From UPSC perspective, the following things are important :
Prelims level : Not much.
Mains level : Paper 3- Threat of Left Wing Extremism and ways to deal with it.
When much is made of peace talks with rebels in Northeast India, avoidance of peace talks with Maoist rebels is strange.
States left to deal with the Maoists
- Scale and extent of the problem: Officially in 2019, there are 11 states and 90 affected districts.
- State subject: This is because policing and maintaining law and order are matters devolved to states.
- The approach adopted to deal with the problem: According to MHA-
- Capacity building: Primarily by capacity building of the state governments.
- Areas of capacity building: Capacity building is to be carried out in areas of security and development. This will continue with the-
- Better police training.
- Better intelligence gathering.
- Reinforcing police stations in conflict zones.
- And recruiting locals into auxiliary forces.
- Support by MHA: MHA will continue to provide the Central Reserve Police Force (CRPF) and other paramilitaries under its command.
- Support of NTRO: Intelligence gathering outfits such as the National Technical Research Organisation (NTRO).
- NTRO has in the past year increased drone surveillance over the densely forested Abujhmad area in southwest Chhattisgarh, which remains the main rebel hub.
The success achieved so far
- Influence reduced to 90 districts: The policies so far has certainly contained the rebels across 90 affected districts.
- Surrender and rehabilitation policy: Most Maoist-affected states in India have a surrender and rehabilitation policy.
- Surrender policy along with search and destroy : Surrender policy rides in tandem with search-and-destroy missions that police and paramilitaries provide.
- This pincer has massively depleted rebel leadership and ranks with regular killings, arrests, and surrender of its leaders and cadres.
Return of conflict displaced people
- It is crucial for the conflict-displaced to return to their homes.
- Issues related to return of displaced: Agencies discourage those returning from going back to their old home and instead are offered state-mandated enclaves.
- No or little economic imperatives: Those returning are offered little economic imperative besides daily wage labour and scrambling for government handouts.
- Some government jobs: For some, jobs are offered in
- That is, in any case, the present for much of the 50,000 or so who did not manage to escape to Telangana and elsewhere.
- The central government would do well to focus here and in beginning negotiations for peace.
- The Left-wing rebellion, a reality for over 50 years, is difficult to end until poor governance is improved.