on FIRs, and there could be duplication in the number of cases registered
  4. MHA data source is mostly concerned with the number of incidents alone
Internal Security Architecture Shortcomings – Key Forces, NIA, IB, CCTNS, etc.

327% rise in agrarian riots in 2015, NCRB report shows- I

  1. Source: Crime in India, 2015 report released by the National Crime Records Bureau (NCRB)
  2. Number: Incidents of rioting remained almost the same in 2015 as compared to 2014
  3. Nature: But as communal riots decreased, big increases were seen in other categories- agrarian, sectarian and student riots and caste conflicts
  4. Kerala: Topped the state list in rate of crimes- 16.3 per lakh population
  5. UP: Most student and sectarian riots occured
Internal Security Architecture Shortcomings – Key Forces, NIA, IB, CCTNS, etc.

Fact check on Siachen deployment

  1. The Army plans its movement on the glacier on the basis of the daily weather bulletins issued by the Chandigarh-based Snow and Avalanche Study Establishment (SASE)
  2. It is an institute under the Defence Research & Development Organisation (DRDO)
  3. But, the SASE is not equipped to monitor loose ice and it is causing new uncertainties
  4. India has been holding the dominating heights on Siachen glacier since it occupied them in 1984 under Operation Meghdoot
  5. More soldiers have died due to weather related factors than enemy fire
Internal Security Architecture Shortcomings – Key Forces, NIA, IB, CCTNS, etc.

Climate change forces Army to rethink Siachen deployment procedures

  1. News: The Army is looking at the location of several vulnerable posts & wherever necessary it is shifting them
  2. Background: In February last year, an ice wall collapsed on Sonam post at 21,000 feet on the northern Siachen glacier, burying 10 soldiers of the 19 Madras regiment
  3. This was only the latest in a growing number of avalanches on the world’s highest battlefield that has forced the Army to review its deployment pattern there
  4. Reason: Climate change has accelerated the rate of snowmelt, which in turn is causing a rise in the rate of avalanches on the glacier, which are occurring frequently at new places
  5. There have been avalanches in areas where there were none in the last 30 years
  6. Due to rising temperature there is increased snowfall, which however, does not harden, leading to a rise in frequency of avalanches and opening up of crevices
Internal Security Architecture Shortcomings – Key Forces, NIA, IB, CCTNS, etc.

Army and technology

  1. More than a year after a new technological solution used by terrorists began causing headache to the Army in Kashmir, no breakthrough has been made to crack it
  2. Context: Terrorists infiltrating from Pakistan have been using smartphones paired with very high frequency (VHF) radio sets to communicate with one another
  3. This had resulted in a drop in communication intercepts and adversely affected military efforts to deal with them
  4. Misuse: The concept of pairing mobile phones with radio handsets originated in the wake of Hurricane Sandy in New York in 2012
  5. This mode of sending mobile communications without using mobile towers is of great help for rescue operations during calamities
  6. However, it is now among the key technology deployed by terrorists to avoid the security forces while crossing the Line of Control
Internal Security Architecture Shortcomings – Key Forces, NIA, IB, CCTNS, etc.

States asked to focus on intelligence sharing for internal security

  1. News: Prime Minister asked the States to focus on intelligence-sharing to help the country stay ‘alert’ to, and ‘updated’ on, internal security challenges
  2. Prime Minister addressed the Inter-State Council meeting, convened after 10 years
  3. Internal security could not be strengthened unless the States and the Centre focussed on sharing intelligence
  4. With the close cooperation, the Centre-State relations would also be strengthened
Internal Security Architecture Shortcomings – Key Forces, NIA, IB, CCTNS, etc.

Govt. installs 1,356 mobile towers in Naxal-hit areas

  1. News: The govt has set up 1,356 mobile towers in Maoist-hit areas
  2. Project: It is part of an ambitious project to install 2,199 mobile towers in nine Maoist-hit States by this March end
  3. Reason: To improve poor telephone connectivity
  4. Impact: To benefiting thousands of tribals and security personnel in remote regions
Internal Security Architecture Shortcomings – Key Forces, NIA, IB, CCTNS, etc.

A Road To Bastarop-ed snap

New mobile towers, better roads are making a difference in a troubled region.

  1. Scanty roads and poor communication have marred the development of the Bastar region.
  2. In order to thwart security forces’ movement into the core areas, the Maoists started damaging roads.
  3. After brief stint by BRO and RRP1, RRP-II( road requirement plan ) is on the anvil now.
  4. The roads department is now working in tandem with the security forces so that more roads can be built.
  5. Work of establishing new mobile towers is in its last phase of implementation.
  6. The only viable solution to end Bastar’s isolation is to connect it with the mainstream.
  7. The Maoists’ agenda to keep the tribals away from the advantages of development can be defeated only if the direct action of security forces is supplemented effectively with developmental works.
Internal Security Architecture Shortcomings – Key Forces, NIA, IB, CCTNS, etc.

ITBP to get four more battalions to guard Sino-Indian border in Northeast

  1. ITBP is soon going to get 4 more battalions with the strength of around 1,000 personnel each.
  2. The battalions will guard the Sino-Indian border in the country’s north-eastern region.
  3. It will help in checking repeated Chinese transgressions at the Line of Actual Control (LAC).
  4. As of now the ITBP has 56 service battalions and 4 support battalions to guard the 3,488 km Sino-Indian border having 169 BoPs.
Internal Security Architecture Shortcomings – Key Forces, NIA, IB, CCTNS, etc.

ITBP to join Clean Ganga campaign


  1. Indo-Tibetan Border Police Force (ITBP) personnel will join the drive to clean up river Ganga
  2. Places of Action – Kanpur, Varanasi and Allahabad in Uttar Pradesh.
  3. Did you know?
  4. ITBP is one of the eight Central Armed Police Forces of India, raised on 24 October 1962, under the CRPF Act, in the wake of the Sino-Indian War of 1962.
Internal Security Architecture Shortcomings – Key Forces, NIA, IB, CCTNS, etc.

Now, Army medals for paramilitary forces

  1. Paramilitary personnel are presently awarded police medal and president’s police medal for gallantry for exhibition of courage in battlefield.
  2. The Home ministry is planning to confer gallantry awards such as Param Vir Chakra, Shaurya Chakra & Kirti Chakra on those showing exemplary courage in internal security duties.
  3. This has been a longstanding demand of paramilitary forces. They fight with the same valour and intensity as the Army and sacrifice as many lives.

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