Innovation Ecosystem in India

Innovation Ecosystem in India

[pib] Second edition of India Innovation Index 2020

Note4Students

From UPSC perspective, the following things are important :

Prelims level : Indian innovation index

Mains level : Innovation ecosystem in India

NITI Aayog is set to release the second edition of the India Innovation Index 2020 tomorrow.

*Statewise rankings will be updated tomorrow.

Updated on 21st Jan, Thursday.

India Innovation Index (III)

  • The release of the second edition of the index—the first was launched in October 2019—demonstrates the Government’s continued commitment towards transforming the country into an innovation-driven economy.
  • The index attempts to create an extensive framework for the continual evaluation of the innovation environment of 29 states and seven UTs in India.
  • It intends to perform the following three functions-
  1. Ranking of states and UTs based on their index scores
  2. Recognizing opportunities and challenges, and
  3. Assisting in tailoring governmental policies to foster innovation
  • The India Innovation Index 2019 is calculated as the average of the scores of its two dimensions – Enablers and Performance.
  • The states have been bifurcated into three categories: major states, north-east and hill states, and union territories/city-states/small states.

Significance

  • The study examines the innovation ecosystem of Indian states and union territories.
  • The aim is to create a holistic tool which can be used by policymakers across the country to identify the challenges to be addressed and strengths to build on when designing policies.

Innovation Ecosystem in India

[pib] TiHAN: India’s first Testbed for Autonomous Navigation Systems

Note4Students

From UPSC perspective, the following things are important :

Prelims level : TiHAN

Mains level : Not Much

Union Minister of Education laid the foundation stone of ‘TiHAN-IIT Hyderabad’, India’s first Testbed for Autonomous Navigation Systems (Terrestrial and Aerial).

Must read:

https://www.civilsdaily.com/news/regulations-for-flying-of-drones/

TiHAN

  • TiHAN is an acronym for Technology Innovation Hub on Autonomous Navigation and Data Acquisition Systems (UAVs, RoVs, etc.).
  • It is a multi-departmental initiative, including researchers from Electrical, Computer Science, Mechanical and Aerospace, Civil, Mathematics, and Design at IIT Hyderabad.
  • It would focus on addressing various challenges hindering the real-time adoption of unmanned autonomous vehicles for both terrestrial and aerial applications.

Why need TiHAN?

  • One major requirement to make unmanned and connected vehicles more acceptable to the consumer society is to demonstrate its performance in real-life scenarios.
  • However, it may become dangerous. Especially in terms of safety, to directly use the operational roadway facilities as experimental test tracks for unmanned and connected vehicles.
  • In general, both UAV and UGV testing may include crashes and collisions with obstacles, resulting in damage to costly sensors and other components.
  • Hence, it is important to test new technologies developed in a safe, controlled environment before deployment.

Innovation Ecosystem in India

[pib] Global Innovation Index 2020

Note4Students

From UPSC perspective, the following things are important :

Prelims level : Global Innovation Index

Mains level : Innovation ecosystem in India

India has climbed 4 spots and has been ranked 48thby the World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO) in the Global Innovation Index 2020 rankings.

Try this PYQ from CSP 2016:

Q.India’s ranking in the ‘Ease of Doing Business Index’ is sometimes seen in the news. Which of the following has declared that ranking?

a) Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD)

b) World Economic Forum

c) World Bank

d) World Trade Organization (WTO)

About the Global Innovation Index

  • The GII is an annual ranking of countries by their capacity for, and success in, innovation. It was started in 2007 by INSEAD and World Business a British magazine.
  • It is published by Cornell University, INSEAD, and the WIPO, in partnership with other organisations and institutions.
  • It is based on both subjective and objective data derived from several sources, including the International Telecommunication Union, the World Bank and the World Economic Forum.
  • The GII is commonly used by corporate and government officials to compare countries by their level of innovation.
  • The theme of the 2019 GII is Creating Healthy Lives – The Future of Medical Innovation, which aims to explore the role of medical innovation as it shapes the future of healthcare.

Components of GII

Five input pillars capture elements of the national economy that enable innovative activities under GII are:

  1. Institutions,
  2. Human capital and research,
  3. Infrastructure,
  4. Market sophistication, and
  5. Business sophistication.

Two output pillars capture actual evidence of innovation outputs:

  1. Knowledge and technology outputs and
  2. Creative outputs

India’s performance this year

  • In midst of the COVID -19 pandemic, it comes as uplifting news for India and is a testament of its robust R&D Ecosystem.
  • India was at the 52nd position in 2019 and was ranked 81st in the year 2015.
  • The WIPO had also accepted India as one of the leading innovation achievers of 2019 in the central and southern Asian region, as it has shown a consistent improvement in its innovation ranking for the last 5 years.

Innovation Ecosystem in India

Importance of the post academic research

Note4Students

From UPSC perspective, the following things are important :

Prelims level : Not much.

Mains level : Issue of Research and Development in India

Post-academic research have a direct bearing on national development. India needs to focus on it along with academic research. This article explains this issue.

Context

  • The Government of India is in the process of revisiting the Science, Technology and Innovation (STI) Policy.
  • At this stage we need to ponder the question: what kind of research should be funded?

How to measure the maturity level of a particular technology?

  • Experts have come up with frameworks and terminology to provide a comprehensive picture and avoid any value judgement.
  • One approach was proposed by NASA in the form of Technology Readiness Levels (TRL).
  • TRL-1 corresponds to observation of basic principles. Its result is publications.
  • TRL-2 corresponds to formulation of technology at the level of concepts.
  • Then the TRL framework advances to proof of concept, validation in a laboratory environment, followed by a relevant environment, and then to prototype demonstration, and ending with actual deployment.
  • An alternative is to use the terminology ‘Academic Research (AR)’, and ‘Post-Academic Research (PAR)’.
  • To provide some granularity, one can divide PAR into early-stage PAR, and late-stage PAR.
  • Late-stage PAR has to be done by large laboratories (national or those supported by industry).
  • AR and early-stage PAR can be done at higher education institutions and large laboratories.

Importance of Post-Academic Research(PAR)

  • From the perspective of national development, pursuit of AR alone, while necessary, is not sufficient.
  • AR and PAR, when pursued together and taken to their logical conclusion, will result in a product or a process,
  • Or it can also result in a better clinical practice, or a scientifically robust understanding of human health and disease, or provide inputs for a policy decision.

Issues in comparing investment in research among countries

  • 1) We cannot compare data with other countries without having correspondence between India’s data and data reported by others.
  • Countries belonging to the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) report research statistics according to the Frascati Manual.
  • 2) India has to decide where to increase investment: in AR or in PAR.

Research and national development

  • Investment in research can translate into national development only through pursuit of PAR.
  • Our industry has not reached a stage where they can absorb research being done by higher education institutions.
  • This reveals that research being pursued is either not addressing national needs or is limited to AR.

Way forward

  • Judging the growth of Science-and-Technology based only on publications (e.g. research papers) provides an incomplete picture.
  • We should increasing the technology intensity of industry, which was identified as one of the goals of the STI policy issued in 2013.
  • This needs reiteration and a mechanism should be devised to monitor progress with the objective of becoming an ‘Atmanirbhar Bharat’.
  • The STI policy should emphasise PAR to ensure that investment in research results in economic growth.
  • To motivate the research community to pursue at least early-stage PAR, the reward system needs significant reorientation.
  • Academics in higher education institutions pursuing AR should pursue early-stage PAR themselves, or team up with those who are keen to pursue PAR.

Consider the question “Examine the factors that responsible for the lack of research and development in India? Also, elaborate on the importance of post-academic research in the country.”

Conclusion

These factors are sufficient to indicate that academic research is necessary, but not sufficient and we must focus on PAR adequately.

Innovation Ecosystem in India

[pib] Atal Innovation Mission launches ‘AIM-iCREST’

Note4Students

From UPSC perspective, the following things are important :

Prelims level : AIM-iCREST

Mains level : Innovation ecosystem in India

NITI Aayog’s Atal Innovation Mission (AIM), has launched AIM iCREST – an Incubator Capabilities enhancement program for a Robust Ecosystem, focused on creating high performing Startups.

Note the following things about AIM-iCREST

1) Meaning of the acronym as it gives the central idea of the initiative

2) Aims and objective

3) Technological partners

AIM-iCREST

  • AIM iCREST, as the name suggests, has been designed to enable the incubation ecosystem and act as a growth hack for AIM’s Atal and Established incubators across the country.
  • Under the initiative, the AIM’s incubators are set to be upscaled and provided requisite support to foster the incubation enterprise economy that will help them to significantly enhance their performance.
  • This will be complemented by providing training to entrepreneurs, through technology-driven processes and platforms.
  • The program aims at going beyond incubator capacity building.  This is a first of its kind initiative for advancing innovation at scale in India.

Various partners

  • AIM has joined hands with Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation and Wadhwani Foundation – organizations that can lend credible support and expertise in the entrepreneurship and innovation space.
  • These partnerships will provide global expertise and showcase proven best practices to the AIM’s incubator network.

An initiative for incubators

  • India needs world-class incubators fostering world-class startups leveraging the tremendous innovation talent of our country.
  • For the first time in the Government, the Incubator capacity development program is being extended to the entire portfolio of supported Atal incubators.
  • This programme is unique also in its design – it is a combination of interactive practices in the field of incubation; enabling the incubators to support sustainable and successful startups.

Back2Basics: Atal Innovation Mission

  • Atal Innovation Mission (AIM) is NITI Aayog’s flagship initiative to promote a culture of innovation and entrepreneurship in India
  • AIM has been established to create and promote an ecosystem of innovation and entrepreneurship in a holistic manner through various initiatives at school, university and industry levels
  • The Atal Innovation Mission has thus two core functions:
  1. Innovation promotion: to provide a platform where innovative ideas are generated.
  2. Entrepreneurship promotion: Wherein innovators would be supported and mentored to become successful entrepreneurs at Incubation Centres.

Innovation Ecosystem in India

[pib] “Samadhan” Challenge

Note4Students

From UPSC perspective, the following things are important :

Prelims level : SAMADHAN Challenge

Mains level : NA

 

A mega online challenge – SAMADHAN – has been launched to test the ability of students to innovate.

“Samadhan” Challenge

  • The Innovation Cell of the Ministry of HRD and All India Council for Technical Education in collaboration with Forge and InnovatioCuris has launched this online challenge.
  • Under the challenge, the students and faculty will be motivated for doing new experiments and new discoveries and provide them with a strong base leading to spirit of experimentation and discovery.
  • The students participating in this challenge will search and develop such measures that can be made available to the government agencies, health services, hospitals and other services for quick solutions to the Coronavirus epidemic and other such calamities.
  • Apart from this, through this challenge, work will be done to make citizens aware, to motivate them, to face any challenge, to prevent any crisis and to help people get livelihood.

Innovation Ecosystem in India

Private: [pib] Young Scientist Programme (YUVIKA)

Note4students

Mains Paper 3: Science & Technology | Awareness in the fields of IT, Space etc.

From UPSC perspective, the following things are important:

Prelims level: Young Scientists Programme

Mains level: Read the attached story 


News

Young Scientist Programme

  • ISRO has launched a special programme for School Children called “Young Scientist Programme” “YUva VIgyani KAryakram from this year.
  • The Program is primarily aimed at imparting basic knowledge on Space Technology, Space Science and Space Applications to the younger ones with the intent of arousing their interest in the emerging areas of Space activities.
  • The residential training programme will be of around two weeks duration during summer holidays and it is proposed to select 3 students each from each State/ UTs to participate in this programme covering state, CBSE, and ICSE syllabus.
  • Those who have just finished 9th standard (in the academic year 2018-19) and waiting to join 10th standard (or those who have started 10th Std just now) will be eligible for the programme.
  • The selection will be based on the 8th Std marks.
  • Students belonging to the rural area have been given special weightage in the selection criteria.

Innovation Ecosystem in India

Private: EKAM Fest

Note4Students

From UPSC perspective, the following things are important :

Prelims level : EKAM fest

Mains level : Various initiaitves for Divyangjans

Union Ministry of Social Justice & Empowerment has inaugurated the  Exhibition-cum-Fair “EKAM Fest” organised by National Handicapped Finance Development Corporation (NHFDC).

EKAM Fest

  • It is an effort for promoting entrepreneurship and knowledge among Divyangjan community, generating awareness among society about potentialities of PwDs; providing a major marketing opportunity to PwDs entrepreneurs.
  • NHFDC Foundation is making efforts for the development of a brand and platform for marketing of products of these determined entrepreneurs.
  • Accordingly, name of the brand has arrived at Ekam (Entrepreneurship, Knowledge, Awareness, Marketing).

About NHFDC

  • NHFDC is an Apex corporation under the aegis of Department of Empowerment of Persons with Disabilities (Divyangjan), Ministry of Social Justice & Empowerment and is working since 1997.
  • It is registered as a company not for profit and provides financial assistance to the Divyangjan/Persons with Disabilities (Divyangjan/PwDs) for their economic rehabilitation and provides number of skill development programmes to empower them to grow & sustain their enterprises.

Innovation Ecosystem in India

[op-ed snap] The tech frontier for developing nations

Note4Students

From UPSC perspective, the following things are important :

Prelims level : Nothing much

Mains level : Capturing the Digital Revolution

Context

The rapid technological transformation will be a key feature of the economy of the future. At the national, regional and global levels, frontier technologies are offering promising new opportunities, but are also introducing new policy challenges.

Innovation

  • Technological innovation has boosted economic performance, improved efficiency, accelerated the pace of globalization, and transformed human society in the process.
  • It is fundamentally altering how goods, services and ideas are exchanged
  • As the costs are rapidly declining, making digital technologies even more affordable and accessible, they will transform people’s lives and livelihoods.
  • Digital technologies have unlocked new routes to prosperity through agriculture, manufacturing, trade in services, the linking of informal and formal sectors, and domestic interconnectivity. 
  • Low- and middle-income countries around the world now have an opportunity to build new industries, deliver better services, and improve peoples’ lives.

Challenges

  • Access to poor – These gains may not reach the world’s poorest people. An estimated three billion people could still lack internet access by 2023, and many more will have little or no opportunity to reap the benefits of digital technologies. 
  • It demands renewed policy cooperation at all levels of governance. 
  • The latest wave of technological change is broad, and it is coming fast.
  • Digital technologies can also entrench existing forms of exclusion, disrupt livelihoods, and provide new tools for the powerful to abuse and exploit the weak.
  • Developing countries have more difficulties because they are already grappling with the challenges of low human capital, ineffective institutions, and a difficult business environment

Optimism

  • The Pathways for Prosperity Commission on Technology and Inclusive Development has shown that developing countries can still harness the new wave of frontier technologies for the benefit of all. 
  • All countries will need to prepare themselves for new and upcoming technologies, by maximizing inclusiveness and guiding markets toward the right types of innovation. 
  • Governments should start by recognizing that the challenge is not just about “digital policy.” Rather, it calls for a “whole-of-economy”— a “most-of-society”—approach
  • Support for marginalized groups will need to be built into the policy process from the outset.
  • National governments should start planning for digital readiness in four areas: infrastructure, human capital, policy and regulation, and finance
  • Regional-level policymakers — need to start building momentum on policy cooperation.
  • At the global level, cross-border issues associated with frontier technologies will need to be addressed multilaterally. Multilateral organizations should be developing an antenna for identifying new technologies and development challenges. 
  • More must be done to mitigate technological disruptions to employment, boost investment in human capital, and ensure fair taxation in the new digital economy.

Multilateralism

  • Countries have been coming together in global fora to safeguard public goods and pursue collective prosperity. 
  • To capture the benefits of the Fourth Industrial Revolution, we need to strengthen public-private partnerships and make our economies more efficient and flexible. 
  • For its part, Indonesia recognizes the need for policies to manage the new digital economy
  • The key will be to put people at the center of the agenda. Beyond furnishing workers with the right skills, we must create a digital world where all people have a voice.

Conclusion

  • The challenge we face is also an opportunity. Digital and frontier technologies have enormous potential to improve government administration and the delivery of public services. 
  • It is time for a new kind of conversation involving governments, business leaders, innovators, civil-society organizations and citizens alike. 
  • Developing countries must ride the wave of technological change, rather than wait for it to crash down on us.

Innovation Ecosystem in India

India Innovation Index 2019

Note4Students

From UPSC perspective, the following things are important :

Prelims level : India Innovation Index 2019

Mains level : Significance of the index


  • NITI Aayog with Institute for Competitiveness as the knowledge partner released the India Innovation Index (III) 2019.

India Innovation Index (III) 2019

  • The index attempts to create an extensive framework for the continual evaluation of the innovation environment of 29 states and seven UTs in India.
  • It intends to perform the following three functions-
  1. Ranking of states and UTs based on their index scores
  2. Recognizing opportunities and challenges, and
  3. Assisting in tailoring governmental policies to foster innovation
  • The India Innovation Index 2019 is calculated as the average of the scores of its two dimensions – Enablers and Performance.
  • The states have been bifurcated into three categories: major states, north-east and hill states, and union territories / city states / small states.

Performance of states

  • Karnataka is the most innovative major state in India.
  • Tamil Nadu, Maharashtra, Telangana, Haryana, Kerala, Uttar Pradesh, West Bengal, Gujarat, and Andhra Pradesh form the remaining top ten major states respectively.
  • The top ten major states are majorly concentrated in southern and western India.
  • Sikkim and Delhi take the top spots among the north- eastern & hill states, and union territories/city states/small states respectively.
  • Delhi, Karnataka, Maharashtra, Tamil Nadu, Telangana, and Uttar Pradesh are the most efficient states in translating inputs into output.

Significance

  • The study examines the innovation ecosystem of Indian states and union territories.
  • The aim is to create a holistic tool which can be used by policymakers across the country to identify the challenges to be addressed and strengths to build on when designing policies.

Innovation Ecosystem in India

[pib] Youth Co:Lab

Note4Students

From UPSC perspective, the following things are important :

Prelims level : Youth Co:Lab

Mains level : Entrepreneurship development in India


  • In a latest initiative to recognize young people as critical drivers of sustainable development, Atal Innovation Mission (AIM), NITI Aayog and United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) has launched Youth Co:Lab.

Youth Co:Lab

  • Co-created in 2017 by UNDP and the Citi Foundation, the Youth Co:Lab initiative aims to create an enabling ecosystem to promote youth leadership, innovation, and social entrepreneurship.
  • It is operational in 25 countries across the Asia Pacific region.
  • It is an innovative platform for young people to explore their ideas and potentials, and bring to scale viable solutions, to accelerate India’s progress on the SDGs.
  • Through Youth Co:Lab, young entrepreneurs and innovators will get a chance to connect with governments, mentors, incubators and investors, who will help equip them with entrepreneurial skills.
  • The initiative will also convene a series of youth dialogues across several cities such as New Delhi, Hyderabad, Bangalore and Mumbai to promote entrepreneurship across India.

Area of focus

  • The first phase of Youth Co:Lab will focus on six SDGs: SDG 5 (Gender Equality), SDG 6 (Clean Water and Sanitation), SDG 7 (Affordable and Clean Energy), SDG 8 (Decent Work and Economic Growth), SDG 12 (Sustainable Consumption and Production) and SDG 13 (Climate Action).

Why such move?

  • With the world’s largest youth population millions in the county are entering the workforce every year, it is critical for India to create a robust employment and entrepreneurship ecosystem.

Innovation Ecosystem in India

[pib] Global Innovation Index (GII) 2019

Note4Students

From UPSC perspective, the following things are important :

Prelims level : Measures of GII

Mains level : Innovation ecosystem in India


Union Minister of Commerce & Industry and Railways has launched the Global Innovation Index (GII) in New Delhi. This is the first time that the GII is being launched in an emerging economy.

India’s Performance

  • India has jumped five notches to 52nd in the GII 2019 which ranked 129 countries.
  • In 2019, India continues to stand out in the GII ranking of the world’s top science and technology clusters with Bengaluru, Mumbai and New Delhi featuring among global top-100 clusters.
  • During 2015 to 2019, India exhibited the second-largest improvement in any economy.
  • The period also represented the largest upward move among any of the top-five biggest economies in the world (based on 2018 GDP).

Global Scene

  • The top-10 countries in GII 2019 ranking are Switzerland, Sweden, the United States, the Netherlands, Britain, Finland, Denmark, Singapore, Germany and Israel.

About Global Innovation Index

  • The GII is an annual ranking of countries by their capacity for, and success in, innovation. It was started in 2007 by INSEAD and World Business a British magazine.
  • It is published by Cornell University, INSEAD, and the World Intellectual Property Organization, in partnership with other organisations and institutions.
  • It is based on both subjective and objective data derived from several sources, including the International Telecommunication Union, the World Bank and the World Economic Forum.
  • The GII is commonly used by corporate and government officials to compare countries by their level of innovation.
  • The theme of the 2019 GII is Creating Healthy Lives – The Future of Medical Innovation, which aims to explore the role of medical innovation as it shapes the future of healthcare.

Components of GII

Five input pillars capture elements of the national economy that enable innovative activities under GII are:

  1. Institutions,
  2. Human capital and research,
  3. Infrastructure,
  4. Market sophistication, and
  5. Business sophistication.

Two output pillars capture actual evidence of innovation outputs:

  1. Knowledge and technology outputs and
  2. Creative outputs

Innovation Ecosystem in India

[pib] Yuva Sahakar Scheme

Note4students

Mains Paper 2: Governance | Government policies and interventions for development in various sectors

From UPSC perspective, the following things are important:

Prelims level: Particulars of the Scheme

Mains level: Promoting cooperatives business venture


News

Yuva Sahakar-Cooperative Enterprise Support and Innovation Scheme

  1. To cater to the needs and aspirations of the youth, the National Cooperative Development Corporation (NCDC) has come up with a youth-friendly this scheme for attracting them to cooperative business ventures.
  2. The newly launched scheme would encourage cooperatives to venture into new and innovative areas.
  3. The scheme will be linked to Rs 1000 crore ‘Cooperative Start-up and Innovation Fund (CSIF)’ created by the NCDC.

Funding

  • The funding for the project will be up to 80% of the project cost for these special categories as against 70% for others.
  • The scheme envisages 2% less than the applicable rate of interest on term loan for the project cost up to Rs 3 crore including 2 years moratorium on payment of principal.

Eligibility

  • It would have more incentives for cooperatives of North Eastern region, Aspirational Districts and cooperatives with women or SC or ST or PwD members.
  • All types of cooperatives in operation for at least one year are eligible.

Back2Basics

NCDC

  1. Nodal Agency: Ministry of Agriculture & Farmers Welfare
  2. The NCDC has the unique distinction of being the sole statutory organisation functioning as an apex financial and developmental institution exclusively devoted to cooperative sector.
  3. It supports cooperatives in diverse fields apart from agriculture and allied sectors.
  4. It is an ISO 9001:2015 compliant organisation and has a distinctive edge of competitive financing.
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