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What exactly is this Syrian civil war?
To understand the conflict let us know the historical background of Syria. So, where is Syria?
That’s pretty complex! But UPSC is famous for asking about the details. What happened then?
In 1970, in another coup General Hafez al -Assad, the Minister of Defence seized the power.
The ascension of Bashar Al-Assad and the Shia-Sunni conflicts
Phew! That is a very complex history. What happened next that finally led to the war? It is important to cover the story comprehensively for an IAS Aspirant.
Then there were a few violation of human rights and eventually an uprising!
In 2010 the protests from Tunisia spread across the Arab world. In 2011 Tunisia and Egypt experienced revolution. Libya had its own civil war. The Tunisia and Egypt revolution inspired the Syrians to protest against their government.
Wow, that escalated quickly. So how did the protests turn into an armed rebellion?
And that led to the formation of the Free Syrian Army
UPSC will probably grill you down to your guts on how this issue will complicate situation in the middle east. These are the current themes doing rounds as the news evolves and you need to keep a tab on these developments for the IAS Mains.
Published with inputs from Vinoth.
End of two state consensus?
What do the laws say?
Recommendations of the Report:
Will India take leadership in upholding international law as it did in the fight against South African apartheid? An important issue to follow for Mains exam.
Not very important but can be handy in case you need to quote something objectively in essay or mains answer.
The United Nations International Children’s Emergency Fund (UNICEF) is a United Nations (UN) programme headquartered in New York City that provides humanitarian and developmental assistance to children and mothers in developing countries.
To see international organisations and their reports – click here.
Chemical weapons in warfare- do note for prelims as well as mains. Know about Chemical Weapons Convention in b2b.
The Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC):
Won’t defend the Bill:
Committed to two-state solution:
In Donald Trump’s Presidential times:
The op-ed is important for understanding the Israel-Palestine conflict. The Israel’s growing powers make West Asia more and more vulnerable. Watch out for more news on this issue, as West Asia is one of the favourite topics of UPSC.
Lack of external support:
JFS and IS:
A serious conundrum:
Peace is a process, not a state. From Astana the negotiations move back to Geneva, where the UN hopes that more progress will be made. The op-ed gives a very detailed analysis of the Astana talks and the existing geo-political scenario. A question may or may not be asked in exam on this but it is an important information that UPSC aspirants ought to know.
Astana is the capital of Kazakhstan. It is located on the Ishim River in the north portion of Kazakhstan.
Threats to water:
Oil or Water- what is more important?
Water needs to be declared a “strategic resource of humanity”
With collaborative management underpinning collective protection, water, often a source of competition and conflict, could become a facilitator of peace and cooperation. Holding back of water and not allowing it for use in downstream areas has been seen since time immemorial. However, when such an activity is done by rogues, it is difficult to find solutions to this. Owing to the importance of waterways, in mains a question can be asked on this issue. You need to focus on measures to solve this problem.
Any successful effort in the coming year to end the Middle East’s conflicts will have to be accompanied by a large-scale reconstruction project—based on the Marshall Plan that rebuilt Europe after World War II—to prevent countries from backsliding into war.
Arab Peace Initiative:
Locate Ankara on the map. Look at the geography of the region closely – the surrounding water bodies, countries etc. Also see how Russia can send its forces to Syria, i.e. what path would they have to take?
Discuss: Remember the truce deal was signed between US & Russia?
Report says group committing abuses that may amount to war crimes, and possibly genocide.
This hopes the dialogue will help the country form a national unity govt.
Turkey’s decision to join the war against IS is based on the realization of IS threat on the backdrop of IS bombing of Turkish city, last month.