Tiger Conservation Efforts – Project Tiger, etc.

Tiger Conservation Efforts – Project Tiger, etc.

[op-ed snap] The right countop-ed snap


From UPSC perspective, the following things are important :

Prelims level : Tiger Census

Mains level : Methodology of tiger census


Ever since they slumped to an all-time low of around 1,400 in 2006-2007, India’s tiger numbers have increased. The last Tiger Census Report put the population at 2,967, a 33% increase over 2014 when tigers were last enumerated. 

Doubts on numbers

  • Counting methods – the achievements in conservation have been clouded by doubts over the counting methods. An investigation revealed that the last tiger census had over-reported the population by 16%.
  • National Tiger Conservation Authority (NTCA) has taken the first step towards introducing correctives. It has admitted the necessity of “bringing more scientific robustness to the exercise”.


  • Pawprints – In the 1970s, when India embarked on Project Tiger, conservation authorities sought to identify every tiger in the wild from its paw print. Scientists criticised this method as highly subjective and riddled with duplication. 
  • Investigation in the past – In 2005, when this newspaper reported that the Sariska National Park in Rajasthan had lost all its tigers, pug mark surveys had claimed that all was well at the reserve.
  • Change in methods – Since 2006, tiger audits have relied on camera traps. They have estimated the animal’s prey base and tried to gauge the health of the tiger’s habitats. All this has helped the NTCA and WII to arrive at more realistic numbers. 
  • Some issues – The quality of camera traps has been a major issue in several reserves and scientists have contended that the NTCA and WII have not devised sound protocols.

Latest census

  • Doubts – It counted under-age cubs, and methods used to identify the uniqueness of an individual animal were given short shrift and the problem of duplication resurfaced.
  • Peer reviews – the agency has dismissed calls to subject the tiger census procedures to peer reviews.


It is important to pass this credibility test. Otherwise, India’s greatest wildlife protection success story will not have a place in the scientific literature. Tiger conservation will continue to be linked to attempts to score political points.


Tiger Census

NTCA along with the Dehradun-based Wildlife Institute of India (WII) conducts the tiger census.

Tiger Conservation Efforts – Project Tiger, etc.

[pib] Tiger Corridors in IndiaPIB


From UPSC perspective, the following things are important :

Prelims level : Tiger corridors in India

Mains level : Conservation of tigers in India

The Ministry of Environment, Forest & Climate Change has informed about the Tiger corridors in Country in Lok Sabha.

Tiger corridors in India

  • The National Tiger Conservation Authority in collaboration with the Wildlife Institute of India has mapped out 32 major corridors across the country.
  • These are operationalised through a Tiger Conservation Plan, mandated under section 38V of the Wildlife (Protection) Act, 1972.
  • The list of macro/landscape level tiger corridors are as under:
Sl. No. Landscape Corridor States/ Country
1. Shivalik Hills & Gangetic Plains (i) Rajaji-Corbett Uttarakhand
(ii) Corbett-Dudhwa Uttarakhand, Uttar Pradesh, Nepal
(iii) Dudhwa-Kishanpur Katerniaghat Uttar Pradesh, Nepal
2. Central India & Eastern Ghats (i) Ranthambhore-Kuno-Madhav Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan
(ii) Bandhavgarh-Achanakmar Madhya Pradesh, Chhattisgarh
(iii) Bandhavgarh-Sanjay Dubri-Guru Ghasidas Madhya Pradesh
(iv) Guru Ghasidas-Palamau-Lawalong Chhattisgarh & Jharkhand
(v) Kanha-Achanakmar Madhya Pradesh, Chhattisgarh
(vi) Kanha-Pench Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra
(vii) Pench-Satpura-Melghat Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra
(viii) Kanha-Navegaon Nagzira-Tadoba-Indravati Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Chhattisgarh, Andhra Pradesh
(ix) Indravati-Udanti Sitanadi-Sunabeda Chhattisgarh, Odisha
(x) Similipal-Satkosia Odisha
(xi) Nagarjunasagar-Sri Venkateshwara National Park Andhra Pradesh
3. Western Ghats (i) Sahyadri-Radhanagari-Goa Maharashtra, Goa
(ii) Dandeli Anshi-Shravathi Valley Karnataka
(iii) Kudremukh-Bhadra Karnataka
(iv) Nagarahole-Pusphagiri-Talakavery Karnataka
(v) Nagarahole-Bandipur-Mudumalai-Wayanad Karnataka, Kerala, Tamil Nadu
(vi) Nagarahole-Mudumalai-Wayanad Karnataka, Kerala, Tamil Nadu
(vii) Parambikulam-Eranikulam-Indira Gandhi Kerala, Tamil Nadu
(viii) Kalakad Mundanthurai-Periyar Kerala, Tamil Nadu
4. North East (i) Kaziranga-Itanagar WLS Assam, Arunachal Pradesh
(ii) Kaziranga-Karbi Anglong Assam
(iii) Kaziranga-Nameri Assam
(iv) Kaziranga-Orang Assam
(v) Kaziranga-Papum Pane Assam
(vi) Manas-Buxa Assam, West Bengal, Bhutan
(vii) Pakke-Nameri-Sonai Rupai-Manas Arunachal Pradesh, Assam
(viii) Dibru Saikhowa-D’Ering-Mehaong Assam, Arunachal Pradesh
(ix) Kamlang-Kane-Tale Valley Arunachal Pradesh
(x) Buxa-Jaldapara West Bengal



Project Tiger

  • Project Tiger is a tiger conservation programme launched in April 1973 by during PM Indira Gandhi’s tenure.
  • It is administered by the National Tiger Conservation Authority.
  • The project aims at ensuring a viable population of Bengal tigers in their natural habitats, protecting them from extinction, and preserving areas of biological importance as a natural heritage forever represented as close as possible the diversity of ecosystems across the distribution of tigers in the country.
  • The project’s task force visualized these tiger reserves as breeding nuclei, from which surplus animals would migrate to adjacent forests.
  • The government has set up a Tiger Protection Force to combat poachers and funded relocation of villagers to minimize human-tiger conflicts.
Tiger Conservation Efforts – Project Tiger, etc.

[pib] Government to develop a master plan for Tigers at High altitudePIB


From UPSC perspective, the following things are important :

Prelims level : GTF

Mains level : Conserving Tigers at High altitude

  • Union Environment Ministry released a report on Status of Tiger Habitats in high altitude ecosystems.

About the study

  • The study is led by the Global Tiger Forum (GTF), with range country governments of Bhutan, India and Nepal, along with WWF.
  • It has been supported by the Integrated Tiger Habitat Conservation Programme (ITHPC) of the IUCN.
  • This provides the action strategy for a high altitude tiger master plan, with gainful portfolio for local communities.
  • It ensures centrality of tiger conservation in development, through an effective coordination mechanism, involving stakeholders and line departments operating within the landscape.

Why such report?

  • Various studies reveal that even ecology at high altitude is compatible for the tiger growth.
  • The habitat of tiger of varied, encompassing several biomes and ecological conditions.
  • However, most of the high-altitude habitats, within the range have not been surveyed for an appraisal of tiger presence, prey and habitat status.
  • Tiger habitats in high altitude require protection through sustainable land use, as they are a high value ecosystem with several hydrological and ecological processes providing ecosystem services.
  • Several high-altitude habitats in South Asia have the spatial presence of tiger, active in-situ efforts are called for ensuring their conservation.


Global Tiger Forum

  • The GTF was formed in 1993 on recommendations from an international symposium on Tiger Conservation at New Delhi, India.
  • The GTF is the only intergovernmental international body established with members from willing countries to embark on a global campaign to protect the Tiger.
  • Utilizing co-operative policies, common approaches, technical expertise, scientific modules and other appropriate programmes and controls the GTF is focused on saving the remaining 5 sub-species of Tigers distributed over 13 Tiger Range countries of the world.
Tiger Conservation Efforts – Project Tiger, etc.

Report on illegal global tiger trade counts highest in IndiaIOCR


From UPSC perspective, the following things are important :

Prelims level : About the report

Mains level : Preventing animal poaching in India

  • A new report has quantified the illegal global trade in tigers and tiger parts over a 19-year period between 2000 and 2018.

About the report

  • The new report has been compiled by TRAFFIC, a NGO working in conservation and currently in partnership with the World Wildlife Fund (WWF) and the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN).

Findings of the report

  • Overall, conservative estimates of 2,359 tigers were seized from 2000 to 2018 across 32 countries and territories globally. These occurred from a total of 1,142 seizure incidents, the report said.
  • Apart from live tigers and whole carcasses, tiger parts were seized in various forms such as skin, bones or claws.
  • The report explains how the number of tigers was estimated from these diverse sets of seizures.
  • On average, 60 seizures were recorded annually, accounting for almost 124 tigers seized each year.
  • The top three countries with the highest number of seizure incidents were India (463 or 40.5% of total seizures) and China (126 or 11.0%), closely followed by Indonesia (119 or 10.5%).

Indian findings

  • While the latest census has put India’s tiger population at 2,967, the Traffic report uses the 2016 WWF estimate of 2,226, with India home to more than 56% of the global wild tiger population.
  • India is the country with the highest number of seizure incidents (463, or 40% of all seizures) as well as tigers seized (625).
  • In terms of various body parts seized, India had the highest share among countries for tiger skins (38%), bones (28%) and claws and teeth (42%).
Tiger Conservation Efforts – Project Tiger, etc.

[op-ed snap] Burning bright: on India’s tiger censusMains Onlyop-ed snap


From UPSC perspective, the following things are important :

Prelims level : Nothing Much

Mains level : Aunthenticity of tiger census


If India has increased its population of tigers to an estimated 2,967 individuals in 2018-19, putting behind fiascos such as the Sariska wipeout 15 years ago, it adds to its global standing as a conservation marvel: a populous country that has preserved a lot of its natural heritage even amid fast-paced economic growth.


  • Since the majority of the world’s wild tigers live in India, there is global attention on the counting exercise and the gaps the assessment exposes.
  • The National Tiger Conservation Authority (NTCA) has asserted in its report, ‘Status of Tigers in India 2018’, that 83% of the big cats censused were individually photographed using camera traps, 87% were confirmed through a camera trap-based capture-recapture technique, and other estimation methods were used to establish the total number.
  • Previous estimates for periods between 2006 and 2010 and then up to 2014 indicated a steady increase in tiger abundance.

The debate regarding the numbers

  • Such numbers, however, are the subject of debate among sections of the scientific community, mainly on methodological grounds, since independent studies of even well-protected reserves showed a lower increase.
  • It is important to put all the latest data, which are no doubt encouraging, through rigorous peer review.
  • Conservation achievements — and some failures — can then be the subject of scientific scrutiny and find a place in scientific literature to aid efforts to save tigers.
Present time situation
  • There are several aspects to the latest counting operation — a staggering exercise spread over 3,81,400 sq km and 26,838 camera trap locations — that are of international interest, because some tiger range countries are beginning their own census of the cats.
  • Moreover, even developed countries are trying to revive populations of charismatic wild creatures such as wolves and bears through a more accurate outcome measurement.
  • For India’s tigers, not every landscape is welcoming, as the official report makes clear.
Divergences in population
  • The less accessible Western Ghats has witnessed a steady increase in numbers from 2006, notably in Karnataka, and Central India has an abundance, but there is a marked drop in Chhattisgarh and Odisha; in Buxa, Dampa and Palamau, which are tiger reserves, no trace of the animal was found.
  • It is imperative for the NTCA to analyse why some landscapes have lost tigers, when the entire programme has been receiving high priority and funding for years now at ₹10 lakh per family that is ready to move out of critical habitat.
  • Ultimately, saving tigers depends most on the health of source populations of the species that are estimated to occupy a mere 10% of the habitat.
  • The conflict in opening up reserves to road-building has to end, and identified movement corridors should be cleared of commercial pressures.
  • Hunting of prey animals, such as deer and pig, needs to stop as they form the base for growth of tiger and other carnivore populations.
  • As some scientists caution, faulty numbers may hide the real story.
  • They may only represent a ‘political population’ of a favoured animal, not quite reflective of reality.
Tiger Conservation Efforts – Project Tiger, etc.

All India Tiger Estimation Report – 2018Priority 1Species in News


From UPSC perspective, the following things are important :

Prelims level : Tiger census 2018, Tx2

Mains level : Conservation of tigers in India

  • India has 2,967 tigers, a third more than in 2014, according to results of a tiger census.
  • India has achieved the target of doubling tiger population four years before the 2022 deadline.

Statewise tiger count

  • According to the census, Madhya Pradesh saw the highest number of tigers at 526, closely followed by Karnataka at 524 and Uttarakhand at number 3 with 442 tigers.
  • While Pench Tiger Reserve in Madhya Pradesh recorded the highest number of tigers, Sathyamangalam Tiger Reserve in Tamil Nadu registered the “maximum improvement” since 2014.
  • Chhattisgarh and Mizoram saw a decline in their tiger numbers while tiger numbers in Odisha remained constant. All other states witnessed a positive trend.

About All India Tiger Estimation

  • The tiger count is prepared after every four years by National Tiger Conservation Authority (NTCA) provides details on the number of tigers in the 18 tiger reign states with 50 tiger reserves.
  • However, this time, the census also included data collected from the rough terrains of north-eastern states which was not possible due to logistic constrains before.
  • The entire exercise spanned over four years is considered to be world’s largest wildlife survey effort in terms of coverage and intensity of sampling.
  • Over 15, 000 cameras were installed at various strategic points to capture the movement of tigers. This was supported by extensive data collected by field personnel and satellite mapping.
  • Taking a step further, authorities have attempted to digitize the records by mandating the use of a GIS based app called M-STRiPES (Monitoring System For Tigers-Intensive Protection and Ecological Status) developed by Dehradun-based Wildlife Institute of India.


Project Tiger

  • Project Tiger is a tiger conservation programme launched in April 1973 during PM Indira Gandhi’s tenure.
  • In 1970 India had only 1800 tigers and Project Tiger was launched in Jim Corbett National Park.
  • The project is administrated by the National Tiger Conservation Authority (NTCA).
  • It aims at ensuring a viable population of Bengal tigers in their natural habitats, protecting them from extinction etc.
  • Under this project the govt. has set up a Tiger Protection Force to combat poachers and funded relocation of villagers to minimize human-tiger conflicts.
Tiger Conservation Efforts – Project Tiger, etc.

What drives tiger dispersalMains Only


From UPSC perspective, the following things are important :

Prelims level : Not Much

Mains level : Man-animal conflict and its resolution

  • The terrain affects tiger dispersal differently in the Western Ghats and central India, two strongholds of wild tiger populations in the country, finds a new study.

Gene flow of big cats

  • A team of researchers studied this across 30,000 sq km in the Western Ghats in Kerala, Karnataka and Tamil Nadu.
  • They collected tiger faeces in forests including Bhadra Tiger Reserve and Nilgiri Biosphere Reserve, and used forensic samples to obtain genetic data of 115 individual tigers.
  • Comparing the data with the team’s earlier study in central revealed an interesting pattern — the relationship between terrain and gene flow is “inverted” in both regions.
  • While gene flow correlated with rough terrain in central India, it was linked with smooth forest terrain containing minimal human disturbance in the Ghats.

Why do tigers traverse?

  • Tigers in India traverse long distances to find mates and new territories.
  • But the movement depends on roughness of the terrain and human disturbance in the area.
  • The central Indian landscape is highly fragmented with high densities of people, while the Western Ghats has lesser human disturbance and is home to the world’s largest contiguous tiger population.
  • A study has revealed that roughness of terrain and human footprint drove tiger gene flow in central India: tigers moved across ridges and rough topography to avoid the presence of people.
Tiger Conservation Efforts – Project Tiger, etc.

No Indo-Nepal pact on tigers yetPriority 1


Mains Paper 3: Environment | Conservation, environmental pollution and degradation, environmental impact assessment

From UPSC perspective, the following things are important:

Prelims level: Tiger reserves mentioned

Mains level: Bilateral cooperation on tiger conservation


  • Though India and Nepal had agreed to collaborate on conducting the tiger census in their countries in 2018, they’ve yet to sign an agreement on sharing detailed assessments of the numbers.
  • It was expected that both countries would arrive at an agreement to be signed during the ongoing conference Global Tiger Recovery Programme.

Adjoining transitions

  1. The Chitwan National Park in Chitwan and Parsa Wildlife Reserve of Nepal are adjacent to the Balmiki Tiger Reserve in Bihar.
  2. Likewise, Nepal’s Bardiya National Park adjoins India’s Katarniaghat Wildlife Sanctuary, while the Shuklaphant National Park in Nepal adjoins India’s Dudhwa Tiger Reserve.

Avoiding double count

  1. Nepal already publicized the results of its tiger census last September — 235, and this represents an 18% rise from the 198 tigers in 2013.
  2. However, India needs details on the locations of these tigers, which are captured via camera traps, to be sure that some tigers found on the border are not double-counted.

Adopting a common methodology

  1. India’s tiger census is huge and spans a vast area.
  2. However, both (countries) are sovereign and so data sharing must be on equal terms.
  3. Prior to beginning its census, India had also signed agreements with Bhutan and Bangladesh regarding sharing tiger numbers and conducting surveys using a common methodology.
  4. Both these countries had already shared data with India.

Indian Count

  1. Officially, India had 2,226 tigers as of 2014.
  2. An ongoing census is expected to reveal an update to these numbers.
  3. 25-35% of India’s tigers now lived outside protected reserves.
Tiger Conservation Efforts – Project Tiger, etc.

India can’t handle more tigers, say expertsPriority 1


Mains Paper 3: Environment | Conservation, environmental pollution and degradation, environmental impact assessment

From UPSC perspective, the following things are important:

Prelims level: Findings of the survey

Mains level: Tiger conservation in India


  • With increasing tiger count in India, global experts and officials in the government suggest that India must also prepare for a new challenge — of reaching the limits of its management capacity.

What do numbers say?

  1. Officially, India had 2,226 tigers as of 2014.
  2. An ongoing census is expected to reveal an update to these numbers.
  3. But experts from the Global Tiger Forum, said that India’s current capacity to host tigers ranged from 2,500-3,000 tigers.

Signs of Mismanagement

  1. 25-35% of India’s tigers now lived outside protected reserves.
  2. With dwindling core forest as well as the shrinking of tiger corridors, there are several challenges — alongside the traditional challenges of poaching and man-animal conflict.
  3. Recent attempts at translocating tigers to unpopulated reserves, such as Satkosia in Orissa, have ended badly, with one of the tigers dying.

Way Forward

  1. When tiger recovery efforts began 50 years ago we had about 2,000 tigers.
  2. If after all this effort and expenditure, we are satisfied with just 3,000 tigers, it points at a serious management problem.
  3. Needlessly huge amount of money is being dumped repeatedly on the same 25,000-30,000 sq. km area where tigers are already at saturation densities.
  4. However other areas with potential for future recovery are starved of key investments.
  5. There are vast tracts of potential tiger habitat that can be used to improve prey density, develop tiger corridors and therefore support a much larger population.

Facts for Prelims

  1. Since 2006, the WII has been tasked with coordinating the tiger estimation exercise.
  2. The once-in-four-years exercise calculated, in 2006, that India had only 1,411 tigers.
  3. This rose to 1,706 in 2010 and 2,226 in 2014 on the back of improved conservation measures and new estimation methods.

International Stock Taking Conference on Tiger Conservation

  1. The 3rd Stock Taking Conference on Tiger Conservation was recently inaugurated in New Delhi.
  2. Third in a series of Stock Taking Conferences, this is the second to be held in India after 2012.
  3. The conference is being hosted by the National Tiger Conservation Authority, MoEFCC in close collaboration with the Global Tiger Forum.
  4. Barring China, all other tiger-range countries — Thailand, Laos, Vietnam, Cambodia, Russia, Indonesia, Malaysia, Bangladesh, Bhutan, Myanmar, India and Nepal — were part of the conference in New Delhi.
  5. The member countries have signed a declaration to double tiger numbers by 2022.
Tiger Conservation Efforts – Project Tiger, etc.

SSB to patrol Dudhwa Tiger ReservePrelims Only


Mains Paper 3: Environment | Conservation, environmental pollution and degradation, environmental impact assessment

From UPSC perspective, the following things are important:

Prelims level: Details of Dudhwa Tiger Reserve

Mains level: Preventing trans-boundary environmental crime


Intelligence and information Sharing  

  1. Dudhwa Tiger Reserve and Sashastra Seema Bal have joined hands to provide security to Dudhwa forests and its rich wildlife.
  2. A consensus was reached among all security agencies including SSB on the border and the Dudhwa field staff to strengthen the patrolling in and around Dudhwa to check forest and wildlife crimes.
  3. It is aimed for intelligence and information sharing among various security agencies about activities of wildlife and forest criminals.

About Dudhwa Tiger Reserve

  1. The Dudhwa Tiger Reserve is a protected area in Uttar Pradesh that stretches mainly across the Lakhimpur Kheri and Bahraich districts.
  2. It comprises the Dudhwa National Park, Kishanpur Wildlife Sanctuary and Katarniaghat Wildlife Sanctuary.
  3. It covers an area of 1,284.3 sq.km and includes three large forest fragments amidst the matrix dominated by agriculture.
  4. It shares the north-eastern boundary with Nepal, which is defined to a large extent by the Mohana River.
  5. The area is a vast alluvial floodplain traversed by numerous rivers and streams flowing in south-easterly direction.
  6. In 1987, the Dudhwa National Park and the Kishanpur Wildlife Sanctuary were brought under the purview of the ‘Project Tiger’ as Dudhwa Tiger Reserve.
Tiger Conservation Efforts – Project Tiger, etc.

Let’s know about Tiger Cell

  1. It was inaugurated recently and will be funded by the NTCA
  2. NTCA: A statutory body under the Environment Ministry
  3. Functions: Assist in population assessment of tigers, law enforcement, wildlife forensics, infrastructural development and mitigation, smart patrolling and advisory role in policy formulation
  4. Y.V. Jhala, a wildlife scientist at the WII will head the Tiger Cell
Tiger Conservation Efforts – Project Tiger, etc.

Country gets its first tiger repository

  1. News: The Wildlife Institute of India (WII) at Dehradun will house the country’s first repository on tigers, under its new Tiger Cell
  2. WII & National Tiger Conservation Authority (NTCA) did the work on tiger conservation and population estimation, and in the process have generated a huge database
  3. Tracking: If a tiger skin is recovered at a place then a properly maintained database can be used to check where the tiger might have come from
  4. Development-conservation debate: When a project needs environmental clearance, the spatial data can be used to overlay the project plan on maps and check whether the project would interfere with wildlife habitats that must not be disturbed
Tiger Conservation Efforts – Project Tiger, etc.

Shifting tigers to Cambodia from India impractical: experts

  1. Genetically: The proposed reintroduction of Indian tigers in Cambodia seems fine from a genetic perspective
  2. Practically: It may not be practical if the aim is to establish a viable population of tigers in the country
  3. Why? They are more likely to get killed in incidents of conflict with local people rather than survive and establish a population
  4. Issues: Behavioural issues and habitat challenges need to be addressed
Tiger Conservation Efforts – Project Tiger, etc.

Biologists question claims on wild tiger population

  1. What? Tiger biologists are not fully convinced of the April 10 report of the World Wildlife Forum and the Global Tiger Forum
  2. Report: The world’s wild tiger population is increasing and on track for doubling in a decade
  3. Why? Use of flawed survey methodologies
  4. Rigorous scientific studies in India, Thailand and Russia demonstrate that tiger recovery rates are slow
  5. Also that it is not likely to attain levels necessary for the doubling of wild tiger numbers within a decade
  6. Impact: It can lead to incorrect conclusions, an illusion of success, and slackening of conservation efforts
Tiger Conservation Efforts – Project Tiger, etc.

Indian tigers may replenish Cambodian forests


  1. Context: Combodia is trying to get some tigers from India introduced into its eastern region
  2. Why? Wild Tigers were declared ‘functionally extinct’ recently in Combodia
    World Wide Fund for Nature (WWF): Though there are genetic variations in Asian tigers (Bengal, Malayan, Indochinese and Amur), these from India or Nepal are best suited for the Cambodia plan as they are likely to acclimatise to dry forests
  3. India: Open to the idea, but wants several conditions for the safety of the tigers to be addressed
  4. Risks: Safety, adaptability to the forests, low prey density and lax enforcement of anti-poaching laws
Tiger Conservation Efforts – Project Tiger, etc.

Global tiger count rises across the world

  1. Reasons: Improved surveys and enhanced protection in countries such as India, Russia, Nepal and Bhutan
  2. Report: Study undertaken by WWF and Global Tiger Forum (GTF)
  3. Tigers are specified as endangered by the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species
  4. As per the report, national scale surveys have not been undertaken in China, Indonesia, Malaysia, Myanmar and Thailand.
Tiger Conservation Efforts – Project Tiger, etc.

PM to Inaugurate 3rd Asia Ministerial Conference

  1. News: 3-day Asia Ministerial Conference on Tiger Conservation will be inaugurated by PM on April 12, 2016.
  2. Context: This is the third such conference on tiger conservation
  3. Pre-Meeting: Environment Ministry held a meeting as a prelude to the 3rd Asia Ministerial Conference (3 AMC) on Tiger Conservation
  4. Attended by: Representatives of 4 Tiger Range countries (TRCs) – Bhutan, Indonesia, Malaysia and Russia
  5. Relevance: There are only 13 countries that have the pride of having tigers in the wild and tiger-bearing areas in the world.
  6. Way ahead: All TRCs will share their good practices and success stories, thereby contributing towards the cause of conservation of the magnificent species
Tiger Conservation Efforts – Project Tiger, etc.

NHAI aims for conservation and protection of wildlife

The NHAI would provide the coordinates of all NH projects to WII for developing a Geological Information System (GIS) enabled map of all NH passing through Protected Areas

  1. The NHAI has taken the lead in creating a platform for dialogue where development goals and conservation needs can be resolved
  2. The NHAI initiated the dialogue with the Wildlife Institute of India (WII), National Tiger Conservation Authority (NTCA) and WWF, Environment Ministry
  3. The dialogue will provide a structured platform for expeditious consultations with all stakeholders for convergence of development goals with conservation needs
  4. The NHAI propose using space technology for planning and monitoring of conflict zones
  5. Putting in place mitigation measures for environmental protection and conservation along the highways
Tiger Conservation Efforts – Project Tiger, etc.

When connectivity kills wildlife

Demand for night travel ban in national parks gets louder.

  1. With a vehicle seemingly as deadly as a gun in tiger reserves, the voices for restrictions on traffic through major and minor roads of the State are getting louder.
  2. Apart from wildlife deaths, highways fragment pristine forests — acting as a barrier to free movement — and contribute to habitat degradation.
  3. Wildlife mortality owing to vehicular collision seems to be increasing, making a lot of roads a prime candidate for mitigation measures and night closures.
  4. Speed-calming measures and re-aligning highways to skirt protected areas must be considered.
  5. With the concept of night-time restrictions yielding discernable result in terms of reduced disturbance for many nocturnal species.
Tiger Conservation Efforts – Project Tiger, etc.

Animals caught in the headlightsop-ed snap

Sophisticated mapping technology can ensure that roads steer clear of wildlife areas, but the government has been reluctant to address the issue.

What’s the critical issue ?

  • Policy is silent on a critical issue, that of highway stretches passing through forests, particularly, our sanctuaries and national parks.
  • Speeding vehicles plying on these roads cause the deaths of thousands of animals, large and small, every year.
  • A study in 2010 reported that 1,035 roadkills of wildlife recorded in 430 days on a 9.2 km stretch of NH 7, passes through the Pench Tiger Reserve.
  • Highway stretches passing through forests cause severe fragmentation of habitats.

Recommendations for Bypassing forests, Way forward ?

  • A sub-committee constituted in 2013 reiterated the recommendation in the National Wildlife Action Plan 2002-2016.
  • Ministry of Surface Transport must plan roads, highways and expressways in such a manner that all national parks and sanctuaries are bypassed and wildlife corridors avoided.

If ‘Smart Cities’ comes to reality, then why not ‘Smart Highways’ ?

  • For existing highways through forests, bypasses need to retrofit with state-of-the-art, science-based solutions for minimising roadkills.
  • Carefully conceived underpasses, overpasses, flyovers and canopy bridges, taking animal behaviour and traditional wildlife movement patterns into consideration.

Lessons from models around world

  • On Trans-Canada Highway passing through Banff National Park, where an 80 per cent reduction deaths reportedly been achieved, by an extensive system of wildlife underpasses and overpasses.
  • With many developed countries having already shown the way, we have no excuse to lag behind.

Supreme Court caution

  • Recall a significant observation made by the SC, held that our approach to development should be eco-centric, rather than focussing only on what is good for humans.

It’s time to walk the talk, not only by heeding the values enshrined in our Constitution and cultural ethos, but also by incorporating the best practices of eco-centric highways.

Tiger Conservation Efforts – Project Tiger, etc.

How the happiest country in the world is saving tigersop-ed snap

  1. With over 72% forest cover, tigers in Bhutan are not threatened by habitat loss unlike in other parts of the world
  2. This month, Bhutan just finished its first tiger census and can proudly tell the world it has more than 100 tigers.
  3. What cannot be overlooked is all that Bhutan has achieved on its own, at a time when the world is grappling with monumental environment problems, from deforestation to climate change.
  4. In the 1970s, Bhutan’s democratic leaders declared in the constitution that a minimum of 60% of the land would be under forest cover.
Tiger Conservation Efforts – Project Tiger, etc.

The only tiger reserve of Bihar – Valmiki [celebrating india]

  1. It houses a Valmiki Ashram after the name of Maharishi Valmiki who was the composer of the great Indian epic, the Ramayana.
  2. The reserve forms the easternmost limit of the Himalayan Terai forest in ‪India.
  3. The reserve lies in the Champaran district of Bihar.
  4. Name of the district has been derived from 2 words Champa and Aranya – meaning Forest of Champa trees.
Tiger Conservation Efforts – Project Tiger, etc.

3 new havens for tigers in India

  1. The January census showed an overall rise in numbers of the big cat ergo the Centre is set to form 3 new tiger reserves.
  2. In-principle approval has been accorded by the National Tiger Conservation Authority for the creation of –
  3. Ratapani in Madhya Pradesh, Sunabeda in Odisha and Guru Ghasidas in Chhattisgarh.
  4. The NTCA also accorded final approval to a proposal to declare Kudremukh National Park in Karnataka and Rajaji National Park in Uttarakhand as tiger reserves.
Tiger Conservation Efforts – Project Tiger, etc.

Uttarakhand gets a new tiger reserve

  1. Uttarakhand, the State with the 2nd highest tiger population after Karnataka, now has a second tiger reserve, besides the Corbett Tiger Reserve.
  2. The Rajaji National Park has now been notified as the Rajaji Tiger Reserve by the Centre.
  3. The tiger reserve (1075.17 sq-km) includes the 255.63 sq-km area of Rajaji National Park’s buffer zone.
  4. The new tiger reserve is expected to bring in more tourists and boost the economy of the State.
Tiger Conservation Efforts – Project Tiger, etc.

Conservation goes hi-tech in Bandipur

  1. Bandipur Tiger Reserve – Use of a drone or unmanned aerial vehicle to monitor any unauthorised entry into forests and to detect any forest fire.
  2. They also use an android app called Hejje (pugmark), for coordinating foot patrolling of forest guards and tiger tracking.
  3. Apart from using drone, the authorities have installed sensor-based cameras in the forest.

    Discuss:  Bandipur was established in 1974 as a tiger reserve under Project Tiger, is a national park located in the south Indian state of Karnataka.

Tiger Conservation Efforts – Project Tiger, etc.

Periyar Reserve wins NTCA award

  1. National Tiger Conservation Authority gives a biennial award for encouraging local public participation in managing the reserve.
  2. IEDP (India Eco-Development project) was a community-based eco-tourism initiative. Tourism was supplemented by pepper growing and marketing which was a value addition.
  3. Reserve also played a major role during the Sabarimala pilgrimage which involved a 23-km trek in the dense forests.

Leave a Reply

Please Login to comment
0 Comment threads
0 Thread replies
Most reacted comment
Hottest comment thread
0 Comment authors
Recent comment authors
newest oldest most voted
Notify of