Languages and Eighth Schedule

Languages and Eighth Schedule

Should India have one national Language?


From UPSC perspective, the following things are important :

Prelims level : Eight Schedule

Mains level : Paper 2- Eighth Schedule and related issues

The article discusses the issues with excessive attention given to Hindi and how the neglect of another language could lead to the loss of language and the way of life associated with it as well.

Debate in Constituent Assembly and issues in the adoption of Hindi

  • The issue of adopting a national language could not be resolved when the Constituent Assembly began drafting India’s Constitution.
  • Members from the Hindi-speaking provinces who moved a number of pro-Hindi amendments and argued for adopting Hindi as the sole national language.
  • Widespread resistance to the imposition of Hindi led to the passage of the Official Languages Act of 1963, which provided for the continued use of English for all official purposes.
  • Hindi became the sole working language of the Union government by 1965 with the State governments free to function in the language of their choice.
  • The constitutional directive for the Union government to encourage the spread of Hindi was retained within Central government entities in non-Hindi-speaking States.

Issues with the Eighth Schedule

  • According to the 2001 Census, India has 30 languages that are spoken by more than a million people each.
  • The Constitution lists 22 languages and protects them in the eighth schedule.
  • Many languages are kept out of this schedule even if they deserve to be included.
  • This includes Tulu which is spoken by over 1.8 million people and has inscriptions dating back to the 14th and 15th centuries.
  • While Hindi, a much younger Indo-Aryan language, has been gaining prominence since before independence.
  • When a refined language loses its status in literary and daily interactions, the way of life associated with it also vanishes.
  • The Census found that while Hindi is the fastest growing language, the number of speakers of other languages has dropped.

Way forward

  • While discussing Hindi and its use, let us also focus on the merit of other Indian languages.
  • Instead of focusing on one national language, we should learn a language beyond the mother tongue and get to know a different way of life too.


If we don’t protect and promote other well-evolved or endangered and indigenous languages, our future generations may end up never understanding their ‘real’ roots and culture

Languages and Eighth Schedule

Nationalism and the crisis of federalism


From UPSC perspective, the following things are important :

Prelims level : Reorganisation of States

Mains level : Paper 2- Federalism in India

The article analyses the challenges federalism in India faces and the important role played by the division of states based on the languages.

Three conceptions of nationalism in India

  • Following three conceptions of nationalism were prevalent in India before independence.
  • The first, the idea that a community with a strongly unified culture must have a single state of its own.
  • The second saw the nation as defined by a common culture whose adherents must have a state of their own.
  • But this common culture was not ethno-religious.
  •  It conceives common culture in terms of a strong idea of unity that marginalises or excludes other particular identities.
  • A third nationalism accepts that communities nourished by distinct, territorially concentrated regional cultures have the capacity to design states of their own as also educational, legal, economic, and other institutions.
  • This may be called a coalescent nationalism consistent with a fairly strong linguistic federalism.
  • The central state associated with it is not multi-national.
  • At best, it is a multi-national state without labels, one that does not call itself so; a self-effacing multi-national state.

Suspicion of linguistic identities

  • After Partition, the Indian ruling class began to view with suspicion the political expression of even linguistic identities.
  •  It was feared that federation structured along ethno-linguistic lines might tempt politicians to mobilise permanently on the basis of language.
  • The second fear was about an increase in the likelihood of inter-ethnic violence, encourage separatism and eventually lead to India’s break up.
  • Thus, when the Constitution came into force in 1950, India adopted unitary, civic nationalism as its official ideology.

Formation of states on linguistic basis and its implications

  • A unitary mindset shaped by the experience of a centralised colonial state was resurrected.
  • The second tier of government was justified in functional terms, not on ethical grounds of the recognition of group cultures.
  • Following the Committee’s recommendations, States were reorganised in 1956.
  • India slowly became a coalescent nation-state, moving from the ‘holding together’ variety to what is called the ‘coming together’ form of (linguistic) federalism.
  • This meant that regional parties were stronger than earlier in their own regions and at the centre.
  • This let to more durable centre because it was grounded more on the consent and participation of regional groups that, at another level, were also self-governing.
  • Indian federalism also attempted to remove its rigidities by incorporating asymmetries in the relation between the Centre and different States.
  • Treating all States as equals required the acknowledgement of their specific needs and according them differential treatment.


Coalescent nationalism has served India well, benefiting several groups in India. True, it has not worked as well in India’s border areas such as the North-east and Kashmir. But their problems can only be resolved by deepening not abandoning coalescent nationalism.

Languages and Eighth Schedule

[op-ed snap]A case for inclusion of Tulu language in the Eighth Schedule.


From UPSC perspective, the following things are important :

Prelims level : Tulu language and its region in India.

Mains level : Paper 2-Official languages of the union and the states.


With numerous languages in the country, placing all deserving languages on an equal footing will promote social inclusion and national solidarity.

Figures and facts

  • According to the 2001 Census, India has 30 languages that are spoken by more than a million people each.
  • It also has 122 languages that are spoken by at least 10,000 people each.
  • It also has 1,599 languages, most of which are dialects.
  • These are restricted to specific regions and many of them are on the verge of extinction.
  • Article 29 provides every citizens of India with a distinct culture, language, and script, the right to conserve the same.
  • It is the responsibility of both the state and the citizens of this distinct language, script or culture to preserve the same.

Eighth schedule and Tulu language

  • Sanskrit has 24,821 speakers and it is in the Eighth Schedule according to the 2011 Census.
  • However, many languages with sizeable speakers are not in the schedule.
  • Bhili/Bhilodi has 1,04,13,637 speakers. Garo has 11,45,323 speakers, Ho has 14,31,344 speakers.
  • Tulu is a Dravidian language whose speakers are concentrated in two coastal districts of Karnataka and in Kasaragod district of Kerala.
  • The Tulu language speakers are larger in numbers than Sanskrit and Manipuri which included in the Eighth Schedule.
  • The cities of Mangaluru, Udupi, and Kasaragod are the epicenter of Tulu culture.

What are the benefits of being on the Eighth Schedule

  • Tulu would get recognition from Sahitya Academy.
  • The book in Tulu would get translated into other recognised Indian languages.
  • The MP’s and MLA’s could speak in Tulu in the Parliament and Assemblies.
  • Candidates could write all-India competitive examination like the Civil Services exam in Tulu.

Yuelu Proclamation

  • It was made by UNESCO at Changsha, The People’s Republic of China, in 2018.
  • It says the protection and promotion of linguistic diversity help to improve social inclusion and partnerships.
  • It helps reduce the gender and social inequality between different native speakers.
  • It guarantee the rights for native speakers of endangered, minority, indigenous languages, as well as non-official languages and dialects to receive education, enhance the social inclusion level and social decision-making ability by encouraging them to participate in a series of actions to promote cultural diversity, endangered language protection, and the protection of intangible cultural heritage.


  • Tulu, along with other deserving languages, should be included in the Eighth Schedule of the Constitution in order to substantially materialise the promise of equality of status and opportunity mentioned in the Preamble.

Languages and Eighth Schedule

[op-ed snap] Getting the language count right


Mains Paper 1: Social Issues | Diversity of India

From UPSC perspective, the following things are important:

Prelims level: UNESCO, Census of India

Mains level: Status of various languages in India and need for their protection


Census data on languages

  1. Early this month, the Census of India made public the language data based on the 2011 Census, which took into account 120 crore speakers of a very large number of languages
  2. Recent Census data appear to inadequately reflect India’s linguistic composition

Previous census & their data collection

  1. The 1931 Census was a landmark as it held up a mirror to the country about the composition of caste and community
  2. It was during the 1961 census that languages in the country were enumerated in full
  3. India learnt that a total of 1,652 mother tongues were being spoken
  4. Using ill-founded logic, this figure was pegged at only 109, in the 1971 Census
  5. The logic was that a language deserving respectability should not have less than 10,000 speakers

Language enumeration

  1. The language enumeration takes place in the first year of every decade
  2. The findings are made public about seven years later as the processing of language data is far more time consuming than handling economic or scientific data
  3. The Language division of the Census office released stats related to languages
  4. A total of 1,369 names — technically called “labels” — were picked as “being names of languages”
  5. The 1,369 have been grouped further under a total of 121 “group labels”, which have been presented as “Languages”
  6. Of these, 22 are languages included in the Eighth Schedule of the Constitution, called “Scheduled Languages”

Flawed methodology

  1. Under the heading “Hindi”, there are nearly 50 other languages
  2. Bhojpuri, Powari/Pawri of tribals in Maharashtra and even the Kumauni of Uttarakhand has been yoked to Hindi
  3. The use of English is not seen through the perspective of a second language
  4. Counting for this is restricted to the “mother tongue” category — in effect bringing down the figure substantially
  5. Given the widespread use of English in education, law, administration, media and healthcare, a significant number of Indians use English as a utility language
  6. To some extent, it is the language of integration in our multilingual country

Role of UNESCO in protecting languages

  1. From time to time, UNESCO tries to highlight the key role that language plays in widening access to education, protecting livelihoods and preserving culture and knowledge traditions
  2. In 1999/2000, it proclaimed and observed February 21 as International Mother Language Day, while in 2001 the ‘Universal Declaration on Cultural Diversity’ accepted the principle of “Safeguarding the linguistic heritage of humanity and giving support to expression, creation and dissemination in the greatest possible number of languages.”
  3. In pursuit of these, UNESCO has launched a linguistic diversity network and supported research
  4. It has also brought out an Atlas of the World’s Languages in Danger, which highlights the central place of language in the world’s heritage

Way Forward

  1. The Census in India should adequately reflect the linguistic composition of the country
  2. It is not good practice when data helps neither educators nor policymakers or the speakers of languages themselves
  3. The Census, a massive exercise that consumes so much time and energy, needs to see how it can help in a greater inclusion of the marginal communities, how our intangible heritage can be preserved, and how India’s linguistic diversity can become an integral part of our national pride

Languages and Eighth Schedule

Rajya Sabha members can use all 22 scheduled languages


Mains Paper 2: Polity | Parliament & State Legislatures – structure, functioning, conduct of business, powers & privileges & issues arising out of these

From UPSC perspective, the following things are important:

Prelims level: Eighth Schedule of the Constitution

Mains level: Provisions in the constitution for preserving diversity and culture of India and status of their implementation

Use of language in RS

  1. Rajya Sabha members can speak in any of the 22 scheduled languages from this monsoon session
  2. The members will have to give notice of a reasonable period for the interpreter

Current status

  1. The Rajya Sabha already has a simultaneous interpretation for Assamese, Bengali, Gujarati, Hindi, Kannada, Malayalam, Marathi, Oriya, Punjabi, Tamil, Telugu and Urdu


Eighth Schedule of the Constitution

  1. The Eighth Schedule to the Constitution of India lists the official languages of the Republic of India
  2. The Government of India is under an obligation to take measures for the development of these languages, such that “they grow rapidly in richness and become effective means of communicating modern knowledge”
  3. In addition, a candidate appearing in an examination conducted for public service is entitled to use any of these languages as the medium in which he or she answers the paper
  4. The 22 languages which are listed in the Eighth Schedule are Assamese, Bengali, Bodo, Dogri, Gujarati, Hindi, Kannada, Kashmiri, Konkani, Maithili, Malayalam, Manipuri, Marathi, Nepali, Oriya, Punjabi, Sanskrit, Santali, Sindhi, Tamil, Telugu and Urdu

Languages and Eighth Schedule

Spat over Hindi as official language at UN

Image source


Mains Paper 2: IR | Important International institutions, agencies & fora, their structure, mandate

From UPSC perspective, the following things are important:

Prelims level: Official languages at UN, National and official language of India

Mains level: Debate over official languages at national and international level

Making Hindi one of the official languages at the United Nations

  1. India is pushing hard to include Hindi as one of the official languages at United Nations
  2. Opposition MP’s questioned this move asking the need to push for Hindi when it was not even the national language of India

Procedure at UN

  1. As per rules, two-thirds of the 193 members of UN will not only have to vote for Hindi as the official language but also share the financial cost incurred to do so

Where is the problem?

  1. Economically weaker countries shy away from sharing costs
  2. India has been making attempts to get the support of countries like Fiji, Mauritius, Surinam where people of Indian origin are there

Tamil a better option?

  1. The Tamil language is one of the official languages of Sri Lanka and Singapore
  2. It is one of the recognized languages of India
  3. It is also recognized as minority language in South Africa, Malaysia and Mauritius


Official languages at UN

  1. There are six official languages of the UN
  2. These are Arabic, Chinese, English, French, Russian and Spanish
  3. A delegate may speak in any official UN language
  4. The speech is interpreted simultaneously into the other official languages of the UN
  5. At times, a delegate may choose to make a statement using a non-official language
  6. In such cases, the delegation must provide either an interpretation or a written text of the statement in one of the official languages
  7. Most UN documents are issued in all six official languages, requiring translation from the original document

Languages and Eighth Schedule

Including more languages into Schedule VIII

  1. The proposal to include English along with 37 other regional languages like Bhojpuri, Chattisgarhi, Khasi and Bundelkhandi in the VIII Schedule of the Constitution, granting it an official status, has been pending with the Centre for 12 years now
  2. The committee for this purpose has given its report and Govt is examining it
  3. English: Govt Considers that it is an international language used for convenience

A related question on classical language from Prelims 2015:

Which one of the following was given classical language status recently?
a) Odia
b) Konkani
c) Bhojpuri
d) Assamese

Languages and Eighth Schedule

Hindi is official language

  1. Minister of State (Home): Hindi and English have become the link languages for official correspondence
  2. Centre will continue to promote Hindi as it was the official language as envisaged in the Constitution
  3. But, at the same time, we have important languages like Tamil, Telugu, Kannada, Malayalam, Punjabi, Gujarati, Odiya and Assamese
  4. In India, nobody should force anybody to adopt a particular language
  5. Background: It was on September 14, 1949, that the drafting committee of the Constitution had agreed to accept Hindi as the official language of India
  6. From then on the day is celebrated as Hindi Divas across all Central ministries, departments and offices

Languages and Eighth Schedule

Centre against imposition of Hindi

  1. Minister of State (Home): Govt is against imposing Hindi on other regional languages like Tamil, Kannada or Telugu
  2. Policy is very clear: We have to promote all indigenous Indian languages
  3. Prmotion of Hindi: Centre will continue to promote Hindi as it is the official language envisaged in the Constitution
  4. Promotion of regional languages: It is the responsibility of the respective States
  5. Context: NDA Govt has come under severe criticism in the past for its efforts to promote Hindi and making it compulsory for all Central government offices to communicate on social media


Importance for exams:

  • Mains: Understanding the pros and cons of promoting a single language in a multilingual India. Drawing parallels from events around the globe on similar issue
  • Prelims: Constitutional provisions related to the issue


NDA Govt has come under severe criticism in the past for its efforts to promote Hindi and making it compulsory for all Central government offices to communicate on social media.

Present Scenario:

Hindi is widely spoken in the north, but southern and eastern states have always opted for local languages or English. Five decades ago, efforts to impose Hindi as the country’s only official language had triggered violent riots in the south.

Constitutional provisions:

  1. There is no national language as declared by the Constitution of India.
  2. The Constitution lists Hindi written in Devanagari script as well as English as the official language of the govt of India. Hindi and English are used for official purposes such as parliamentary proceedings, judiciary, communications between the Central Government and a State Government.
  3. States within India have the liberty and powers to specify their own official language(s) through legislation.
  4. The Constitution imposes a duty upon the Centre to promote the spread and development of the Hindi language so that it may become the lingua franca of the composite culture of India.
  5. The Eighth Schedule to the Indian Constitution contains a list of 22 scheduled languages. The Government of India is under an obligation to take measures for the development of these languages.
  6. The Constitution also contains certain special directives to protect the interests of linguistic minorities.

Why does language continue to be such an emotive issue?

  1. This is because language is regarded by people as indissolubly connected with their culture. E.g. in Tamil Nadu, disinterest in Hindi stems from the pride of people in Tamil heritage. They are happy, and proficient enough, using English when Tamil doesn’t work.
  2. This issue continues to be exploited by the political parties for narrow political ends.
  3. Linguistic problems are not limited to India and have arisen in other parts of the world too. In Ireland there has been a fierce agitation concerning the language of the Irish people; and in spite of the fact that practically every educated Irishman knows English, they have adopted the Irish language as their national language.

The linguistic question has affected the rise of nationalities in the East too. In Iran there has been a movement that a purely Iranian language free from Arabian influence should be the national language of Iran. Similar campaigns have been observed in Poland, Wales and Turkey too.

Reasons behind the Government’s recent push for promotion of Hindi:

  1. English is seen as a remnant of India’s colonial past.
  2. The Government, as also empowered by the Constitution, wants to popularize Hindi so that gradually it can become the lingua franca of the India.

Criticism of recent steps taken by the Government for promotion of Hindi:

  1. The government should not favor one language over the other in a country that has benefitted from its knowledge of English.
  2. The English language skills of Indian engineers gave momentum to the growth of the country’s famous information technology industry.
  3. In a globalizing world, India’s familiarity with English is a huge benefit.

Arguments given in favour of promotion of Hindi and other Indian languages:

  1. We should not abandon what is ours in terms of culture and language.
  2. Assertion of our linguistic identities is the key to international respect and power. As long as we speak and deal with the west in English, we are essentially playing on fields created for them. If we speak and converse in our languages, the field automatically levels out.
  3. Greater use of Indian languages would in turn fuel the need for thousands of translators and multi-lingual skills, both from Indian to foreign languages, and between Indian regional languages themselves. We would need as many English-Hindi, Japanese-Tamil translators as Hindi-Tamil, Kannada-Bengali translators.
  4. As we reinvest money and emotion into our own languages, more original work will be done in them, and more foreign work can be translated into local languages, creating a huge deluge of jobs.

The way ahead:

  1. A national government promoting a single language in a multi language country is against the idea of multiculturalism and a multilingual, federal polity. The objective of the government should be on the imperatives of communicating with people all over India, rather than trying to decide on the language of communication.
  2. The Government is well within its rights to promote Hindi, but it must realise that belief of one nation and one language can divide more than unite. In South Asia alone, there are two examples – of West Pakistan imposing Urdu on East Pakistan and Sri Lankan Government imposing Sinhalese on the Tamils – where language conflict led to civil wars.
  3. Hindi has already made considerable inroads through entertainment and Bollywood. Bollywood movies in multiplexes now attract a lot of local audiences, particularly the new generation, and the entertainment industries seem to be contiguous. The best course of action, thus would be letting languages evolve on their own and allowing people to choose.
  4. The Government must, instead, build liberal institutions where scholarship of various languages can flourish.


Quotable Quote (useful for essay)

We should keep our windows fully open to ideas from everywhere, but we need not choose to be blown off our feet by anyone of them – M.K.Gandhi

Notify of
1 Comment
Newest Most Voted
Inline Feedbacks
View all comments
Sharmila Kareem
8 months ago

please upload notes for 2020