Central Government’s largest-ever sanitation programme, has been subdivided into Urban and Rural components. The principal resolve of the Mission is to make India open defection free by October 2, 2019- Mahatma Gandhi’s 150th birth anniversary. It has 8 objectives and 5 components.

The 8 objectives are –

(i) Eliminate open defecation,

(ii) Conversion of insanitary toilets to pour flush toilets,

(iii) Eradication of manual scavenging,

(iv) 100% collection and scientific processing/disposal reuse/recycle of Municipal Solid Waste,

(v) To bring about a behavioral change in people regarding healthy sanitation practices,

(vi) Generate awareness among the citizens about sanitation and its linkages with public health.

(vii) Strengthening of urban local bodies to design, execute and operate systems,

(viii) To create enabling environment for private sector participation in Capital Expenditure and Operation & Maintenance (O&M) costs.

The 5 components are –

(i) Construction of Household Toilets,

(ii) Community and Public Toilets,

(iii) Solid Waste Management,

(iv) Information, Education & Communication (IEC) and Public Awareness,

(v) Capacity Building and Administrative & Office Expenses (A&OE).

 

Any doubts?


  1. Profile photo of Vishal Kadam Vishal Kadam

    Considering BIG PICTURE, Swachh Bharat Abhiyan should be linked with Ministry of Tourism,similar to Ministry of Power which is willing to apply New tariff policy.

  2. Profile photo of Srinath Sundareswaran Srinath Sundareswaran

    Actually engaging at the ground level is the only way to get rid of open defecation.
    Engaging these former saperas (snake charmers) in an informal chat, Upendra Singh, a Haryana government sanitation consultant, is blunt: “Do you realise you are eating each other’s excreta?” It is not a charming question. Sensing their discomfort, Upendra rolls out a chart paper and scribbles an equation. It has a telling impact. “A person defecates 500 gm daily. Your village of 3,000 people piles up 1.5 tonne of excreta every day. It is a big health problem,” he explains.”
    http://www.downtoearth.org.in/coverage/mission-possible-43249

    1. Profile photo of Rohit Pande Rohit Pande

      I used to wonder about the comparison between BDesh and Us. Having being told that they actually sped fast on bridging the gap, here’s the reason why!

      http://blogs.bmj.com/bmj/2014/09/23/jocalyn-clark-why-has-bangladesh-had-such-success-in-improving-sanitation-but-not-neighboring-india/

      1. Profile photo of Arun Muradnar Arun Muradnar

        Indeed, but Did we consider other factors such as population density and vast geographical area, in tackling ODF India?

        1. Profile photo of Rohit Pande Rohit Pande

          Makes sense. Then we should be comparing it west Bengal – Similar demographics etc.

          1. Profile photo of Rohit Pande Rohit Pande

            Not just that – WB has a lot of ethnic similarities with Bdesh population. In that case we will be able to identify why a policy had a fallout here vs. there

          2. Profile photo of Arun Muradnar Arun Muradnar

            Yes, Uttar Pradesh can be compared, as it having 204 million population against Bangladesh’s 156.6 million.
            West bengal stands to around 90.32 million.
            Let’s see, how Nadia,churu,bikaner,Jharkhand models will show their effectiveness in other parts specially most populous by density (Bihar,West Bengal and Delhi as a UT)

      1. Profile photo of Srinath Sundareswaran Srinath Sundareswaran

        Thanks for the link Arun

    2. Profile photo of Arun Muradnar Arun Muradnar

      Yes Actually, there are some workable models which needs to be reflected widely.
      One is West Bengal’s Nadia campaign, known as “Sabar Souchagar” (toilets for all) was an entirely community-driven idea.
      Its the best example of how community and integration of schemes had worked in such big campaign.
      Another best model is Rajasthan’s Banka Bikano (brave and beautiful Bikaner) campaign in Bikaner have succeed in ODF.

      From a gender perspective, a more participative approach with women at the forefront can turn things around.

      So,community participation in making change of perception is need of hour in each village.
      Because, Churu,Bikaner models can only reflect in other states if their community positively approached to such change.

[op-ed snap] South Delhi civic body to mandate public use of private restaurant toilets, but this poses complications

Context:

  1. As a part of its efforts to boost the Swachh Bharat campaign, the BJP led South Delhi Municipal corporation has initiated steps to make about 3,500 toilets located within private hotels, restaurants or holders of health trade license falling within its purview, accessible to the general public starting April 1
  2. The establishment owners have been permitted to levy a charge up to Rs 5 per usage at their discretion, for the upkeep and maintenance of cleanliness

Weighing the scales:

  1. It is a good move to make more loos available
  2. However, it sounds like a cop-out on the part of the civic body’s responsibility to provide and maintain these public facilities, especially for women
  3. They are forcibly inducting private establishments into share their premises and facilities with the general public
  4. With a starting budgetary allocation of Rs 650 crores for the purpose of improving sanitation, this SDMC move for facility access improvement is somewhat surprising
  5. Restaurants and most health-license holding establishments have a fixed timing as to when they are open and closed to external admissions

What do restaurants think?

  1. Riyaaz Amlani, CEO of Impresario Entertainment & Hospitality Pvt Ltd and president of the National Restaurant Association of India, expressed concerns over what he called a possible violation of a restaurant’s right of admission and security
  2. A number of these establishments often do not refuse persons in emergency from using their toilets
  3. This suggests that this is unlikely to be a de facto solution to the acute shortage of public facilities where they are most required — for instance crowded marketplaces, religious places, bus stops and tourist attraction spots
  4. Most of us have seen inundation of restaurants with loos with people in vicinity areas of public places which tends to happen even without a municipality mandate

The reality:

  1. Indian continues to remain a ground zero of world sanitation activism due to the poor availability of toilets in households as well as public spaces
  2. Poor maintenance of the existing facilities is also an issue due to which many people prefer to relieve themselves in cleaner areas outside — which is again not an option for women
  3. A scheme to mandate private establishments to open their loos in order to ‘improve’ access to facilities should be taken as a supplementary and temporary relief at most and not as an alternative to building public works.

Note4Students:

It can be one of the points for a mains answer on Swachh Bharat, sanitation issues.

School kids undertake campaign to make Jabalpur a clean city

  1. Nearly 53,000 school-going children in Madhya Pradesh’s Jabalpur district have come forward to promote cleanliness and civic sense among elders
  2. These children have become members of the Jabalpur Municipal Corporation’s City Guardian Club (CGC) and have undertaken a ‘Roko-Toko’ campaign
  3. Under this, with folded hands, they request their elders and family members to keep off from littering and wasting water and electricity

Note4students:

Just know the name ‘Roko-Toko campaign’. This can be quoted as an example of community based initiative to promote cleanliness.

Vizag emerges as model city in sanitation

  1. What: Under the USAID-sponsored Water and Sanitation for Urban Poor Advisory (WSUP), Visakhapatnam will be made a model city so that other cities learn from its experience and emulate its achievements
  2. As a part of an MoU between the Indian and the U.S. governments, USAID through WSUP is rolling out assistance for efficient Swachh Bharat Mission (Urban)
  3. The support is being delivered at the national and State-level to the Ministries of Urban Development and at the project management unit level
  4. Visakhapatnam is the only city in the country to have been selected for city-level support under knowledge partnership through WSUP

 

U.S. researcher ties higher incidents of rape in India to open defecation

  1. Source: US researcher looking at Indian National Family Health Survey data
  2. Findings: Women who use open defecation have twice the odds of non-partner sexual violence (NPSV) than women who use household toilets
  3. Infrastructure improvements can provide women with some level of protection
  4. There have been several nationwide campaigns in India to improve sanitation, most recently the Swachh Bharat Mission
  5. According to the study, at least 50% of structures built for sanitation purposes in India remain unused or are used for other purposes
  6. Almost half-a-billion Indians defecate in the open and about 300 million women and girls in India have no access to bathrooms

‘43 per cent of rural population defecate in the open’

  1. Source: Minister of State for Drinking Water and Sanitation Ramesh Jigajinagi in a written reply to Lok Sabha
  2. As per a report published in 2015, 59.43% of the world population defecating in the open live in India
  3. Nearly 43% of India’s rural population defecate in the open
  4. Poverty and lack of infrastructure are some of the major reasons behind poor sanitation
  5. However, sanitation is primarily a behavioural issue
  6. It involves change of mindset amongst people to stop open defecation and to adopt safe sanitation practices
  7. The Centre had launched the Swachh Bharat Mission on Oct 2, 2014, which aims at an attaining clean India by Oct 2019

[op-ed snap] Taking the road less dusty

  1. Theme: Analysing the issues with implementation of Swachh Bharat Mission (SBM).
  2. Issues: The methodology adopted to collect data for the Swachh Survekshan Report is not credible- it does not accurately capture behavioural tendencies of individuals.
  3. The result is lack of credible data on how many people defecate in the open.
  4. Most of the money allocated for SBM is being spent on latrine construction, and very little amount is spent on behaviour-change activitiese. information, education, and communication (IEC).
  5. Policymakers need to change people’s behaviour by tackling the casteism and norms of purity and pollution that cause open defecation to persist e.g. latrines promoted by the government require periodic manual pit emptying, which many rural Indians associate with the Dalits.
  6. Also, little attention paid to IEC activities translates into very low awareness of the goals of the SBM.

Modi moots ‘Swacchagraha’

  1. PM Modi: Re-use and recycling of waste should be technology driven
  2. Insisted that there should a focus on the concept of waste to wealth so that revenue models could be developed around cleanliness
  3. Waste to wealth: Garbage can be used as a means to create employment and wealth by recycling and then, cleanliness will become a by-product
  4. Swachhagraha: An initiative for cleanliness to get the country dirt-free on the lines of Mahatma Gandhi’s ‘Satyagraha’ that freed us from British rule
  5. ‘Cleanliness is not something to be achieved by budget allocations; It is rather, something that should become a mass movement’

Sikkim’s clean villages make it the kingdom of Swachh- II

  1. Anomaly: Kerala, which leads in overall household toilet coverage as per Swachh Bharat surveys, is in the list with only 19.92%
  2. How? This indicates that declarations play a role in the overall assessment
  3. Besides these, the other States identified by the Mission trail the rest with lower coverage
  4. ODF: The Ministry of Drinking Water and Sanitation defines ODF as ‘the termination of faecal-oral transmission, defined by no visible faeces found in the environment/ village and every household as well as public/community institution using safe technology option for disposal of faeces’

Sikkim’s clean villages make it the kingdom of Swachh- I

  1. Sikkim (100%) and Himachal Pradesh (55.95%) have the maximum percentage of villages that are ‘Open Defecation Free’ according to the criteria of the Swachh Bharat Mission
  2. Other better performing States with village-level achievements are Haryana, Meghalaya, Gujarat, Maharashtra, Chhattisgarh & Rajasthan
  3. The total number of districts declared ODF in the country stand at 23
  4. Background: Three cities in Karnataka, coastal Mangaluru, Udupi and Mysuru, were declared ODF recently

Government to organise Swachh Bharat Week from Sep 25

  1. Swachh Bharat Week: As part of the Swachh Bharat Mission, across the country
  2. To celebrate the second anniversary of Swachh Bharat Mission which was launched on October 2, 2014
  3. As part of the initiative, the Ministry of Urban Development and Ministry of Drinking Water and Sanitation will also organise a day-long India Sanitation Conference (INDOSAN-2016)

Sikkim sparkles in NSSO sanitation survey

  1. Source: The survey carried out last year by the National Sample Survey Office (NSSO)
  2. The ranking is given on the basis of percentage of households having access to sanitary toilets and using them (either household or community toilets)
  3. Top 10: Sikkim, Kerala, Mizoram, Himachal Pradesh, Nagaland, Haryana, Punjab, Uttarakhand, Manipur and Meghalaya
  4. Bottom 10: Jharkhand, Chhattisgarh, Odisha, Madhya Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, Rajasthan, Tamil Nadu, Karnataka and Jammu and Kashmir

Asali Tarakki campaign for Swachh Bharat Mission

  1. Asali Tarakki: Real Development
  2. Aim: Sanitising six cities of the National Capital Region (NCR)
  3. It will be replicated in other States if it succeeds
  4. About 450 young men and women with communication skills and leadership qualities have been selected as lead motivators
  5. They will spread awareness on Swachh Bharat Mission

Most of rural India still opts for open defecation: NSS report

  1. Source: Swachhta Status Report by the National Sample Survey (NSS) Office to track Govt’s flagship programme, Swachh Bharat Abhiyan
  2. Defecation: 52.1% of people in rural India choose open defecation compared to 7.5% in urban India
  3. Sanitary toilets: 45.3% rural households reported having it, while in urban areas, the figure stands at 88.8%
  4. Community toilets: 13.1% of the villages and 42% urban wards have community toilets and there is problem with their not being used and not being cleaned
  5. Water: While 87.9% of the urban households were found to have access to water for use in toilets, only 42.5% rural households had this facility
  6. Progress: Since the launch of Swachh Bharat Mission (Gramin) on October 2, 2014 there was an improvement of 8.12% in number of rural households having toilets, with 50.17% rural households covered as of February 2016

Dignity and Self-Respect: a new mantra for Swachh Bharat Mission- II

  1. Context: Tata Institute of Social Sciences’ (TISS) report to the Ministry of Urban Development, made after holding public consultations
  2. A statutory National Council for Sanitation should be set up for robust governance and implementation
  3. It will have representation from civil society, academia, technocrats, policy makers, government officials and other stakeholders
  4. The Council can suggest required legal reforms to enhance functioning of the Mission besides promoting evidence based policy making

Dignity and Self-Respect: a new mantra for Swachh Bharat Mission- I

  1. Context: Tata Institute of Social Sciences’ (TISS) report to the Ministry of Urban Development, made after holding public consultations
  2. Paradigm shift: Encouraging technocrat approach to make the cleanliness mission a success
  3. Need: Total sanitation and focusing on making the urban poor move away from a life of denial and indignity to one filled with opportunities and dignity
  4. Long term association between the Govts and specialists including ad agencies and behavioral scientists for clearly articulating the real value of sanitation

Trekkers should take back trash from forests

  1. News: As part of a Swachh Bharat Mission drive, the Centre has decided to remove garbage bins from 10 prominent wildlife parks
  2. Issue: Visitors were observed to drop litter around garbage bins, inviting animals and thus worsening the man-animal conflict
  3. Alternative: Visitors should carry a jute bag and carry their litter home
  4. Plans are also on to sensitise visitors that could help in keeping the parks clean
  5. Aim: To ensure cleanliness and to reduce man-animal conflict

Centre deploys sanitation messengers nationwide

  1. Context: The Ministry of Urban Development has deployed Swachh Dhoots (sanitation messengers)
  2. Aim: To boost its campaign against open defecation
    This has been widely spotted in low-income urban centres
  3. Background: In early March, the Ministry asked the urban local bodies of 75 cities to build self-help groups in every municipality
  4. These included ASHA workers and were to be sent to the neighbourhoods where open defecation is a norm
  5. Of these teams, Swachh Dhoots would be chosen to turn the campaign into a hyper-local one
  6. Idea: To make people anxious about and disgusted at excreting in public spaces

More than half rural India still opts for open defecation: NSSO

  1. Context: Swachhta Status Report by the National Sample Survey (NSS) Office
  2. Defecation: 52.1% of people in rural India choose open defecation compared to 7.5% in urban
  3. Toilets: 45.3% rural households reported having a sanitary toilet, while it is 88.8% in urban areas
  4. The lowest of such percentage is in Jharkhand (18.8%), Chhattisgarh & Odisha and the highest in Sikkim (98.2%), Kerala & Mizoram
  5. Community: 13.1% villages and 42% urban wards have community toilets but at some places they are not used or cleaned
  6. Why? Main reason for open defecation is behaviour and mindset of the people who have continued the practice for centuries
  7. Adequate availability of water for toilets is also a concern

Over one crore toilets built, but Swachh Bharat still a pipedream

  1. Context: Latest study by the National Sample Survey Organisation
  2. News: Over 1.09 crore toilets were built across the country in the first 11 months of 2015-16 but a majority of people in rural areas did not choose to use them
  3. In urban areas the use of toilets was more prevalent and only 7.5% of the people went for open defecation
  4. Challenge: The lack of toilets in schools also hampers the education of many children, especially girl students
  5. Criticism: The rapid survey also revealed that lack of infrastructure for drainage and disposal of waste

Govt. to focus on Swachh Bharat on second anniversary

  1. News: Govt will mark its second anniversary with all the Ministries taking mass pledges on the Swachh Bharat portal on May 26
  2. Draft Plan: Govt has drafted a detailed plan for every day of 2016-17 with different themes every fortnight
  3. First Cleanliness Drive: Beginning on April 1, will target slum areas and discourage them from manual scavenging, in a bid to mark Ambedkar Jayanti on April 14
  4. Relevance: Citizens will be asked to “voluntarily” put ‘friendship bands’ on municipal workers serving in their area, as a part of the plan
  5. Sports personalities, who are Swachh Bharat ambassadors, will hold special drives on National Sports Day on August 29

1000 toilets to be installed in slums around railway stations

  1. Context: Union Urban Development Ministry has taken initiative to install 1000 toilets
  2. Where? In the market places, slums areas around railway stations in the state capitals
  3. Why? To make it open defecation free
  4. CSR: These toilets were contributed by Parryware, as part of its corporate social responsibility on the occasion of the Women’s Day

Swachh Survekshan -2016 – ranks of 73 cities

  1. Context: 73 cities surveyed for cleanliness have been categorized based on the marks scored by each of them in the ‘Swachh Survekshan- 2016’ survey
  2. Category: 15 cities who scored more than 70% of the total marks of 2000 were categorized as Leaders
  3. 20 cities with scores in the range of 60%-70% are Aspiring Leaders
  4. Range of 50%-60% are the cities who need to accelerate their efforts
  5. Range below 50% are named Slow Movers who need to work harder to improve santiation
  6. Top Rank Cities: Mysuru, Chadigarh, Tiruchirapalli, New Delhi Municipal council, Visakhapatnam
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Centre may bring law to penalise littering: Venkaiah

  1. Context: Swachh Bharat Mission
  2. The news: The Centre may consider bringing in legislation for imposing fines on those littering in public places
  3. Reason: The govt is providing funds for construction of toilets in every house, and improving infrastructure for solid waste management
  4. When? – Once the basic infrastructure is in place
  5. Model: In Singapore, hefty fines are imposed for spitting and throwing waste by the roadside

Ministry of Shipping initiates Project Green Port

  1. The Ministry of Shipping has started ‘Project Green Ports’ which will help in making the major ports across India cleaner and greener.
  2. Project Green Ports will have 2 verticals – Green Ports Initiatives’ related to environmental issues and Swachh Bharat Abhiyaan.
  3. The Green Port Initiatives include sewage/waste water treatment plants, energy generation from renewable energy sources, prohibition of disposal at sea, improving the quality of harbour wastes etc.
  4. Under Swachh Bharat Abhiyaan, it has identified few activities with certain time-line to promote cleanliness at the port premises.
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75 cities to be ranked on sanitation under Swachh Bharat Mission

Swachh Survekshan is the very first survey commissioned by MoUD since the launch of Swachh Bharat Mission.

  1. The Ministry of Urban Development has decided to study and rank 75 cities under the mission “Swachh Survekshan”.
  2. The assessment will be based on sanitation and cleanliness, while also co-opting the public to give its feedback.
  3. It involves three streams of data collection – citizen feedback, municipality self-evaluation and independent assessment.
  4. The task of executing the mission has been entrusted with the Quality Council of India.

Now, 0.5% cess on services to support Swachh Bharat

Proceeds from this cess will be exclusively used for Swachh Bharat initiatives.

  1. Government imposed two new levies, a 0.5 per cent Swachh Bharat Cess on all services, now liable to service tax.
  2. A 2 per cent regional connectivity cess on international air travel and flights between metros and big cities.
  3. Decision will increase the service tax outgo on insurance premiums, air fares and cell phone bills.
  4. Cess for the creation of the Regional connectivity fund (RCF) corpus will be levied to enable the regional connectivity scheme.
  5. Scheme provides for viability gap funding (VGF) for operating small aircraft to small towns.

New Tariff Policy to Support Swachh Bharat Abhiyan

  1. Government will make it compulsory for power plants located within the radius of 100 kms of the city.
  2. To use processed waste water and release clean water for drinking purpose in the vicinity.
  3. New policy will make it compulsory for the local power distribution companies to buy electricity generated from the waste.
  4. These measures will give a push to Government’s Swachh Bharat Abhiyan.
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Panel for fuel cess to fund Swachh Bharat

Recommended the levy of a cess on petrol, diesel and telecom services to finance the Swachh Bharat mission.

  1. The high-level NITI Ayog chief ministers’ sub-group on Swachh Bharat was headed by Andhra Pradesh chief minister N. Chandrababu Naidu.
  2. Centre should bear 75% of the entire cost of the mission, with the states contributing 25%, in the case of under-developed hill states, the ratio would be 90:10.
  3. The panel proposed a cess on accumulated waste produced by mineral waste generation plants like coal, aluminium and iron ore to fund the programme.
  4. The report made a case for issuance of Swachh Bharat bonds to raise resources for the programme which seeks to eliminate open defecation by 2019.
  5. The panel suggested the formulation of a tariff policy for power generated from waste-to-energy plants.

Whose Campaign?

Swachh Bharat needs everyone to want a toilet and use it all the time.

SwachaBharat


How can rural sanitation really take off?

  • The stories of missing and badly constructed toilets, of toilets not being used or used as stores.
  • Some only being used by some in the family or some of the time, of people preferring open defecation and considering it healthier, are endless.

Why do people prefer open defecation and not want toilets or, if they have them, only use them some of the time?

  • Recent research has shown two critical elements: ideas of purity and pollution, and not wanting pits or septic tanks to fill because then they have to be emptied.
  • People have to perceive toilet use and pit-emptying as clean and not polluting.

From recent research,What really need to learn?

  • Collective behaviour change, as in the Swachh Bharat guidelines, is the only way forward. For that, social norms have to change.

How could such a radical, convulsive switch be brought about widely?

  • A precondition is inspired and committed leadership, as well as champions and sustained campaigns in which all citizens and organisations are engaged.
  • The first major thrust is to focus on pit-emptying, encouraging entrepreneurs and a market, as in Bangladesh, for pits of all sorts.
  • Where twin pits, with their advantages over septic tanks, are standard, let leadership be dramatic.
  • The second thrust is brutal, In meetings, posters, and all media, affirming that “shit stunts”. Open defecation accounts for over half of undernutrition, measured as stunting.
  • Open defecation and population density together account for two-thirds of stunting. This applies to much of rural India.
  • Stunting means impaired cognitive development, less schooling, poorer performance in school, less earned later in life, vulnerability to disease through damaged immune systems and even obesity.

So be brutal in pinning responsibility on those who defecate in the open.

[oped snap] Death by Breath: Swachh Bharat should include Swachh air

  1. Euro V & VI norms could reduce particulate matter from diesel vehicles by 80%.
  2. Euro VI standards will reduce HC and NOx by 40% over Bharat IV and by 70% over the most prevalent Bharat III.
  3. Bharat IV was first implemented only in 13 cities & opponents of climate control claim that the next stage of Bharat norms should be for pan-India or not at all.
  4. Another issue – Persistent diesel subsidies in the past have led to an explosion of diesel cars – responsible for carcinogenic and other pollutants.

Swachh Bharat Abhiyan: Indigenous technologies developed by BARC

  1. Indigenous water purification – uses the Pressure Driven Membrane Processes.
  2. Environment friendly Plasma technologies – Hazardous & toxic compounds are broken down to elemental constituents at high temperatures. Solves the problem of land availability + air pollution.
  3. Unique Multi Stage Biological Treatment Solution – can be implemented as a modular or container on the banks of rivers on Drains/Nalas which discharge waste water to the river.
  4. Refuse Derived Fuel – a processed form of Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) and it can be a substitute to coal energy.
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:( We are working on most probable questions. Do check back this section.







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