Nuclear Energy

Nuclear Energy

[pib] Kakrapar Atomic Power Project (KAPP-3) in Gujarat


From UPSC perspective, the following things are important :

Prelims level : Criticality of the nuclear reactors

Mains level : India's nuclear energy policy

The indigenously designed 700 MWe reactor at the Kakrapar Atomic Power Project has achieved Criticality.

Try this PYQ from CSP 2013:

Q. The known forces of nature can be divided into four classes, viz, gravity, electromagnetism, weak nuclear force and strong nuclear force. With reference to them, which one of the following statements is not correct?

(a) Gravity is the strongest of the four

(b) Electromagnetism act only on particles with an electric charge

(c) Weak nuclear force causes radioactivity

(d) Strong nuclear force holds protons and neutrons inside the nuclear of an atom.

What is ‘Criticality’ in Atomic/Nuclear Power Plants?

  • Reactors are the heart of an atomic power plant, where a controlled nuclear fission reaction takes place that produces heat, which is used to generate steam that then spins a turbine to create electricity.
  • Fission is a process in which the nucleus of an atom splits into two or smaller nuclei, and usually some by-product particles.
  • When the nucleus splits, the kinetic energy of the fission fragments is transferred to other atoms in the fuel as heat energy, which is eventually used to produce steam to drive the turbines.
  • For every fission event, if at least one of the emitted neutrons on average causes fission, a self-sustaining chain reaction will take place.
  • A nuclear reactor achieves criticality when each fission event releases a sufficient number of neutrons to sustain an ongoing series of reactions.

Controlling Criticality

  • When a reactor is starting up, the number of neutrons is increased slowly in a controlled manner. Neutron-absorbing control rods in the reactor core are used to calibrate neutron production.
  • The control rods are made from neutron-absorbing elements such as cadmium, boron, or hafnium.
  • The deeper the rods are lowered into the reactor core, the more neutrons the rods absorb and the less fission occurs.
  • Technicians pull up or lower down the control rods into the reactor core depending on whether more or less fission, neutron production, and power are desired.
  • If a malfunction occurs, technicians can remotely plunge control rods into the reactor core to quickly soak up neutrons and shut down the nuclear reaction.

Why is this achievement significant?

  • It is the biggest indigenously developed variant of the Pressurized Heavy Water Reactor (PHWR).
  • The PHWRs, which use natural uranium as fuel and heavy water as moderator, is the mainstay of India’s nuclear reactor fleet.
  • Until now, the biggest reactor size of the indigenous design was the 540 MWe PHWR, two of which have been deployed in Tarapur, Maharashtra.
  • India works to ramp up its existing nuclear power capacity of 6,780 MWe to 22,480 MWe by 2031.
  • The 700MWe capacity constitutes the biggest component of the expansion plan.

Back2Basics: India’s PHWR technology

  • PHWR technology started in India in the late 1960s with the construction of the first 220 MWe reactor, Rajasthan Atomic Power Station, RAPS-1 under the joint Indo-Canadian nuclear co-operation.
  • Canada supplied all the main equipment for this first unit, while India retained responsibility for construction, installation, and commissioning.
  • For the second unit (RAPS-2), import content was reduced considerably, and indigenization was undertaken for major equipment.
  • Following the withdrawal of Canadian support in 1974 after Pokhran-1, Indian nuclear engineers completed the construction, and the plant was made operational with a majority of components being made in India.

Nuclear Energy

International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) Project

The heavy engineering division of L&T dispatched a giant Cryostat lid, to International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) site in France from its Hazira unit in Gujarat.

Try this MCQ:

Q.With reference to International science projects, consider the following:

  1. Large Hadron Collider (LHC)– The God Particle
  2. Thirty Metre Telescope (TMT) – The World’s Most Advanced Telescope
  3. International-Thermonuclear-Experimental-Reactor (ITER) – Fusion Energy
  4. Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research (FAIR) – Antiproton and Ion Research

Which of the above projects have India’s active participation?

a) 1 only

b) 2 and 3 only

c) 1, 3 and 4 only

d) All of them

ITER Project

  • ITER is international nuclear fusion research and engineering megaproject, which will be the world’s largest magnetic confinement plasma physics experiment.
  • The goal of ITER is to demonstrate the scientific and technological feasibility of fusion energy for peaceful use.

Minutes of the project

  • The project is funded and run by seven member entities—the European Union, India, Japan, China, Russia, South Korea and the United States.
  • The EU, as host party for the ITER complex, is contributing about 45 per cent of the cost, with the other six parties contributing approximately 9 per cent each.
  • Construction of the ITER Tokamak complex started in 2013 and the building costs were over US$14 billion by June 2015.

How does it work?

  • ITER is the most complex science project in human history. The ITER aims to use a strong electric current to trap plasma inside a doughnut-shaped enclosure long enough for fusion to take place.
  • Hydrogen plasma will be heated to 150 million degrees Celsius, ten times hotter than the core of the Sun, to enable the fusion reaction.
  • The process happens in a doughnut-shaped reactor, called a tokamak 1, which is surrounded by giant magnets that confine and circulate the superheated, ionized plasma, away from the metal walls.
  • The superconducting magnets must be cooled to -269°C (-398°F), as cold as interstellar space.
  • Scientists have long sought to mimic the process of nuclear fusion that occurs inside the sun, arguing that it could provide an almost limitless source of cheap, safe and clean electricity.
  • Unlike in existing fission reactors, which split plutonium or uranium atoms, there’s no risk of an uncontrolled chain reaction with fusion and it doesn’t produce long-lived radioactive waste.

Back2Basics: Nuclear Fusion

  • Nuclear fusion is the process of making a single heavy nucleus (part of an atom) from two lighter nuclei. This process is called a nuclear reaction.
  • The nucleus made by fusion is heavier than either of the starting nuclei. It releases a large amount of energy.
  • Fusion is what powers the sun. Atoms of Tritium and Deuterium (isotopes of hydrogen, Hydrogen-3 and Hydrogen-2, respectively) unite under extreme pressure and temperature to produce a neutron and a helium isotope.
  • Along with this, an enormous amount of energy is released, which is several times the amount produced by fission.
  • Scientists continue to work on controlling nuclear fusion in an effort to make a fusion reactor to produce electricity.

How it is different from nuclear fission?

  • Simply put, fission is the division of one atom into two (by neutron bombardment), and fusion is the combination of two lighter atoms into a larger one (at a very high temperature).
  • Nuclear fission takes place when a large, somewhat unstable isotope (atoms with the same number of protons but a different number of neutrons) is bombarded by high-speed particles, usually neutrons.

Nuclear Energy

Pokhran-II nuclear tests


From UPSC perspective, the following things are important :

Prelims level : NSG, NPT, Op Smiling Buddha

Mains level : India's nuclear policy

Yesterday, May 11 was celebrated as the National Technology Day. It marks the day on which India successfully test-fired its first nuclear bombs in 1998.

Practice question for mains

Q. India’s nuclear policy of ‘No First Use’ needs a revamp. Examine.

India and nuclear weapons

  • India is currently among eight countries in the world that have a publicly known nuclear weapons program.
  • At the time of our independence, leaders were opposed to fully embracing nuclear weapons.
  • Just two years before in 1945, the world had witnessed the horrific nuclear bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki.
  • Mahatma Gandhi called the use of nuclear weapons morally unacceptable.

Why India did equip itself with nuclear arms?

  • Then PM Jawaharlal Nehru was sceptical but kept the door open for future consideration.
  • This future beckoned early, as India’s defeat in the 1962 Sino-Indian War gave rise to legitimate fears about national security.
  • Then in 1974, India conducted its first nuclear test, codenamed “Smiling Buddha”, at Pokhran in Rajasthan.
  • Then-Prime Minister Indira Gandhi called the test a peaceful nuclear explosion.
  • India demonstrated to the world that the country could defend itself in an extreme situation and chose not to immediately weaponize the nuclear device it tested at Pokhran.

 The Pokhran II tests

  • India’s fence-sitting finally ended when it detonated another device in 1998, again at Pokhran.
  • Assigned the code name Operation Shakti, the mission was initiated on May 11, 1998.
  • The tests consisted of 5 detonations, the first being a fusion bomb while the remaining four were fission bombs.
  • One fusion and two fission bombs were tested on May 11, and two more fission bombs on May 13.
  • With the tests, India achieved its objective of building fission and thermonuclear weapons with yields up to 200 kilotons.


  • After Pokhran-II, Vajpayee had declared India a nuclear state — then the sixth country in the world to join this league.
  • Unlike in 1974, India had this time chosen to actively develop its nuclear capabilities, and the tests followed economic sanctions by the United States and Japan. The sanctions were later lifted.

Back2Basics: India’s nuclear programme

  • India started its own nuclear programme in 1944 when Homi Jehangir Bhabha founded the Tata Institute of Fundamental Research.
  • Physicist Raja Ramanna played an essential role in nuclear weapons technology research; he expanded and supervised scientific research on nuclear weapons and was the first directing officer of the small team of scientists that supervised and carried out the test.
  • After independence, PM Nehru authorised the development of a nuclear programme headed by Homi Bhabha.
  • The Atomic Energy Act of 1948 focused on peaceful development.
  • India was heavily involved in the development of the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty but ultimately opted not to sign it.
  • In 1954, two important infrastructure projects were commissioned. The first established Trombay Atomic Energy Establishment at Mumbai (Bombay). The other created a governmental secretariat, Department of Atomic Energy (DAE), of which Bhabha was the first secretary.

Nuclear Suppliers Group (NSG)

  • The NSG is a multilateral export control regime and a group of nuclear supplier countries that seek to prevent nuclear proliferation by controlling the export of materials, equipment and technology that can be used to manufacture nuclear weapons.
  • The NSG was founded in response to the Indian nuclear test in May 1974 and first met in November 1975.
  • It was solely aimed to deny advanced technology, and isolate and contain India.

Nuclear Energy

Dumping of Radioactive Nuclear Waste


From UPSC perspective, the following things are important :

Prelims level : Heavy Water

Mains level : Nuclear pollution

In a controversial move, Japan has decided to dump the radioactive heavy water from the Fukushima nuclear power plant into the Sea.  The dumping of nuclear waste is considered to be the easiest way to get rid of it.

What is Heavy Water?

  • Heavy water (deuterium oxide) is a form of water that contains a larger than normal amount of the hydrogen isotope deuterium rather than the common hydrogen that makes up most of the hydrogen in normal water.
  • Heavy water is used in certain types of nuclear reactors, where it acts as a neutron moderator to slow down neutrons.
  • Slowed neutrons are more likely to react with the fissile uranium-235 than with uranium-238 which captures neutrons without fissioning.

Where is Fukushima waste?

  • It is currently being stored in large tanks, but those are expected to be full by 2022.
  • Almost 1.2 million liters of radioactive water from the Fukushima nuclear power plant is to be released into the ocean.
  • The contaminated water has since been used to cool the destroyed reactor blocks to prevent further nuclear meltdowns.

Hazards of the nuclear contamination

  • Radioactive pollution in the ocean has been increasing globally — and not just since the disaster at Fukushima.
  • Radiation levels in the sea off Fukushima were millions of times higher than the government’s limit of 100 Becquerel.
  • A single Becquerel that gets into our body is enough to damage a cell that will eventually become a cancer cell.
  • Even the smallest possible dose, a photon passing through a cell nucleus, carries a cancer risk. Although this risk is extremely small, it is still a risk.

Who else dumped radioactive water into oceans?

The dumping of nuclear waste in drums was banned in 1993 by the London Convention on the Prevention of Marine Pollution. But discharging liquid contaminated with radiation into the ocean is still permitted internationally.

  • The lion’s share of dumped nuclear waste came from Britain and the Soviet Union, figures from the IAEA show.
  • By 1991, the US had dropped more than 90,000 barrels and at least 190,000 cubic meters of radioactive waste in the North Atlantic and Pacific.
  • To this day, around 90% of the radiation in the ocean comes from barrels discarded in the North Atlantic, most of which lie north of Russia or off the coast of Western Europe.

Nuclear Energy

Pushing the wrong energy buttons


From UPSC perspective, the following things are important :

Prelims level : Not much.

Mains level : Paper 3- Nuclear energy-issues involved.


For more than a decade, no major meeting between an Indian Prime Minister and a U.S. President has passed without a ritual reference to India’s promise made in 2008 to purchase American nuclear reactors.

Issues in the nuclear deal

  • Construction of reactors: During president Trumps visit techno-commercial offer for the construction of six nuclear reactors in India at the earliest date was considered.
  • More expensive: Indeed, it has been clear for years that electricity from American reactors would be more expensive than competing sources of energy.
  • Prone to disasters: Moreover, nuclear reactors can undergo serious accidents, as shown by the 2011 Fukushima disaster.
  • No liability for accidents: Westinghouse has insisted on a prior assurance that India would not hold it responsible for the consequences of a nuclear disaster.
    • Which is effectively an admission that it is unable to guarantee the safety of its reactors.

Who will be benefited from the deal?

  • The two beneficiaries: The main beneficiaries from India’s import of reactors would be Westinghouse and India’s atomic energy establishment that is struggling to retain its relevance given the rapid growth of renewables.
  • Political implications: Mr Trump has reasons to press for the sale too. His re-election campaign for the U.S. presidential election in November.
    • The election centrally involves the revival of U.S. manufacturing and he has been lobbied by several nuclear reactor vendors, including Westinghouse.
    • Finally, he also has a conflict-of-interest.

Comparisons with the renewables

  • The total cost of the reactors: The six reactors being offered to India by Westinghouse would cost almost ₹6 lakh crore.
    • If India purchases these reactors, the economic burden will fall upon consumers and taxpayers.
  • Per unit price: In 2013, it was estimated that even after reducing these prices by 30%, to account for lower construction costs in India, the first year tariff for electricity would be about ₹25 per unit.
  • Comparison with solar energy: Recent solar energy bids in India are around ₹3 per unit.
    • Lazard, the Wall Street firm, estimates that wind and solar energy costs have declined by around 70% to 90% in just the last 10 years and may decline further in the future.

Safety concern with nuclear energy

  • Long term cost in case of disasters: Nuclear power can also impose long-term costs.
    • Chernobyl accident: Large areas continue to be contaminated with radioactive materials from the 1986 Chernobyl accident and thousands of square kilometres remain closed off for human inhabitation.
    • Fukushima accident: Nearly a decade after the 2011 disaster, the Fukushima prefecture retains radioactive hotspots.
    • The cost of clean-up: the cost of clean-up has been variously estimated to range from $200-billion to over $600-billion.
  • No liability towards company: The Fukushima accident was partly caused by weaknesses in the General Electric company’s Mark I nuclear reactor design.
  • But that company paid nothing towards clean-up costs, or as compensation to the victims, due to an indemnity clause in Japanese law.
  • What are the provisions in Indian laws: Westinghouse wants a similar arrangement with India. Although the Indian liability law is heavily skewed towards manufacturers, it still does not completely indemnify them.
    • So nuclear vendors have tried to chip away at the law. Instead of resisting foreign suppliers, the Indian government has tacitly supported this process.

India’s experience with nuclear energy

  • Starting with the Tarapur 1 and 2 reactors, in Maharashtra, India’s experiences with imported reactors have been poor.
  • The Kudankulam 1 and 2 reactors, in Tamil Nadu, the only ones to have been imported and commissioned in the last decade, have been repeatedly shut down.
  • Producing less than capacity: In 2018-19, these reactors produced just 32% and 38%, respectively, of the electricity they were designed to produce.
  • These difficulties are illustrative of the dismal history of India’s nuclear establishment.
  • Electricity generation stagnant at 3%: In spite of its tall claims, the fraction of electricity generated by nuclear power in India has remained stagnant at about 3% for decades.


The above factors indicate that the government should take the rational decision on the adoption of nuclear energy given its cost and the risk involved and the better alternative available in the form of solar and other renewable energies.


Nuclear Energy

‘Core catcher’ in a nuclear plant


From UPSC perspective, the following things are important :

Prelims level : Core Catcher

Mains level : Nuclear energy and its hazards

The Moscow-based Rosatom State Corporation Engineering Division has installed a core melt localisation device (CMLD) or “core catcher” at Tamil Nadu’s Kudankulam Nuclear Power Plant (KKNPP).

What is the protective “core catcher” device?

  • Molten core material, or corium, is lava-like material that gets formed in the core of a nuclear reactor in the event of a meltdown accident.
  • Such an accident occurs when the nuclear fission reaction taking place inside a reactor is not sufficiently cooled, and the buildup of heat causes fuel rods to melt down.
  • The corium so formed can remain radioactive for several decades, even centuries.
  • In the past, meltdown accidents have occurred at Chernobyl in Russia in 1986 and at Fukushima in Japan in 2011.
  • The device has improved seismic resistance, hydro-dynamic and shock strength as well as equipped with flood protection and simplified installation and assembly technology.

Its construct

  • The core catcher is a cone shaped metal structure that weighs about 800 tonnes.
  • The structure is double walled, with the gap between the two walls filled with FAOG (ferric and aluminium oxide granules).
  • The core catcher is filled with a ceramic mixture also including ferric oxide and aluminium oxide, called ‘sacrificial material’.
  • The sacrificial material prevents the corium from trickling through and also acts as a cooling mechanism.


  • The core catcher device is installed at the bottom of the nuclear station’s protective shell.
  • It is designed to save the latter as well as exude radioactive emission in the environment in case of a serious accident.

Nuclear Energy

Akademik Lomonosov: Worlds first floating Nuclear Plant


From UPSC perspective, the following things are important :

Prelims level : About the reactor

Mains level : Protective measures against nuclear hazards

  • Recently, a Russian-built floating nuclear power plant completed its 5,000-km journey along the Northern Sea Route.
  • This has sparked fears among environmentalists over the safety of the Arctic region.

Akademik Lomonosov

  • The Akademik Lomonosov is a first-of-its-kind floating nuclear power station built in St Petersburg, the Russian port city on the Gulf of Finland.
  • Three tugboats pulled it from the northern port of Murmansk for 5,000 kilometres to Chukotka, in Russia’s far east.
  • Named after the 18th-century Russian scientist Mikhail Lomonosov, the 21,000-tonne floating plant is 144 m long and 30 m wide, and contains two nuclear reactors of 35 MW each.
  • It is a small plant compared to conventional land-based nuclear projects.
  • Run by the state-owned nuclear energy corporation Rosatom, it is expected to have a working life of 40 years.

Why such a plant

  • After it becomes operational next year, the plant will supply electricity to the Chukotka region, where important Russian national assets such as oil, gold, and coal reserves are located.
  • Some 50,000 people currently live in the area, and get their electricity from a coal power station and an ageing nuclear power plant.
  • The floating station would become the northernmost nuclear power project in the world.
  • Electricity supplied by floating power stations, without long-duration contracts or massive investments, is an option that island nations could consider.
  • Power from such small-sized plants can also be supplied to remote regions, as Russia plans to do.
  • Additionally, it is argued that nuclear power plants are a more climate-friendly option than coal-fired plants that emit greenhouse gases.

Fears and apprehensions

  • Environmental groups such as Greenpeace have criticised the project as a “Chernobyl on ice” and a “nuclear Titanic”.
  • Activists fear that any accident aboard the plant could cause great damage to the fragile Arctic region.
  • A recent nuclear accident in Russia after which there was a brief spike in radiation levels has added to the fears.
  • The radiation fallout from the Fukushima nuclear disaster in Japan is also cited as a reason to not rush into such projects.

Nuclear Energy

[pib] Indian Nuclear Insurance Pool


From UPSC perspective, the following things are important :

Prelims level : Nuclear Insurance Pool

Mains level : Protective measures against nuclear hazards

  • The Government has created an Indian Nuclear Insurance Pool (INIP) in June 2015, a union minister informed in Lok Sabha.

Indian Nuclear Insurance Pool

  • M/s. General Insurance Corporation of India (GIC-Re), along with several other Indian Insurance Companies, have launched the Indian Nuclear Insurance Pool (INIP) with a capacity of ₹1500 crore.
  • This aims to provide insurance to cover the liability against accidents as prescribed under Civil Liability for Nuclear Damage (CLND) Act, 2010.
  • This has addressed issues related to Civil Liability for Nuclear Damage (CLND) Act and had facilitated commencement of work in setting up new nuclear power projects.


Nuclear Power in India

  • The present nuclear power capacity is 6780 MW comprising of 22 reactors.
  • There are 9 reactors with a capacity of 6700 MW (including 500 MW PFBR being implemented by BHAVINI) under construction.
  • The Government in 2017 has also accorded administrative approval and financial sanction of 12 nuclear power plants totaling to a capacity of 9000 MW.
  • On their progressive completion, the installed nuclear capacity is expected to reach 8180 MW by 2020 and 22480 MW by 2031.

Nuclear Energy

[pib] Thorium-Based Nuclear Reactors


From UPSC perspective, the following things are important :

Prelims level : Thorium based reacter

Mains level : India’s Three Stage Nuclear Programme

  • Department of Atomic Energy (DAE) has planned the use of large deposits of Thorium available in the country as a long-term option.

Thorium-Based Nuclear Reactors

  • A three-stage nuclear power programme has been chalked out to use Thorium as a viable and sustainable option, right at the inception of India’s nuclear power programme.
  • The three stage nuclear power programme aims to multiply the domestically available fissile resource through the use of natural Uranium in Pressurized Heavy Water Reactors.
  • It is followed by the use of Plutonium obtained from the spent fuel of Pressurized Heavy Water Reactors in Fast Breeder Reactors.

Why Thorium?

  • The utilization of Thorium, as a practically inexhaustible energy source, has been contemplated during the third stage of the Indian Nuclear Programme.
  • As is the case with generation of electricity from Uranium, there will be no emission of green house gases from Thorium also and therefore, it will be a clean source of energy.
  • It is not possible to build a nuclear reactor using Thorium (Thorium-232) alone due to its physics characteristics.
  • Thorium has to be converted to Uranium-233 in a reactor before it can be used as fuel.


India’s Three Stage Nuclear Programme

  • India’s three-stage nuclear power programme was formulated by Homi Bhabha in the 1950s to secure the country’s long term energy independence, through the use of uranium and thorium reserves found in the monazite sands of coastal regions of South India.
  • The ultimate focus of the programme is on enabling the thorium reserves of India to be utilised in meeting the country’s energy requirements.
  • Thorium is particularly attractive for India, as it has only around 1–2% of the global uranium reserves, but one of the largest shares of global thorium reserves at about 25% of the world’s known thorium reserves.
  • However, thorium is more difficult to use than uranium as a fuel because it requires breeding, and global uranium prices remain low enough that breeding is unnecessary.

Stage I – Pressurized Heavy Water Reactor

  • In the first stage of the programme, natural uranium fueled pressurised heavy water reactors (PHWR) produce electricity while generating plutonium-239 as by-product.
  • PHWRs was a natural choice for implementing the first stage because it had the most efficient reactor design in terms of uranium utilisation, and the existing Indian infrastructure in the 1960s allowed for quick adoption of the PHWR technology.

Stage II – Fast Breeder Reactor

  • In the second stage, fast breeder reactors (FBRs) would use a mixed oxide (MOX) fuel made from plutonium-239, recovered by reprocessing spent fuel from the first stage, and natural uranium.
  • In FBRs, plutonium-239 undergoes fission to produce energy, while the uranium-238 present in the mixed oxide fuel transmutes to additional plutonium-239.
  • Thus, the Stage II FBRs are designed to “breed” more fuel than they consume.

Stage III – Thorium Based Reactors

  • A Stage III reactor or an advanced nuclear power system involves a self-sustaining series of thorium-232–uranium-233 fuelled reactors.
  • This would be a thermal breeder reactor, which in principle can be refueled after its initial fuel charge – using only naturally occurring thorium.
  • According to the three-stage programme, Indian nuclear energy could grow to about 10 GW through PHWRs fueled by domestic uranium, and the growth above that would have to come from FBRs till about 50GW.
  • The third stage is to be deployed only after this capacity has been achieved. Full exploitation of India’s domestic thorium reserves will likely not occur until after the year 2050.

Nuclear Energy

[op-ed snap] Jaitapur: A risky and expensive project


Mains Paper 3: Economy| Infrastructure: Energy, Ports, Roads, Airports, Railways etc.

From UPSC perspective, the following things are important:

Prelims level: Basics of nuclear technology, AERB,IAEA, Indian nuclear Programme.

Mains level: The newscard discusses issues and challenges of EPR in a brief manner.


  1. The idea of nlems, in the past few months, the Modi government has taken several high-level steps towards actuating the project.


  1. Nuclear energy is undoubtedly most controversial, yet critical part for India’s future energy security. As we know India’s annual energy demand is expected to rise to 800 GW by 2032, it is very important to consider every source of energy in the optimum energy mix.
  2. Jaitapur Nuclear Power Project is a proposed 9900 Megawatt project of Nuclear Power Corporation of India (NPCIL) at Madban village of Ratnagiri district in Maharashtra. If and when completed, Jaitapur “will be the largest nuclear power plant in the world”.


  1. An impact assessment report by the Tata Institute of Social Sciences (TISS) has strongly criticized the nuclear power plant being proposed at Jaitapur in the Konkan region.
  2. The report has indicated that the project – which requires about 968 hectares of land panning five villages – will have a huge negative impact on the social as well as environmental development of not just these villages and the surrounding areas, but also on the Konkan region in general.
  3. The findings suggest that the government subverted facts and called fertile agricultural land barren. It also says that the Jaitapur project is sitting on a high to moderate severity earthquake zone.


  1. The urgency is inexplicable as it comes before the techno-commercial offer has been examined and as earlier questions about costs and safety remain unanswered.
  2. Moreover, with the Indian power sector facing surplus capacity and a crisis of non-performing assets (NPAs), a large investment in the Jaitapur project is particularly risky.


  1. It is clear that electricity from the Jaitapur project will be more expensive than many other sources of electricity, including solar and wind power.
  2. Using international estimates of capital costs for EPRs from the 2010-2012 period, it is argued that first year tariffs would be around 15 per kilowatt-hour.

Delays and cost overrun

  1. Across the world, EPRs have experienced delays and cost increases. For instance, the first EPR entered commercial operation in December 2018 at the Taishan site in China, five years later than originally projected.
  2. Its final capital cost was estimated by industry sources to be “40% over the original estimate

High capital cost and NPA

  1. The high capital costs of the EPRs are of particular concern because power-generating capacity in India has grown faster than demand causing projects to run into financial difficulties.
  2. In March 2018, the parliamentary standing committee on energy listed 34 “stressed” projects, including NPAs and “those which have the potential to become NPAs”, with a cumulative outstanding debt of 1.74 lakh crore.
  3. The NPCIL’s debts would ultimately be underwritten by the Indian government, if the project encounters financial difficulties, the costs would fall on Indian taxpayers.

Safety problems

  1. Safety problems with the reactor design and construction have emerged in several EPRs. The most serious of these pertained to the pressure vessel, which is the key barrier that prevents the spread of radioactive materials from the reactor.
  2. For instance, the EPR at Olkiluoto in Finland encountered problems with vibrations in the pipe that connects the primary coolant system with the pressuriser, which maintains the pressure of the water circulating in the reactor.

Indian nuclear Liability law issue

  1. The safety concerns are exacerbated by India’s flawed nuclear liability law. In the event of an accident, the nuclear liability law would require the public sector NPCIL to compensate victims and pay for clean-up, while largely absolving EDF of responsibility.
  2. Further, the Indian law provides NPCIL with a limited opportunity to obtain compensation from the French company Électricité de France (EDF) for the “supply of equipment… with… defects… or sub-standard services”.
  3. The “enforcement of India’s rules” in accordance with the international Convention on Supplementary Compensation for nuclear damage, which severely limits the operator’s (NPCIL) right of recourse, i.e. not to exercise its right to claim compensation from EDF as allowed by Indian law.
  4. Thus, thereby EDF can escape with limited or no consequences even after a severe accident, having little material incentive to maintain the highest safety standards, particularly if the requirements of safety come into conflict with the imperative to lower costs.

Data secrecy

  • There is little public data about the EPRs being built in China, but these prices are consistent with those proposed for EPRs in Britain and indicate that each Indian reactor may cost as much as Rs. 60,000 crore.

Way forward

  1. Nuclear energy, though is critical for India’s energy security but is not panacea for the problem. People of India have right to have safe and sustainable energy.
  2. So future development should depend upon cost benefit analysis taking into account all the externalities involved in various components of energy mix.
  3. If this is done, it is most likely that policy will get incline strongly in favor of non-conventional sources of energy that is solar, wind and biomass.


Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR)

  • The PWR uses regular water as a coolant.
  • The primary cooling water is kept at very high pressure so it does not boil.
  • Pressurized water reactors (PWRs) constitute the large majority of all Western nuclear power plants.
  • In a PWR, the primary coolant (water) is pumped under high pressure to the reactor core where it is heated by the energy generated by the fission of atoms.
  • The heated water then flows to a steam generator where it transfers its thermal energy to a secondary system where steam is generated and flows to turbines which, in turn, spin an electric generator.
  • In contrast to a boiling water reactor, pressure in the primary coolant loop prevents the water from boiling within the reactor.
  • PWRs were originally designed to serve as nuclear marine propulsion for nuclear submarines.

Nuclear Energy

27th Fusion Energy Conference begins in Gandhinagar

Image result for 27th Fusion Energy Conference begins in Gandhinagar


Mains Paper 2: IR | Important International institutions, agencies & fora, their structure, mandate

From UPSC perspective, the following things are important:

Prelims level: FEC 2018, Nuclear Fusion Reaction

Mains level: International cooperation in the fields peaceful use of nuclear energy.



  • The 27th Fusion Energy Conference (FEC 2018) is being held in Gandhinagar, Gujarat.

FEC 2018

  1. The event is organised by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and hosted by the Department of Atomic Energy and Gandhinagar-based Institute of Plasma Research.
  2. It aims to provide a forum for the discussion of key physics and technology issues as well as innovative concepts of direct relevance to the use of nuclear fusion as a source of energy.
  3. Experts from across the world will discuss the new challenges being faced by the fusion community in the light of a number of next-step fusion devices being implemented currently.
  4. Scientists across the world are collaborating to use nuclear fusion, the reaction that powers the Sun and the stars, as source energy.
  5. The conference will also set these results against the backdrop of the requirements for a net energy producing fusion device and a fusion power plant in general, and will thus help in defining the way forward.


Nuclear Fusion

Everything that you need to know about recent advances in Nuclear Fusion

Nuclear Energy

India’s first indigenously developed fast breeder reactor at Kalpakkam may achieve criticality in 2019


Mains Paper 3: Economy | Infrastructure: Energy, Ports, Roads, Airports, Railways etc.

From UPSC perspective, the following things are important:

Prelims level: PFBR

Mains level: India’s bid for cleaner energy.


Maiden PFBR

  1. The country’s first indigenously developed 500-megawatt (mw) prototype fast breeder reactor at Kalpakkam in Tamil Nadu is expected to achieve criticality next year.
  2. The indigenously developed prototype fast breeder reactor of 500 mw is now undergoing sodium commissioning.
  3. Achieving criticality means that the reactor is fully operational and safe.

About Prototype Fast Breeder Reactor (PFBR)

  1. The Kalpakkam PFBR is using uranium-238 not thorium, to breed new fissile material, in a sodium-cooled fast reactor design.
  2. The power island of this project is being engineered by Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited, largest power equipment utility of India.
  3. The surplus plutonium (or uranium-233 for thorium reactors) from each fast reactor can be used to set up more such reactors and grow the nuclear capacity in tune with India’s needs for power.
  4. India has the capability to use thorium cycle based processes to extract nuclear fuel.
  5. This is of special significance to the Indian nuclear power generation strategy as India has one of the world’s largest reserves of thorium, which could provide power for more than 10,000 year.
  6. Bharatiya Nabhikiya Vidyut Nigam (Bhavini), a public sector company under DAE, has been given the responsibility to build the fast breeder reactors in the country.

Nuclear Energy

India puts four more nuclear facilities under IAEA safeguards


Mains Paper 2: IR | Important International institutions, agencies & fora, their structure, mandate

From UPSC perspective, the following things are important:

Prelims level: IAEA

Mains level: India’s role in maintaining nuclear safeguards to a global standards.


More reactors under global watchdog

  1. India has decided to place four more reactors under the IAEA safeguards.
  2. Accordingly, two Russian-designed Pressurized Light Water Reactors and two Pressurized Heavy Reactors being built with Indian technology will be covered.
  3. With this, a total of 26 Indian nuclear facilities will be under the international nuclear energy watchdog.

International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Safeguards

  1. These are a system of inspection and verification of the peaceful uses of nuclear materials as part of the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT), supervised by the International Atomic Energy Agency.
  2. It also contributes to nuclear arms control and disarmament, by responding to requests for verification and technical assistance associated with related agreements and arrangements.
  3. The Divisions of Operations are organized as follows:
  • Operations A: conducting safeguards inspections in East Asia and Australasia
  • Operations B: conducting safeguards inspections in the Middle East (Southwest Asia), South Asia, Africa and the Americas; this geographic region also includes non-EU European states
  • Operations C: conducting safeguards inspection in the European Union states, Russia and Central Asia
  • Operations for verification in Iranian Nuclear Deal.

Nuclear Energy

Give atomic regulator legal teeth: IAEA

  1. IAEA recommended that the AERB review the implementation of its policies and existing arrangements to ensure its independence as a regulator.
  2. IAEA has said that in order to ensure the independence of the regulatory body is clear and transparent
  3. Government should strengthen the legislative framework by creating in law the AERB, as a regulatory body separated from entities having responsibilities or interests that could unduly influence its decision making.

The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has suggested the government embed in law the Atomic Energy Regulatory Board (AERB) as an independent regulatory body.

  1. IAEA recommended that the AERB review the implementation of its policies and existing arrangements to ensure its independence as a regulator.
  2. IAEA has said that in order to ensure the independence of the regulatory body is clear and transparent
  3. Government should strengthen the legislative framework by creating in law the AERB, as a regulatory body separated from entities having responsibilities or interests that could unduly influence its decision making.

Nuclear Energy

AERB is working on a strategy to segregate high-level radioactive waste

  1. In India, we recycle the spent fuel and process the plutonium and other material and reuse them.
  2. The remaining radioactive waste, mainly the actinides, is vitrified and stored at safe storage.
  3. Work is going on further segregating these minor actinides which are responsible for the longer shelf life of the radioactive waste.
  1. In India, we recycle the spent fuel and process the plutonium and other material and reuse them.
  2. The remaining radioactive waste, mainly the actinides, is vitrified and stored at safe storage.
  3. Work is going on further segregating these minor actinides which are responsible for the longer shelf life of the radioactive waste.

Nuclear Energy

IAEA: Separate AERB from other entities

  1. After a 12-day review, IAEA recommended that AERB (Atomic Energy Regulatory Board) should be made an independent statutory body.
  2. In its current form, the head of the AERB reports to the Atomic Energy Commission, which incidentally is headed by the chairman of the Department of Atomic Energy.
  3. Following the Fukushima disaster, a bill to set up an independent Nuclear Safety Regulatory Authority (NSRA) was introduced in the Lok Sabha in 2011.
  4. It was not passed, and it lapsed in 2014 after the dissolution of the Lok Sabha.

Nuclear Energy

AERB to enhance regulation of diagnostic x-ray facilities

  1. AERB has taken up the matter with the State Governments / Union Territories for formation of State level Directorates of Radiation Safety (DRS).
  2. These would work under the Health & Family Welfare Department of the respective State Governments/Union Territories.

Nuclear Energy

Lessons from Japan for India on Nuclear Energy

  1. For many in Tokyo, a disaster caused largely by a tsunami triggered by an earthquake in 2011 opened a can of worms over how the government regulated its nuclear backyard.
  2. News reports opined that the lack of proper autonomy of Japan’s nuclear regulator curbed its effectiveness.
  3. Japan’s ministry of economy, trade and industry regulates the nuclear power industry, and also promotes nuclear technology. These two aims work at cross-purposes.
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