Skilling India – Skill India Mission,PMKVY, NSDC, etc.

Skilling India – Skill India Mission,PMKVY, NSDC, etc.

Youth can be a clear advantage for Indiaop-ed snap


From UPSC perspective, the following things are important :

Prelims level : Not much.

Mains level : Paper 2-Policy framework needed to reap the benefits of demographic dividends.


The demographic dividend is close to five-decade-long demographic opportunities that can be leveraged only with suitable policies and programmes

 The youngest population in the world

  • Median age at 28 years: By 2022, the median age in India will be 28 years.
    • In comparison, it will be 37 in China and the United States.
    • 45 in western Europe, and 49 in Japan.
  • The demographic dividend
    • The working-age population more than non-working: India’s working-age population has numerically outstripped its non-working age population.
    • An extraordinary opportunity: A demographic dividend, said to have commenced around 2004-05, is available for close to five decades.

The two caveats

  • The demographic dividend is an extraordinary opportunity. There are, however, two caveats.
  • First: Dividend available in different states at different times.
    • India’s population heterogeneity ensures that the window of demographic dividend becomes available at different times in different States.
    • Example of Kerala vs. Bihar: While Kerala’s population is already ageing, in Bihar the working-age cohort is predicted to continue increasing till 2051.
    • Decline in 11 major states by 2031: By 2031, the overall size of our vast working-age population would have declined in 11 of the 22 major States.
  • Second: Many factors that matter for harnessing the dividend
    • Factors that matter: Harnessing the demographic dividend will depend upon the-
    • Employability of the working-age population.
    • Health.
    • Education.
    • Vocational training and skill.
    • Besides appropriate land and labour policies, as well as good governance.
    • Demography is not destiny: India will gain from its demographic opportunity only if policies and programmes are aligned to this demographic shift. Demography is not destiny.

Need for skills

  • Need for the additional jobs: The Economic Survey 2019 calls for additional jobs to keep pace with the projected annual increases in the working-age population.
  • Lack of education and skills: UNICEF 2019 reports that at least 47% of Indian youth are not on track to have the education and skills necessary for employment in 2030.
    • Possibility of demographic disaster: The projected demographic dividend would turn into a demographic disaster if an unskilled, under-utilised, and frustrated young population undermines social harmony and economic growth.
  • Poor learning outcomes: While over 95% of India’s children attend primary school, the National Family Health Surveys (completed up to 2015-16) confirm that poor infrastructure in government schools, malnutrition, and scarcity of trained teachers have ensured poor learning outcomes.

What needs to be done?

  • Adopt a uniform school system: A coordinated incentive structure prompting States to adopt a broadly uniform public school system focusing on equity and quality will yield a knowledge society faster than privatising school education can accomplish.
  • Ensure training in line with the market demand: Most districts now have excellent broadband connectivity-
    • Let geography not trump demography: Irrespective of a rural or urban setting, the public school system must ensure that every child completes high school education, and is pushed into appropriate skilling, training and vocational education in line with market demand.
  • Invest and modernise: Modernise school curricula, systematically invest in teacher training so that they grow in their jobs to assume leadership roles while moving beyond the tyranny of the syllabus.
  • Use of technology: Deploy new technology to accelerate the pace of building human capital by putting in place virtual classrooms together with massive open online courses (MOOCS) to help prepare this huge workforce for next-generation jobs.
    • Investing in open digital universities would further help yield a higher educated workforce.

Focus on women

  • Translating literacy into skill: Growing female literacy is not translating into relevant and marketable skills.
    • A comprehensive approach is needed to improve their prospects vis-à-vis gainful employment.
    • Need of the flexible policies: Flexible entry and exit policies for women into virtual classrooms, and into modules for open digital training, and vocational education would help them access contemporary vocations.
  • The need for equal pay: Equal pay for women will make it worth their while to stay longer in the workforce.
  • The deferred bonus: Economist Yogendra Alagh has written that the significance of this “deferred bonus” (women entering the workforce), could be higher than the immediate benefits of the dividend from shifts in population age structure.

Health care

  • In India, population health is caught between the rising demand for health services and competition for scarce resources.
  • Impact of economy on rural health: The National Sample Survey Office data on health (75th round, 2018), shows that a deep-rooted downturn in the rural economy is making quality health-care unaffordable.
    • People are availing of private hospitals less than they used to, and are moving towards public health systems.
    • Diverting public investment from However, central budget 2020-21 lays emphasis on private provisioning of health care which will necessarily divert public investment away from public health infrastructure.
  • The Ayushman Bharat Yojana: It links demand to tertiary in-patient care.
    • This promotes earnings of under-utilised private hospitals, instead of modernising and up-grading public health systems in each district.
  • We need to assign 70% of health sector budgets to integrate and strengthen primary and integrated public health-care services and systems up to district hospital levels.
    • Include out-patient department and diagnostic services in every health insurance model adopted, and-
    • Implement in ‘mission mode’ the Report of the High-Level Group, 2019, submitted to the XV Finance Commission.
  • The elderly population in India is projected to double from 8.6% in 2011 to 16% in 2040.
    • This will sharply reduce the per capita availability of hospital beds in India across all major States unless investments in health systems address these infirmities.


The policies that we adopt and their effective implementation will ensure that our demographic dividend, a time-limited opportunity, becomes a boon for India.




Skilling India – Skill India Mission,PMKVY, NSDC, etc.

[pib] Yuwaah Youth Skilling InitiativeIOCRPIB


From UPSC perspective, the following things are important :

Prelims level : YuWaah

Mains level : Various initiatives for Skill development in India

UNICEF has informed that they have launched ‘YuWaah’ Generation Unlimited in India.


  • YuWaah in is a multi-stakeholder alliance which aims to facilitate youth to gain relevant skills for productive lives and the future of work.
  • The target age group of YuWaah includes adolescent girls and boys and its key mission is to promote access to foundational, transferable and 21stcentury skills for youth inside and outside formal education systems.
  • This includes defining foundational skills, life skills and flexible learning and identifying and scaling impactful delivery models.
  • It intends to create platforms to guide youth to market opportunities (career guidance, mentorship, internships, apprenticeships) and facilitate integration of career guidance in school education.
Skilling India – Skill India Mission,PMKVY, NSDC, etc.

[pib] IndiaSkills 2020PIB


From UPSC perspective, the following things are important :

Prelims level : IndiaSkills 2020

Mains level : Various initiatives for Skill development in India

The Minister of Skill Development and Entrepreneurship has announced the opening of online registrations for IndiaSkills 2020.

IndiaSkills 2020

  • It is a biennial competition to scout talent from the country, offering them a platform to showcase their skills at national and international competitions.
  • IndiaSkills 2020 provides a platform for skilled and talented Indian youngsters to showcase their abilities at regional and national level competitions in over 50 skills.
  • Regional legs of the competitions are organized across four zones, culminating at the national competition in Delhi.
  • Winners of IndiaSkills will then get a chance to represent the country at the WorldSkills International Competition to be held in China in 2021.

 Global competitors

  • The 22 winners of Indiaskills 2018 and their experts had represented the country with their outstanding performance at the WorldSkills International 2019 (WSK), held in Kazan, Russia.
  • India won one gold, one silver, two bronze and 15 Medallions of Excellence at the biggest competition for skills.
  • India ranked 13th among 63 countries that participated at WorldSkills International 2019, marking it to be the best finish for the country in the coveted skill championship.
  • The last IndiaSkills competition was organized in 2018, wherein 22 states and more than 100 corporates participated, that gave 355 competitors a chance to display their skills across various skill competitions.
Skilling India – Skill India Mission,PMKVY, NSDC, etc.

[pib] SkillsBuild platformPIB


From UPSC perspective, the following things are important :

Prelims level : SkillsBuild platform

Mains level : Various initiatives for skill education

  • The Ministry of Skill Development & Entrepreneurship (MSDE) launched the SkillsBuild platform in collaboration with IBM.

SkillsBuild platform

  • As part of the programme, a two-year advanced diploma in IT, networking and cloud computing, co-created and designed by IBM will be offered at the ITIs & National Skill Training Institutes (NSTIs).
  • The platform will be extended to train ITI & NSTI faculty on building skills in Artificial Intelligence (AI).
  • The platform is deployed with the support of leading NGOs like Unnati and Edunet Foundation.
  • IBM Volunteers along with the NGOS will offer students personalized coaching and experiential learning opportunities.


  • The digital platform will provide a personal assessment of the cognitive capabilities and personality via MyInnerGenius to the students.
  • They will then learn foundational knowledge about digital technologies, as well as professional skills such as resume-writing, problem solving and communication.
  • Students will alsos receive recommendations on role-based education for specific jobs that include technical and professional learning.

About “New Collar Curriculum” initiative  

  • IBM joined hands with Ministry of Skill Development & Entrepreneurship (MSDE) in early 2018 to launch a first-of-its kind ‘New Collar Curriculum’.
  • This initiative is part of IBM’s global commitment to create a job-ready workforce and to build the next generation of skills needed for new collar careers.
Skilling India – Skill India Mission,PMKVY, NSDC, etc.

[pib] Mahatma Gandhi National Fellowship Programme


From UPSC perspective, the following things are important :

Prelims level : SANKALP, MGNF

Mains level : Promoting skillful research in India

  • To boost skill development at the district level, the Ministry of Skill Development and Entrepreneurship (MSDE) signed a contract with the IIM Bangalore for introducing a two-year fellowship programme Mahatma Gandhi National Fellowship (MGNF) programme.


  • Designed under SANKALP the fellowship aims to address the challenge of non-availability of personnel for implementation of various programmes at national, state and district levels.
  • The MGNF programme has an in-built component of on-ground practical experience with the district administration.


  • It is launched on a pilot basis in 75 districts across Gujarat, Karnataka, Meghalaya, Rajasthan, Uttar Pradesh and Uttarakhand.
  • Eligible fellows for the programme have to be in 21-30 years age-group, have a graduation degree from a recognized university and be citizens of India.
  • Proficiency in official language of state of fieldwork will be mandatory.
  • Its unique design will allow the Fellows to take academic learning at IIM Bangalore and use it in the field under faculty mentorship with the goal of understanding challenges and barriers that district ecosystem faces in fostering growth and development.

Aim and Objectives

  • MGNF seeks to create a cadre of young individuals and train them in a blended academic programme that provides both academic inputs and a component of field immersion at the district level.
  • Besides allowing for an immersive experience to fellows under the programme, MGNF will also be an attractive proposition for those who wish to eke a career in public policy.


  • Fellows in the two-year blended programme with academic module at IIM-B & district emersion program will train with district administration officials
  • They are expected to enrich skilling programmes by bringing in fresh thinking to local planning, execution, community interaction and outcome management.
  • Fellows will receive a stipend of Rs. 50,000 in the first year and Rs. 60,000 in the second year.
  • On completion of their engagement, they will be awarded a Certificate in Public Policy and Management from IIM Bangalore.



  • SANKALP stands for Skills Acquisition and Knowledge Awareness for Livelihood Promotion.
  • Launched by the Government in January 2018, it is a World Bank loan assisted project that aims to strengthen institutional mechanisms for skill development and increase access to quality and market-relevant training for youth across the country.
  • Four key result areas have been identified under SANKALP viz: (i) Institutional Strengthening; (ii) Quality Assurance; (iii) Inclusion; and (iv) Expanding Skills through PPPs.
Skilling India – Skill India Mission,PMKVY, NSDC, etc.

[pib] Pradhan Mantri Innovative Learning Programme (PMILP) – ‘DHRUV’PIB


From UPSC perspective, the following things are important :

Prelims level : DHRUV initiative

Mains level : Various initiatives for skill education

  • Union HRD Ministry Shri will launch the Pradhan Mantri Innovative Learning Programme- ‘DHRUV’ from ISRO Headquarters at Bengaluru.

Pradhan Mantri Innovative Learning Programme (PMILP)

  • PMILP is being started to identify and encourage talented children to enrich their skills and knowledge.
  • The objective of the PMILP would be to allow talented students to realize their full potential and contribute to society.
  • In centres of excellence across the country, gifted children will be mentored and nurtured by renowned experts in different areas, so that they can reach their full potential.
  • It is expected that many of the students selected will reach the highest levels in their chosen fields and bring laurels to their community, State and Nation.

Details of the programme

  • The programme will be called DHRUV (after the Pole Star) and every student to be called ‘DHRUV TARA’.
  • It will cover two areas i.e. Science and Performing Arts. There will be 60 students in all, 30 from each area. The 60 students come from across the country
  • The students will be broadly from classes 9 to 12, from all schools including government and private.
  • This is only the first phase of the programme which will be expanded gradually to other fields like creative writing etc.
Skilling India – Skill India Mission,PMKVY, NSDC, etc.

[op-ed snap] The country’s population can be an asset: it is not a liabilityop-ed snap


From UPSC perspective, the following things are important :

Prelims level : Fertility Rate, Sex Ratio

Mains level : Population as an asset


In his address to the nation on Independence Day, Prime Minister said that a “population explosion”—posed a formidable challenge to our future. 

What’s suggested

  • Responsible citizens with small families, who contribute to their own welfare and to the good of the nation are seen as role models. 
  • Parents should think about their capacity to provide for education and healthcare before extending their families. 
  • Small families are in the national interest. 
  • Governments, at the Centre and in the states, should bring supportive schemes.

Challenges with the view

  • History
    • This is a belief system that dominated thinking 50 years ago. Family planning was the buzzword.
    • Governments provided proactive support. 
    • The Emergency culminated in the compulsory sterilization program. It led to widespread resistance and resentment among people. 
    • Such thinking did not recognize the economic or demographic factors underlying rapid population growth. 

It is important to understand the population issue in a new context.

Old thinking

  • The belief that India will remain poor because its population is growing is based on a simple logic of arithmetic. 
  • The larger the population, as a denominator, the smaller the per capita availability of everything.

New thinking

  • This reasoning does not recognize that India’s population might be growing too rapidly because it is poor. 
  • For the poor, children are a source of supplementing family income when parents are young, and of financial support in old age. 
  • High infant mortality rates only strengthen the motivation for more children.
  • Population growth rates are always high in the early stages of development because of demographic factors. As death rates drop because of improvements in public health systems that eliminate epidemic diseases, birth rates do not because poverty and illiteracy persist. 
  • As income levels rise, poverty is reduced and literacy spreads, birth rates also come down. 
  • As development leads to higher income levels, birth rates decline further to levels that merely replace the existing population. 
  • Such demographic transitions are integral to development processes. 
  • At later stages, in rich countries, birth rates might drop further so that their population declines.

The case of India

  • The demographic transition in India has been much slower than elsewhere in Asia because poverty and illiteracy persist and the public provision of education and healthcare has been grossly inadequate. 
  • The average annual rate of population growth, which was 2.1% in 1951-1971 and 2.2% in 1971-1991, dropped to 1.8% in 1991-2011 and 1.3% in 2011-2016. 
  • Birth rates dropped from 37 in 1971 and 29 in 1991 to 22 in 2011 and 19 in 2016, while fertility rates dropped from 5.2 and 3.6 to 2.4 and 2.3, respectively.
  • Projections in the Economic Survey 2019 suggest that average annual population growth in India will slow progressively to 1.1% during 2011-2021, 0.7% in 2021-2031 and 0.5% in 2031-2041. 
  • The fertility rate will drop to 1.8 in 2021 and 1.7 in 2031.
  • The natural replacement level fertility rate is 2.1 – an Indian woman would have to give birth on average to 2.1 children for the population size to remain constant. 
  • In India, given the sex ratio, with more men than women compared to the natural level, the replacement rate would need to be higher.

Hope about future

  • India’s population will continue to grow at progressively slower rates because of the relatively high proportion of young people in our population. 
  • Though our population will begin to age significantly in about a decade, the number of working-age people (20-59 years) and their share in the total population will continue to increase for more than two decades and peak at 59% in 2041.
  • For low-income countries with high underemployment, a large population is an asset rather than a liability. 
  • The high proportion of young people in the population will mean an increase in our workforce if a higher proportion of women enter the workforce. 
  • It will also mean an increase in savings rates for some time, as young people save while the old do not. 
  • This source of economic growth will not be available to many Asian countries as their workforce contracts. They would have to rely on productivity increases to sustain growth. 

Way ahead

  • We can harness this demographic dividend only through education that creates capabilities among our people.
  • We should focus on providing education and healthcare.



  • The total fertility rate (TFR) of a population is the average number of children that would be born to a woman over her lifetime.
  • It is the ratio of women to that of men in India.

Population and Associated Issues

Skilling India – Skill India Mission,PMKVY, NSDC, etc.

[op-ed snap] The problem of skilling Indiaop-ed snap


From UPSC perspective, the following things are important :

Prelims level : Nothing much

Mains level : Unemployment in India - the issue of skilling


Prime Minister in his recent Independence Day speech, said, “We need to worry about population explosion”.


  • So far, India’s demographic dividend with the country’s population was seen as an asset. 
  • Demography brings a dividend only if the youth is trained properly. Without proper training, the country gets massive joblessness.
  • A minimum of 8 million new job seekers enters the job market every year. In 2017, only 5.5 million jobs had been created.
  • The unemployment rate is the highest in 45 years today.
    • The unemployment rate reaching 34% among the 20-24-year-olds in the first quarter of 2019.
    • It was 37.9% in urban areas according to the CMIE. 
  • According to the 2018 Periodic Labour Force Survey (PLFS), the unemployment rate among the urban 15-29-year-olds was 23.7%. 


  • Poor training of the youth – only 7% of the people surveyed in the PLFS declared any formal or informal training.
  • According to a recent survey, 48% of Indian employers reported difficulties filling job vacancies due to talent shortage. 
  • In the IT sector, 1,40,000 skilled techies could not be recruited in 2018 despite the employers’ efforts – out of the 5,00,000 job offers that had been made that year. 
  • As per the CMIE reports, the more educated Indians are, the more likely they are to remain unemployed too. 
  • The last PLFS for 2018 revealed that 33% of the formally trained 15-29-year-olds were jobless.

Govt Initiatives – Skill India

  • The objective of the programme is “to train a minimum of 300 million skilled people by the year 2022”. 
  • In 2014, the government created a Ministry of Skill Development and Entrepreneurship to harmonise training processes, assessments, certification and outcomes. 
  • The Executive Committee monitoring the mission has representatives of nine ministries including agriculture, information technology, human resources development.
  • The governing council announced the setting up of 1,500 new ITIs and 50,000 Skill Development Centres.
  • Govt saw “Skill India” as a plan complementary to “Make in India”.
  • There was the creation of more courses and institutes of vocational training.
  • It integrated vocational training classes linked to the local economy with formal education from class nine onwards in at least 25% of the schools and higher education bodies. 
  • Its PPP character: Companies were requested to earmark 2% of their payroll bill for skill development initiatives. 
  • ITIs were supposed to tie up with the industry in the relevant trades to improve placement opportunities for candidates.
  • Under the Pradhan Mantri Kaushal Vikas Yojana, training fees were paid by the government. Its main tool was the “short-term training”, which could last between 150 and 300 hours, and included placement assistance by Training Partners upon successful completion of their assessment by the candidates.

Challenges faced by the scheme

  • The target of this scheme was to reach out to 300 million young people by 2022, but only a mere 25 million had been trained under this scheme by the end of 2018. 
  • Mismanagement of funds as they were either not spent sufficiently quickly because of a lack of candidates; or too little was spent. 
  • The money problem is evident from the PLF Survey mentioned above which showed that, in 2018, only 16% of the youth who had received formal training was funded by the government.
  • Those who have been trained don’t find jobs. The number of those who have benefited from the Skill India scheme has increased, from 3,50,000 in 2016-17 to 1.6 million in 2017-18, but the percentage of those who could find a job upon completion of their training has dropped from more than 50% to 30%. 
  • Under PMKVY, 4.13 million people had been trained, but only 15% of them got a job.
  • The training was not good enough – and this is why the employability rate remains very low. 
  • While the government expected that some of the PMKVY-trainees would create their own enterprise, only 24% of them started their business. Out of them, only 10,000 applied for MUDRA loans. 
  • India’s joblessness issue is not only a skills problem, it represents the lack of appetite of industrialists and SMEs for recruiting. 
  • The decline of the investment rate is a clear indication that the demand is weak.
  • Investment remains a challenge because of limited access to credit due to pile up of NPAs.


  • Skill India will not be enough to create jobs if the slowdown continues. 
  • Skill India will not be enough if government expenditures in education remain low. Allocation for school education has declined from 2.81% of the budget in 2013-14 to 2.05% in 2018-19.
Skilling India – Skill India Mission,PMKVY, NSDC, etc.

[op-ed snap] India’s moribund apprenticeship structure has been revived. Industry must help take it furtherop-ed snap


From UPSC perspective, the following things are important :

Prelims level : Nothing much

Mains level : Apprenticeships and skill training


In the US, Trump has set up a Task Force on Apprenticeship Expansion 2017 that calls for U.S. education providers and employers to learn from the successes of the German apprenticeship model. It “helped lower unemployment rates and contributed to the country’s economic success.”

Indian Apprentice system

  1. In 1961, the Apprentices Act was brought in and it was made applicable to engineering, non–engineering, technology, and vocational courses.
    • It constituted apprenticeship councils and advisors and placed a statutory obligation on employers to engage apprentices with a stipend in the ratio prescribed for respective trades. 
    • It also imposed a penalty of six months of imprisonment or a fine or both on the employer in case of non–compliance. 

Transitions in the labour force

  1. The composition of the workforce changed. Employment in the primary sector reduced from 76% to 46%, while increasing in the secondary sector from 11% to 23% and in the tertiary sector from 13% to 31%.
  2. The 1991 economic reforms brought in a golden age for the private sector. The number of companies increased from 0.2 million in 1991 to nearly 0.9 million in 2014, with estimated employment of 30 million.
  3. MSMEs grew exponentially from ten million enterprises in 2003 to 46 million in 2014 with estimated employment of 106 million.

Challenges in apprenticeship

  1. Apprenticeships have stagnated between 2000-2014 due to the challenges created by the 1961 Act and stood at 0.28 million in 2014. 
  2. Complex procedures for engaging of apprentices by companies led to MSMEs abstaining from participating.
  3. The Act gave power to the bureaucracy to impose strict and burdensome compliance norms on companies. 
  4. The threat of a penalty reduced partnerships between the private sector and the Government. 
  5. Even for the apprentices, the stipend offered and progression opportunities are limited.
  6. Improper dissemination of the benefits of apprenticeships led to training being perceived as less aspirational than a general education. 

The new model of apprenticeships

  1. The amendment of the Act in 2014, followed by the introduction of the National Apprenticeship Promotion Scheme (NAPS) in 2016 changed the landscape a little.
  2. The Central Apprenticeship Council also carried out reforms in 2019 to expand apprenticeship opportunities. 
  3. Today, apprenticeship is a valid pathway for youth educated beyond grade five to acquire a skill. 
  4. Their base stipend has been increased to ensure sustenance during an apprenticeship. 
  5. Technology has rendered contractual paperwork and process seamless and minimal.
  6. The amendments also have IT platform as an interface between stakeholders and apprentices for compliance and monitoring purposes.
  7. Opportunities in the service sector have been opened to the youth by making apprenticeships obligatory for this sector.
  8. A percentage band of 2.5% to 15% was given within which employers can decide the number of apprentices based on their needs and capacity. 
  9. Opportunities have been opened for the SME sector also. Units having four or more employees are now eligible to keep apprentices either on their own or as a group of employers. 
  10. Employers are empowered to decide their own curricula and the duration of apprenticeships on a need-basis. 
  11. NAPS further incentivises employers by partially splitting the stipend burden between them and the government.
  12. Third-Party Aggregators (TPAs) are empowered to help aggregate demand in clusters, pool resources, mobilise potential apprentices, deliver basic training, facilitate the paperwork and educate stakeholders on the need for apprenticeships.
  13. Regulatory powers have also been delegated to the industry-led Sector Skill Councils (SSCs) to administer apprenticeships in their respective sectors.

These reforms have changed the industry from being over-regulated to being extremely open and with an emphasis on self-regulation and voluntary apprenticeships.


  1. More than 1.1 million candidates and 70,000 companies are now registered on the apprenticeship portal.
  2. Annual apprenticeships have increased by 60%.

Challenges remaining

Awareness, lack of a progression pathway, absence of an integrated credit framework, the poor value proposition for certifications, training capacity shortages

Way ahead

  1. Government and industry stakeholders/SSCs need to jointly promote apprenticeships as a powerful learning tool. 
  2. MSMEs should leverage TPAs to create tailored apprenticeships. 
  3. The employer must create a learning experience during the apprenticeship. 
  4. The challenges of the new system need to be conveyed to the government periodically.


The time has come for India to have its own “Celebrity Employers” and model of apprenticeship – dynamic, flexible, futuristic, inclusive, convenient, self-regulated and rooted in Indian socio-cultural and economic realities.

Skilling India – Skill India Mission,PMKVY, NSDC, etc.

[pib] SANKALP SchemePIB


From UPSC perspective, the following things are important :

Prelims level : SANKAL Scheme

Mains level : Various initiatives for skill education

  • Minister of Skill Development & Entrepreneurship has reviewed the World Bank loan assisted “Skills Acquisition and Knowledge Awareness for Livelihood Promotion (SANKALP) programme.

Why in news?

  • All 36 States/ UTs across country have submitted their consent for participation in SANKALP.
  • In addition to these State grants of Rs 10 lakh each also released to 117 aspirational districts under Aspirational Skilling Abhiyaan.


  • SANKALP is an outcome-oriented centrally sponsored programme of Ministry of Skill Development & Entrepreneurship (MSDE) with a special focus on decentralized planning and quality improvement.
  • The project is implemented with the support of World Bank monetarily in line with the objectives of National Skills Development Mission (NSDM).
  • It focuses on the overall skilling ecosystem covering both Central & State agencies.
  • Under SANKALP four key result areas have been identified viz:
  1. Institutional Strengthening (at National, State & District level)
  2. Quality Assurance Quality Assurance of skill development programs
  3. Inclusion of marginalized population in skill development and
  4. Expanding Skills through Public Private Partnerships (PPPs)
Skilling India – Skill India Mission,PMKVY, NSDC, etc.

[pib] Jan Shikshan SansthansPIB


From UPSC perspective, the following things are important :

Prelims level : Jan Shikshan Sansthans

Mains level : Vocational training in India

  • Fee for SC/ST candidates, who join vocational training under Jan Shikshan Sansthans (JSS), has been waived off.
  • These decisions aim to further strengthen the skill ecosystem benefiting those in the underprivileged sections of society.

About Jan Shikshan Sansthan (JSS)

  • The scheme of JSS was initially launched in 1967 as Shramik Vidyapeeth, a polyvalent or multi-faceted adult education institution.
  • Formerly under the Ministry of Human Resources Development, JSS was transferred to the Ministry of Skill Development and Entrepreneurship in 2018.
  • It was aimed at improving the vocational skills and quality of life of the industrial workers and their family members as well as those persons who had been migrating from rural to urban settings.
  • Now it has challenging mandate of providing vocational skills to non-literate, neo-literates as well as school drop-outs by identifying skills that have a market in the region of their establishment.

Scope of work of JSS includes:

  • Develop/Source appropriate curriculum and training modules covering vocational elements general awareness and life enrichment components.
  • Wherever possible, JSSs are encouraged to undertake training equivalent to courses designed by the Directorate of Adult Education, National Institute of Open Schooling and Director General, Employment & Training.
  • Provide training to a pool of resource persons and master trainers for conducting training as also availability of infrastructure and training – specific equipment.
  • Administer simple tests and award certificates.
  • Network with employers and industries for trainees to get suitable placements
Skilling India – Skill India Mission,PMKVY, NSDC, etc.

2 West Bengal govt schemes win UN awardsPrelims OnlyStates in News


From UPSC perspective, the following things are important :

Prelims level : Utkarsh Bangla, Sabooj Sathi Schemes

Mains level : Not Much

  • Two schemes of the West Bengal government for skill development and distribution of bi-cycles to students have won the prestigious World Summit on the Information Society (WSIS) awards of the United Nations.
  • The schemes are “Utkarsh Bangla” and “Sabooj Sathi”.
  • The WB government had received another UN award in 2017 for its ‘Kanyashree’ project, a targeted conditional cash transfer scheme aimed at promoting education among girls.

Utkarsh Bangla

  • The “Utkarsh Bangla” project aims at creating a pool of skilled candidates who are industry ready.
  • It is meant especially for school dropouts.
  • Out of 1062 nominations in 18 categories, Utkarsh Bangla got the topmost award and emerged a winner in Capacity Building category.

Sabooj Sathi

  • Sabooj Sathi is a scheme for distribution of bi-cycles to estimated 40 lakh students of class IX to XII studying in Govt. run and Govt. aided Schools and Madrashas.
  • The scheme was launched in September 2015.


  • WSIS Prizes is an international contest to create an effective mechanism to evaluate and recognise individuals, governments and private bodies for outstanding success in implementing development oriented strategies that leverage the power of ICTs as an enabler of the development.
  • The contest, organised by the WSIS in Geneva, was first held in 2012.
Skilling India – Skill India Mission,PMKVY, NSDC, etc.

[pib] SHREYAS SchemeGovt. SchemesPIB


Mains Paper 3: Economy | Development & employment

From UPSC perspective, the following things are important:

Prelims level: Shreyas Scheme

Mains level: Skill Education in India


  • The Ministry of HRD has launched the Scheme for Higher Education Youth in Apprenticeship and Skills (SHREYAS) for providing industry apprenticeship opportunities.


  • It is a programme conceived for students in degree courses, primarily non-technical, with a view to introduce employable skills into their learning, promote apprenticeship and also amalgamate employment facilitating.
  • SHREYAS portal will enable educational institutions and industry to log in and provide their respective demand and supply of apprenticeship.
  • The matching of students with apprenticeship avenues will take place as per pre-specified eligibility criteria.

Objectives of the Scheme

  • To improve employability of students by introducing employment relevance into the learning process of the higher education system
  • To forge a close functional link  between education and industry/service sectors on a sustainable basis
  • To provide skills which are in demand, to the students in a dynamic manner
  • To establish an ‘earn while you learn’ system into higher education
  • To help business/industry in securing good quality manpower
  • To link student community with employment facilitating efforts of the Government

Operation of the Scheme

  • The primary scheme will be operated in conjunction with National Apprenticeship Promotion Scheme (NAPS) which provides for placing of apprentices upto 10% of the total work force in every business/industry.
  • The scheme will be implemented by the Sector Skill Councils (SSCs) , initially the Banking Finance Insurance Services (BFSI), Retail, Health care, Telecom, Logistics, Media, Management services, ITeS and Apparel.


  • Under the NAPS scheme, Central Government shares 25% of the stipend per month subject to a maximum of Rs.1500 p.m during the period of the apprenticeship.
  • Apart from that, an amount upto Rs.7500 will be met towards basic training cost, where needed.


1st Track:  Add-on apprenticeship

  • The students who are currently completing the degree programme would be invited to choose a job role of their choice from a selected list of apprenticeship job roles given by the Sector Skill Councils of the MoSDE.
  • At the end of the apprenticeship period, there would be a test conducted by the Sector Skill Council concerned and successful students would get skills certificate in addition to their degree certificate.

2nd track: Embedded Apprenticeship

  • Under this approach, the existing B.Voc programmes would be restructured into B.A (Professional), B.Sc (Professional) or B.Com (Professional) courses – which would include a mandatory apprenticeship ranging from 6 to 10 months depending on the requirement of the skill.
  • During the apprenticeship period, the student would get a monthly stipend of about Rs. 6,000 per month by the industry, 25% of which would be reimbursed under the NAPS programme.

3rd Track: Linking National Career Service with Colleges

  • Under this, the National Career Service (NCS) portal of Ministry of Labour& Employment would be linked with the Higher Education institutions.
  • As of now, more than 9,000 employers have posted requirement of more than 2 lakh vacancies, for which the students can get considered.
Skilling India – Skill India Mission,PMKVY, NSDC, etc.

[op-ed snap] A human-centric approach to unlock growthop-ed snap


Mains Paper 3: Science & Technology | Awareness in the fields of IT, Space, Computers

From the UPSC perspective, the following things are important:

Prelims level: Basic concepts behind of Artificial Intelligence

Mains level: Article gives a clear picture of Jobs and skilling challenges related to Artificial Intelligence



  • Industry 4.0 is a double-edged sword.
  • On one side, we have an artificial intelligence (AI)-driven $15.7 trillion game-changer that is unfolding.
  • On the other side, it’s this (cutting-edge technologies such as AI) that will disrupt 70% of market leaders across industries in the next 10 years.
  • The availability of relevant talent (or the lack of it) will decide which way industries (and nations) will go.
  • Countries have started to put in place national digital skills strategies, including in Asia.

Changes in Jobs due to the advent of AI

  • it’s about time we put to rest the fear-mongering narrative of job losses and underpinned the real issue—the global skill crisis.
  • Smart machines will replace millions of jobs worldwide, but, newer jobs will be created in greater numbers.
  • The World Economic Forum estimates 75 million jobs may be displaced, but 133 million new roles may emerge globally in a few years.
  • These new jobs will be different and will require higher application of cognitive skills alongside working with deep technologies.

Is Indian IT doing enough towards re-skilling?

  • Many companies have their own learning platforms that are being used extensively.
  • Others are tapping into their partner networks and massive open online courses.
  • Also, as an industry, we need to have deeper engagements with academia, CoEs and research labs to reach our optimum potential.
  • Indian IT is taking convincing strides to sustain its position as the preferred transformational partner for global clients.
  • Towards this, investments of about 10,000 crore oave been earmarked for re-skilling.

Competition from other countries

  • Other nations, such as Singapore, China, France, Canada, and Egypt, have begun to invest significantly towards creating digital talent.
  • As many as 20 countries across the globe have adopted AI National Strategy.
  • Governments worldwide recognise the inevitable shift and are adopting AI, analytics, and allied technologies to deliver citizen-centric services, including rthe eal-time response.

Indian Government’s Response

  • The government doubled its Digital India budget to $480 million in 2018-19, which will be used for research and training in deep tech.
  • In the interim budget this year, the announcement of the National AI Centre, AI portal, and the identification of nine areas to be driven by technology are positive steps towards evangelisation.
  • Karnataka government along with Nasscom has launched a CoE for data science and AI.

Other areas that need reforms

  • Universities will have to re-train to ensure students are employable in the digital era.
  • We produce 2.6 million STEM graduates annually, but their employability is considerably low.
  • Investment in research is another area where we lag. Sponsored research in our top institutions is between $120-140 million annually, while comparable estimates in the American colleges are between $1-1.5 billion.
  • Increasingly, universities will require great access to patient capital.


  • This industry has never been constrained by demand. We have to ensure that we get the supply side of the equation right in real quick time, and policies and strategies must translate into immediate action.
  • The choice is no more about being the bigger fish —but being the faster one.


Skilling India – Skill India Mission,PMKVY, NSDC, etc.

Skill Ministry strengthens Jan Shikshan SansthansGovt. Schemes


Mains Paper 3: Economy | Development & Employment

From UPSC perspective, the following things are important:

Prelims level: Jan Shikshan Sansthan, NSQF

Mains level: State of skill development institutes in the country


  • The government unveiled new guidelines for Jan Shikshan Sansthans (JSS) aligning them to the National Skills Qualification Framework with an aim to providing standardised training across sectors.

About Jan Shikshan Sansthan (JSS)

  1. The scheme of JSS was initially launched in 1967 as Shramik Vidyapeeth, a polyvalent or multi-faceted adult education institution.
  2. Formerly under the Ministry of Human Resources Development, JSS was transferred to the Ministry of Skill Development and Entrepreneurship in 2018.
  3. It was aimed at improving the vocational skills and quality of life of the industrial workers and their family members as well as those persons who had been migrating from rural to urban settings.
  4. Now it has challenging mandate of providing vocational skills to non-literate, neo-literates as well as school drop-outs by identifying skills that have a market in the region of their establishment.

Scope of work of JSS includes:

  • Develop/Source appropriate curriculum and training modules covering vocational elements general awareness and life enrichment components.
  • Wherever possible, JSSs are encouraged to undertake training equivalent to courses designed by the Directorate of Adult Education, National Institute of Open Schooling and Director General, Employment & Training.
  • Provide training to a pool of resource persons and master trainers for conducting training as also availability of infrastructure and training – specific equipment.
  • Administer simple tests and award certificates.
  • Network with employers and industries for trainees to get suitable placements

Benefits of new Norms

  1. JSS guidelines have been reformed keeping in mind the diverse stake-holders engaged in running these institutions.
  2. The JSS can play an important role in bridging information asymmetry between skill training and market opportunities thereby giving an impetus to the creation of a workforce equipped in technology-driven skills.
  3. By aligning JSSs to the National Skill Framework, the government aims to provide standardised training across sectors.

Impactful progress till now

  1. Out of the 247 active JSSs, 43 have been established across 42 Aspirational Districts identified by NITI Aayog.
  2. The ministry will soon be introducing a few more in the LWE (left-wing extremism affected) regions to promote skill development of the youth in the region.
  3. In the past five years, over eight lakh people have benefitted from the JSS scheme. More than 86,000 men have been registered.
  4. More importantly there has been an unprecedented surge in the registration of women, with over 7 lakh registrations.
  5. It further said the JSSs have helped open over 1 lakh bank accounts under Jan Dhan Yojana and mobilised around 7.5 lakh beneficiaries who were enrolled in PM Suraksha Bima Yojana.
  6. With a substantial rise in establishment of more than 1 lakh entrepreneurs, JSS has successfully generated employment across various sectors.


National Skills Qualification Framework

  1. The National Skills Qualifications Framework (NSQF) is a competency-based framework that organizes all qualifications according to a series of levels of knowledge, skills and aptitude.
  2. These levels, graded from one to ten, are defined in terms of learning outcomes which the learner must possess regardless of whether they are obtained through formal, non-formal or informal learning.
  3. NSQF in India was notified on 27th December 2013.
  4. All other frameworks, including the NVEQF (National Vocational Educational Qualification Framework) released by the Ministry of HRD, stand superceded by the NSQF.
Skilling India – Skill India Mission,PMKVY, NSDC, etc.

Karnataka launches SC/ST entrepreneurship schemeGovt. SchemesStates in News


Mains Paper 2: Governance | Government policies and interventions for development in various sectors

From UPSC perspective, the following things are important:

Prelims level: Particulars of the Samruddhi Scheme

Mains level: Promoting entrepreneurship skills to socio-economically backward youths


Samruddhi Scheme

  1. The Karnataka social welfare department has officially launched ‘Samruddhi”, a programme that partners at least 30 private companies for skill development of youngsters from economically and socially backward sections.
  2. The K’taka government had data on the beneficiaries of similar grants in the past but there was no machinery to track the progress or utilization of these funds.
  3. The Samruddhi scheme follows the Unnati and Airavata schemes which also targeted socially marginalised communities and helped provide them skill development and alternate means of employment.

Particulars of the Scheme

  1. The minimum age limit for a SC/ST youth is 21 and one must have an SSLC (10th standard) certificate.
  2. Selected beneficiaries can choose from about 200 specific skill sets and be trained by the private company.
  3. They will be given a period of two months to show that they have the land or space for it, or have access to the same.
  4. Various grants of up to Rs 10 lakhs would be given to deserving youth after successful completion of training to open an outlet.
  5. This is a move away from traditional business loans as we saw a potential for misuse in the loans.
  6. These seed grants are secure and will directly reach the intended beneficiaries.

Bringing in more transparency

  1. The scheme aims to streamline grants given by the social welfare department to eligible beneficiaries and link them with industry to track the progress of such programmes.
  2. This brings in transparency to distribution of funds, and avoids misuse.
Skilling India – Skill India Mission,PMKVY, NSDC, etc.

[pib] Cabinet nod for Indian Institute of SkillsPIB


Mains Paper 3: Economy | Development & Employment

From UPSC perspective, the following things are important:

Prelims level: Indian Institute of Skills, Skill India Mission

Mains level: State of skill development institutes in the country


IISs at different locations

  1. The Union Cabinet has approved the setting up of Indian Institute of Skills (IISs) at different locations across the country in PPP.
  2. The PPP Models will be explored for promotion of IIS at select locations based on demand and available infrastructure.

Benefits of IISs

  1. The IISs shall providing high quality skill training, applied research education and a direct and meaningful connection with industry.
  2. The setting up of IISs shall augment the global competitiveness of key sectors of Indian economy
  3. It will provide opportunity to aspiring youth across the country to have access to highly skilled training.
  4. By leveraging advantages of private sector enterprise and public capital in terms of Government land, it would create new institutes of expertise, knowledge and competitiveness.
Skilling India – Skill India Mission,PMKVY, NSDC, etc.

[op-ed snap] India and the new face of globalizationop-ed snap


Mains Paper 3: Economy | Effects of liberalization on the economy

From UPSC perspective, the following things are important:

Prelims level: Not much

Mains level: Fourth industrial revolution and how India can benefit from it


Evolution of globalization

  1. Globalization itself is evolving, with changes in global trade flows, capital flows, and the Fourth Industrial Revolution
  2. Trade flows have attracted more attention than capital flows and technological changes as drivers of globalization
  3. Trade in services are now increasing at a much faster pace than trade in goods

Advantage India

  1. India’s trade characteristics are well aligned with the new face of globalization
  2. India’s global trade has been spearheaded by exports of modern services
  3. Technology has enabled services to be digitized and transported long distances at low costs without compromising on quality
  4. The internet has enabled firms to sell services without crossing national borders, and dramatically increased the size and the scope for exploiting cost differentials in services compared to trade in goods

Changes in capital flow

  1. Globalization of capital flows is also evolving with huge implications for macroeconomic management and growth
  2. Remittances, which tend to be more resilient, have been the dominant form of capital inflow into India
  3. They have often exceeded foreign direct investment and other capital inflows in the past
  4. Many long-term investors, such as pension funds and insurance companies, which are ideally suited for human and physical infrastructure investments, see India as an important investment destination
  5. There is increasing interest from global investors in solar power, water management, waste management, affordable housing and much more
  6. There is also increasing interest, both from philanthropic and private foundations, in promoting public-private partnerships and maximizing finance for welfare development

Impact of the technological revolution

  1. New technological revolution has huge spillovers and externalities
  2. Data and information technology is now the lifeblood of the global economy, fuelling ideas for new products and services, and advancing the transnational flow of trade, capital, and ideas
  3. The shift in value from physical to digital information services will only increase
  4. The new era of innovation, in which cutting-edge technologies are replacing old production methods has impacted everybody
  5. India faces the challenge of how to capitalize on their comparative advantage, benefit from new technology, and create more jobs

Need to build human capital

  1. While investment in physical infrastructure has attracted the attention of policymakers in the past, investment in building human infrastructure has become even more important
  2. Given India’s young population, and to benefit from its demographic dividend, India needs to dramatically scale up investments in human infrastructure
  3. India’s demographic dividend suggests that 7-10 million people will join the labour force every year

Gaps in system

  1. Less than 4 million receive skill training
  2. Early learning and stimulation interventions for children under three are virtually non-existent
  3. Less than 17% of government schools provide one or two years of pre-primary education
  4. Less than 15% of rural children in grade 2 can read at the expected level

Way forward

  1. India faces a dual challenge—demographic dividend and rapid technological change
  2. Technological progress is placing a higher premium on skills, and any failure of countries to lay the groundwork for their citizens to lead productive lives will not only carry a high cost, but it will also generate more inequality and conflict
  3. India needs to invest in people—through education, health, nutrition, social protection, and skills
  4. Scaling up investments in human capital to promote growth and prevent digital divide is an easy call for the policymakers
Skilling India – Skill India Mission,PMKVY, NSDC, etc.

Cabinet nod to merger of skill development bodiesPrelims Only


Mains Paper 3: Economy | Development & Employment

From UPSC perspective, the following things are important:

Prelims level: NSDA, NCVT, NCVET

Mains level: State of skill development institutes in the country and measures to improve their quality



  • The Union cabinet on has approved the merger of the National Council for Vocational Training (NCVT) and the National Skill Development Agency (NSDA).
  • The merger is aimed to consolidate fragmented regulatory structures and improve the outcome of the Skill India mission.

National Council for Vocational Education and Training (NCVET)

  1. The merged entity would be called the NCVET.
  2. The NCVET will regulate the functioning of entities engaged in vocational education and training, both long-term and short-term, and establish minimum standards for the functioning of such entities.
  3. The primary functions of NCVET will include recognition and regulation, assessment, approval of qualifications developed by different bodies and industry governed sector skill councils.
  4. The merger would bring in accountability in skill sector that caters to nearly 15 million students at any given time.
  5. This reform will ultimately increase credibility of the skill sector and encourage greater private investment.

About NCVT and NSDA

  1. The NCVT was a regulator and assessment body of the long-term skill education space comprising more than 13,000 industrial training institutions.
  2. While the NSDA was policy formulating bodies of the skill development ministry helping it devise training and industry collaboration policy for the Skill India mission.
  3. The NCVT had been in existence for more than four decades as part of the directorate general of training, while the NSDA was a relatively new body that came into force in 2013.
Skilling India – Skill India Mission,PMKVY, NSDC, etc.

[pib] India and Asian Development Bank (ADB) sign up for India’s First Global Skills ParkPIB


From UPSC perspective, the following things are important:

Prelims level: Global Skills Park

Mains level: Enhancing skill development ecosystem in India



  • Asian Development Bank (ADB) and the Government of India signed a $150 million Loan Agreement in today to establish a Global Skills Park (GSP) in Madhya Pradesh.

Global Skills Park (GSP)

  1. It is the First Multi-Skills Park in India, to enhance the quality of Technical and Vocational Education And Training (TVET) System in the State and create a more skilled workforce.
  2. The Project will help improve the quality and relevance of the State’s TVET programs.
  3. It will help impart advanced job-ready skills training of international standards that can meet the employment needs of the State’s emerging sectors.
  4. The Project will engage international TVET partners to support advanced training at the GSP who will bring global best practices in TVET management, training infrastructure, industry cooperation, and quality assurance.

About the GSP campus

  1. The new GSP campus, which will be established in Bhopal will consist of core Advanced Training Institutes including the Center for Occupational Skills Acquisition and the Center for Advanced Agricultural Training as well as other support services.
  2. The sole aim is focussed on entrepreneurship, training of trainers, and skill-related research.
  3. The campus will have training facilities focusing on skills for manufacturing, service, and advanced agricultural jobs, benefitting about 20,000 trainees and trainers.
  4. The Project will also help in modernizing 10 industrial training institutes across the state by renovating training infrastructure and upgrading skills courses to align with industry and market needs.
Skilling India – Skill India Mission,PMKVY, NSDC, etc.

[op-ed snap] Rebooting the system for a skills upgradeop-ed snap


Mains Paper 3: Economy | Development & employment

From UPSC perspective, the following things are important:

Prelims level: Not much

Mains level: State of skill development institutes in the country and what can be done to improve quality


Poor state of ITIs

  1. Private Industrial Training Institutes (ITIs) are running in small shops, basements, tin sheds and even godowns in the country
  2. These facts come from the report of the Standing Committee on Labour (2017-18), on the “Industrial Training Institutes (ITIs) and Skill Development Initiative Scheme” of the Ministry of Skill Development and Entrepreneurship (MSDE)
  3. It was submitted to Parliament few months ago

Disproportionate rise in the number of ITIs

  1. The ITIs were initiated in the 1950s
  2. In a span of 60 years, until 2007, around 1,896 public and 2,000 private ITIs were set up
  3. But in a 10-year period from 2007, more than 9,000 additional private ITIs were accredited
  4. This rise is not efficiency but a disregard for norms and standards

What has this led to?

  1. Private sector engagement in skill development has been taken up by standalone private training partners and not employers
  2. The latter could have made the system demand-driven
  3. The lack of a regulator for skill development, with teeth, has led to poor quality affiliation, assessment and certification

How did this malfunctioning start?

  1. It was due to instances of responsibility outsourcing, no oversight, connivance and an ownership tussle between the Central and State governments
  2. Private-ITI accreditation troubles started when the Quality Council of India (QCI), a private body, was hired due to “high workload of affiliation and shortage of government staff
  3. The QCI did not follow accreditation norms created by the National Council for Vocational Training (NCVT) and it appears that neither scale nor standard was achieved, but only speed

Centre-state jointly handling ITIs

  1. The ITIs have a unique functioning set-up. While they were formed under the government’s Craftsman Training Scheme, their day-to-day administration, finances and admissions are with State governments
  2. The NCVT performs an advisory role
  3. The ITIs often run into issues with no one to take ownership

How to improve the standards in ITIs

  1. A good point to start would be the Sharda Prasad Committee recommendations
  2. A better oversight is needed, with a national board for all skill development programmes
  3. The core work (accreditation, assessment, certification and course standards) cannot be outsourced
  4. Like every other education board (such as the CBSE), a board is required in vocational training that is accountable
  5. There should be a mandatory rating system for the ITIs that is published periodically
  6. A ranking of the ITIs on several parameters such as the one done by the National Assessment and Accreditation Council in tertiary education can be replicated
  7. There should be one system, with one law and one national vocational education and training system

Micro reforms needed in ITIs

  1. There is a critical need to reskill ITI teachers and maintain the student-teacher ratio
  2. Since technology obsolescence is a continuous challenge, financial support envisaged through the NSDC should be extended to the ITIs
  3. Institutional reforms such as moving the office of the Directorate General of Employment (the arm that has all data on employment) from the Ministry of Labour to the MSDE would help
  4. It would also complement the Directorate General of Training already under MSDE

Need for RIC

  1. Given the scale of our demographic challenge, a belief that financing from corporate social responsibility, multilateral organisations such as the World Bank, and the government will meet the financial needs for skill development is wishful thinking
  2. The only way to mobilise adequate resources the right way is to do skills training, and have equipment and tools that keep pace with changing needs and ensure that employers have skin in the game
  3. This is possible through a reimbursable industry contribution (RIC) — a 1-2% payroll tax that will be reimbursed when employers train using public/private infrastructure and provide data
  4. RIC, which is implemented in 62 other countries, was recommended in the 12th Plan

Way Forward

  1. The silos in which vocational training happens in India is unfortunate
  2. We need to create a unified national vocational system where the ITIs, NSDC private vocational trainers and vocational education in schools, and the other Central ministries conducting training gel seamlessly and can learn from, and work with each other
Skilling India – Skill India Mission,PMKVY, NSDC, etc.

[op-ed snap] Skill development of the Youth: Pay heed to the marketop-ed snap


Mains Paper 3: Economy | Development & employment

From UPSC perspective, the following things are important:

Prelims level: International Labour Organisation, Pradhan Mantri Kaushal Vikas Yojana

Mains level: Reaping benefits of India’s demographic dividend by better skilling


Unemployment in India to rise

  1. Coupled with a continual increase in voluntary unemployment, the International Labour Organisation expects unemployment in India to be higher in 2018
  2. In India, 65% of the population is below 35 years and unemployment, especially among youth, can limit the nation’s ability to reap the much-hyped demographic dividend

Enhancing youth employability

  1. A wide range of stakeholders, including the government, companies, civil society organizations, and for-profit enterprises are working either independently or in cohesion to enhance youth employability
  2. The government has also undertaken a structured approach via the establishment of the ministry of skill development and employment and the Pradhan Mantri Kaushal Vikas Yojana
  3. Currently, four models are used for supporting youth employability in the country
  • The first model, or the self-employment model, work on the rationale that if youth are trained in a particular skill, they will have the capacity to become micro-entrepreneurs
  • The second model, or the employer-led model, trains youth in specific skills relevant to an enterprise and then absorbs the youth into their own value chain
  • The third, the placement-led model, provides training to youth and also established linkages with potential employers
  • Fourth, the market linkage model provides end-to-end support to self-employed youth, assisting them in earning better incomes

Causes of increasing unemployment

  1. Unemployment is higher among the formally educated in comparison to the illiterate
  2. There is higher youth unemployment in rural areas, while most interventions focus on urban areas
  3. There is a mismatch between the skill sets that industries require and the skill sets that youth are equipped with
  4. These structural challenges result in a demand-supply mismatch which can be summarized as
  • a mismatch between youth aspirations and the skills training being provided
  • mismatch in skills training and industry needs
  • poor industry buy-in for vocational training courses because of lack of standardization and universally accepted certification

Solutions for this problem

  1. The focus should be put on understanding aspirations, industry requirements and standardization across the skill-development value chain
  2. Well-designed interventions will be effective only if the candidates are willing, receptive and capable of absorbing the knowledge or skill being imparted by the intervention
  3. Counseling in skilling programmes is essential to align the aspirations of programme beneficiaries with the expected outcomes of training
  4. While designing programmes, it is critical to map skills being imparted to the specific needs of potential employers so that the skilling-to-employment loop is closed seamlessly
  5. When it comes to designing programmes that focus on self-employment or entrepreneurship, it is important to assess demand for the product or service and study policies or schemes that can be leveraged to enhance sales
  6. There is also scope for increased public-private partnerships
  7. Public-private partnerships (PPPs) can use existing under-utilized infrastructure available with educational institutions to facilitate vocational training and skill development

Way forward

  1. India’s demography provides a great opportunity for the country with regard to economic growth and development milestones
  2. Concentrated and evidence-backed efforts which can cohesively develop and strengthen youth aspirations, the skill development ecosystem and markets where youth can be employed are necessary for India to realize that opportunity
Skilling India – Skill India Mission,PMKVY, NSDC, etc.

[op-ed snap] ‘Skill India’ urgently needs reformsop-ed snap


Mains Paper 3: Economy | Development & employment

From UPSC perspective, the following things are important:

Prelims level: Sharada Prasad Committee, Sector Skill Councils, Skill India, National Classification of Occupations 2015, National Skills Qualification Framework, National Sample Survey Office

Mains level: Various initiatives related to skill development and their impacts & shortcomings


Reaping demographic dividend

  1. Salvaging the Indian demographic dividend must be a key part of India’s growth story (Good intro)
  2. In 2016, the Government of India formed the Sharada Prasad Committee to rationalise the Sector Skill Councils (SSCs) and improve ‘Skill India’
  3. SSCs are employer bodies mostly promoted by the Federation of Indian Chambers of Commerce and Industry, the Confederation of Indian Industry and other industry associations
  4. The committee submitted its report in 2016

Goals of Skill India

  1. To meet employers’ needs of skills
  2. To prepare workers (young and old) for a decent livelihood

Committee suggestions

  1. Each recommendation underlines that the vocational education/training (VET) is not just for underprivileged communities
  2. It is not a stopgap arrangement for those who cannot make it through formal education. It is for all of us
  3. It suggests concrete steps to ensure a mindset change, such as
  • having a separate stream for vocational education (in secondary education)
  • creating vocational schools and vocational colleges for upward mobility, and
  • having a Central university to award degrees and diplomas

What needs to be done for improving VET

  1. It requires a serious engagement of employers
  2. This can be done by aligning the courses to international requirements, ensuring a basic foundation in the 3Rs, and life-long learning
  3. It implies national standards for an in-demand skill set with national/global mobility that translates into better jobs
  4. We should have no more than 450 courses (Germany has only 340 courses) — in accordance with the National Classification of Occupations 2015
  5. National Skills Qualification Framework (NSQF) had recommended rationalization of qualification packs/job roles

Ethics and accountability issue

  1. There is a huge ethics and accountability issue if there is no credible assessment board and when there are too many sector skill councils, each trying to maximise their business
  2. The Sharada Prasad Committee had recommended that the number of SSCs should correspond to the National Industrial (Activity) Classification
  3. It has 21 economic activities across the entire economy

Policy steps that can be taken

  1. The first policy step should be towards a unification of the entire VET system
  • SSCs, which are supposedly industry representatives, should be engaging themselves with each pillar of the system, and not just NSDC-funded VTPs
  • ‘Skill India’ can have an impact only when all of them work together and learn from each other

2. The second step is to enhance employer ownership, responsibility and their ‘skin in the game’

  • Only 36% of India’s organized sector firms conduct in-firm training
  • There can be a reimbursable industry contribution model (applicable only to the organized sector)
  • It could ensure reimbursements for those companies undertaking training while rewarding industry for sharing and undertaking skilling until everyone in the company is skilled

3. The government should have surveys, once every five years, through the National Sample Survey Office, to collect data on skill providers and skill gaps by sector

  • Such data can guide evidence-based policy-making, as against the current approach of shooting in the dark

Way forward

  1. India can surely become the world’s skill capital but not with what it is doing right now
  2. The reforms suggested by the committee can be a good starting point for we cannot let another generation lose its dreams
Skilling India – Skill India Mission,PMKVY, NSDC, etc.

[pib] Mahila Kisan Shashaktikaran Pariyojana and Value Chain Initiatives


From UPSC perspective, the following things are important:

Prelims level: Mahila Kisan Shashaktikaran Pariyojana (MKSP), Aajeevika Grameen Express Yojana, Deendayal Upadhyaya Grameen Kaushalya Yojana, DAY-NRLM,

Mains level: Schemes to promote entrepreneurship and skilling in rural India


Objective: In order to promote agro-ecological practices that increase women farmers’ income and reduce their input costs and risks, the Mission has been implementing the Mahila Kisan Shashaktikaran Pariyojana (MKSP).

  • More than 33 lakh women farmers were being supported under this scheme.
  • Further, about 8 lakh Mahila Kisans have been mobilized into 86,000 Producer Groups (PGs) which are federated into 126 Producer Companies (PCs).
  • These value chain development initiatives have contributed significantly to the farmers’ income from agriculture, horticulture, dairying, fisheries and Non-Timber Forest Produce (NTFP) related activities.
  • Small and marginal farmers producing Maize, Mango, Floriculture, Dairy, Goatery etc., have benefited significantly through the value chain interventions across different states. As of February 2018, more than 1.05 lakh SHG members have been covered under these interventions.

Community Livelihood Professionals

The community-driven implementation strategy is the cornerstone of the Mission.

More than 1.72 lakh community members have been trained and deployed to provide support to the community institutions in a variety of themes, such as bookkeeping, training and capacity building, financial services etc.  

This also includes more than 22,000 Community Livelihoods Resource Persons (CLRPs) such as Krishi Sakhi and Pashu Sakhi who provide 24 X 7 doorstep extension services to the small and marginal farmers including dairy farmers.

Start-up Village Entrepreneurship Programme & Aajeevika Grameen Express Yojana

  • As part of its non-farm livelihoods strategy, DAY-NRLM is implementing Start-Up Village Entrepreneurship Programme (SVEP) and Aajeevika Grameen Express Yojana (AGEY).
  • SVEP aims to support entrepreneurs in rural areas to set up local enterprises.
  • Implemented in 17 States since 2016-17, about 16,600 enterprises have been supported under SVEP resulting in gainful employment for about 40,000 persons.

Aajeevika Grameen Express Yojana (AGEY), was launched in August 2017 to provide safe, affordable and community monitored rural transport services to connect remote rural villages. As of March 2018, proposals from 17 States have been approved and 288 vehicles are operating.   

Deendayal Upadhyaya Grameen Kaushalya Yojana (DDUGKY) aims at building placement linked skills of the rual youth and place them in relatively higher wage employment sectors of the economy.

Rural Self Employment Training Institutes: The Mission is in partnership with 31 Banks and State Governments, is supporting Rural Self Employment Institutes (RSETIs) for skilling of rural youth to take up gainful self-employment. In FY 2017-18, a total of 4.23 lakhs candidates have been trained and 3.34 lakhs candidates have been settled.

Independent Assessment of DAY-NRLM: Institute of Rural Management Anand (IRMA), was entrusted to carry out the independent assessment of design, strategy and impacts of DAY-NRLM. As part of the study, survey of nearly 4500 households spanning across 746 villages was conducted during January – March 2017.

The results indicate that the households in the treatment areas:

  • Have a higher number of livestock assets as compared to control areas – On an average, each household in a Mission village had more than 2.34 productive livestock assets compared to a similar household in non-Mission village
  • Show a higher proclivity to save in formal institutions;
  • Have a higher loan size (about 67% more than the loan size in the control areas) and are more likely to borrow from formal financial sources; NRLM households also pay a lower rate of interest
  • Have 22% higher (net) income than the households in the control areas, largely due to income from enterprises. On an average, each NRLM village had 11 enterprises more than the non-NRLM villages – suggesting livelihood diversification in NRLM villages.
  • Participate more in PRIs – NRLM households participate 3 times more than their counterparts

Promotion of Farm Livelihoods: DAY-NRLM plans to

  • Include another 5 lakh women farmers under its farm livelihoods interventions like sustainable agriculture, livestock and NTFP based activities with major focus on North East states.
  • Further, the Mission aims at supporting an additional 75000 SHG member households through farm-based value chain initiatives.
  • It would also promote 15 large size farm-based producer enterprises to provide market linkages to women producers.
  • In addition, organic cultivation will be promoted in 1000 village clusters across States.

Promotion of Non-Farm Livelihoods: It is also expected that Start-Up Village Entrepreneurship Programme (SVEP) will support an additional 25000 entrepreneurs during the year 2018-19. In addition, it is expected that by March 2019, about 1500 vehicles will be operating across 17 States under Aajeevika Gram Express Yojana (AGEY).

Setting up of Rural Haats: Development of haats has emerged as one of the most important strategies to market SHG products and agricultural produce. To facilitate marketing of rural produce, it is proposed to set up haats at village and block levels in convergence with MGNREGS and the District and State level using DAY-NRLM resources. It is proposed to set up 4567 rural haats across the country during FY 2018-19

Enabling rural poor’s access to formal sources of finance: The Mission will continue to promote access of SHGs to bank credit and other financial services. In FY 18-19, it is planned to link 22 lakh SHGs to bank credit for total loan amount of Rs. 42500 crores, taking the SHG Bank loan outstanding to Rs. 75000 crore. The Mission will make efforts to expand Banking services to underserved regions through alternate channels in partnerships with various banks.

Rural Self Employment Training Institutes:

  • An increased involvement of State Government has been envisaged in planning and implementation of skill development of rural poor through RSETIs. This would facilitate better mobilization (using Kaushal Panjee app) and identification of needy candidates in rural poor households.
  • The mission is launching Standard Operating Procedures for greater transparency, efficiency and Quality assurance in the implementation of skill training in RSETIs.
  • Mission is facilitating partnership of Industry Bodies with RSETIs to enable scaling up of rural entrepreneurs.
Skilling India – Skill India Mission,PMKVY, NSDC, etc.

[pib] Deendayal Antodaya Yojana – National Rural Livelihoods Mission


From UPSC perspective, the following things are important:

Prelims level: DAY-NRLM

Mains level: Schemes for rural development


Related Ministry/Department: Ministry of Rural Development (MoRD)

Aim: Alleviating rural poverty & fostering diversified livelihoods through sustainable community institutions of poor

It is a flagship programme of the Ministry of Rural Development (MoRD) that seeks to alleviate rural poverty through building sustainable community institutions of the poor. The centrally sponsored programme is implemented in partnership with the State governments.

Community Institution Building – Financial year 2017-18

  • More than 82 lakh households mobilized into 6.96 lakh Self Help Group (SHGs) across the country.
  • More than 4.75 crore women have been mobilized into more than 40 lakh SHGs.
  • Cumulatively, these community institutions have been provided more than Rs. 4,444 crore as capitalization support.
Skilling India – Skill India Mission,PMKVY, NSDC, etc.

[op-ed snap] A global opportunity for the Indian workforceop-ed snap

Image source


Mains Paper 3: Economy | Development & employment

From UPSC perspective, the following things are important:

Prelims level: Global Economic Prospects report, Gini coefficient, Annual State of Education Report, World Development Report

Mains level: Ways to improve skill development and employment


Global Economic Prospects report

  1. The World Bank’s latest “Global Economic Prospects” report shows that the second wave of change in the global labour market will play out over the next two decades
  2. Developing economies will be contributing to all of the addition in the global skilled labour force
  3. This is because the number of skilled workers in advanced economies is expected to decline

Global workforce and skilled workers

  1. Skilled workers have been defined as those having at least nine years of education
  2. The global skilled workforce is likely to increase from 1.66 billion workers in 2011 to 2.16 billion by 2040

What will this lead to?

  1. Improvement in the level of education and skill tends to increase income
  2. Rising income in the developing world will lead to a reduction in inequality
  3. The global Gini coefficient is estimated to decline from 65.8 in 2012 to 62.6 by 2030

Gains depend on adjustments

  1. India has benefited by integrating with the global economy
  2. The next wave of gains will depend on how well it adjusts to the changing economic and technological environment
  3. Policymakers will need to work on different levels to be able to create a competitive labour force

What needs to be done?

  1. First, India urgently needs to focus on education and skill development
  • The “Annual State of Education Report” periodically shows the depressing state of education in Indian schools
  • The World Bank also highlighted the problem in its “World Development Report” last year
  • Outcomes in education could be improved by better use of technology

2. Second, the World Bank in its analysis assumes that additional workers will get employed

  • India has not been able to create enough employment opportunities for people moving out of agriculture
  • The basic reason for this is India has not capitalized on labour-intensive manufacturing
  • Recent research shows that India’s competitive advantage in some of the labour-intensive sectors has actually declined in recent years
  • The legal and regulatory requirements in markets like land and labour make it difficult for firms to grow and take advantage of economies of scale
  • To be able to absorb its rising workforce, India needs to remove impediments in the manufacturing sector

3. Third, inequality has gone up in advanced economies

  • Even though inequality at the global level declined in recent decades, it has gone up in advanced economies as the national income share of wages came down
  • Therefore, the lingering risk of protectionism is unlikely to dissipate in a hurry
  • India will need to protect its interest in such an environment and look for opportunities to increase trade at both bilateral and multilateral forums
  • Adequate attention should be paid to currency management in the world of volatile capital flows
  • It will be difficult to grow at a faster pace without the backing of strong exports as exports are an important driver of growth and job creation

Way Forward

  1. An increasing number of skilled workers not only raises the potential growth but also reduces inequality within the country by reducing the skill premium
  2. A skilled labour force along with a focus on manufacturing and exports will help India grow at a faster rate in the medium to long run


Gini Coefficient

  1. Gini Coefficient is a popular statistical measure to gauge the rich-poor income or wealth divide
  2. It measures inequality of a distribution — be it of income or wealth — within nations or States
  3. Its value varies anywhere from zero to 1
  4. Zero indicates perfect equality and one indicates the perfect inequality
  5. Gini Coefficients can be used to compare income distribution of a country over time as well
  6. A general rise in Gini Coefficient indicates that government policies are not inclusive and may be benefiting the rich as much as (or even more than) the poor
Skilling India – Skill India Mission,PMKVY, NSDC, etc.

Government to enable skilled persons bag jobs abroad 


Mains Paper 3 : Issues relating to development and management of Social Sector/Services relating to Health, Education, Human Resources.
Prelims level: Policy for skill India
Mains level: Steps being taken by Government for skilling people.
2016 Mains question: “Demographic Dividend in India will remain only theoretical unless our manpower becomes more educated, aware, skilled and creative.” What measures have been taken by the government to enhance the capacity of our population to be more productive and employable?


  1. India plans to make it easier for masons, carpenters and plumbers, among other skilled persons, to get jobs overseas.
  2. The skill development and entrepreneurship ministry is giving a final shape to the policy, which will be presented to the Union cabinet for its approval.
  1. The policy and the action plan will address the information asymmetry.
  2. Information Asymmetry exists across the globe for different skills and the basic minimum certification required for each skill in different countries.
  3. Currently, the skill development ministry does not have enough information on how many masons or plumbers are needed and in which countries.
  4. The new policy will help us map this requirement,
  1. India will have a surplus manpower of four-five crore over the next decade.
  2. Vision to make India the skilled capital of the world.
  3. Part of the larger vision to imparting skills to 50 crore youth by 2022.
Earlier Steps Taken
  1. Last year, government announced the launch of 50 India International Skill Centres to impart training to youth under the Pravasi Kaushal Vikas Yojana.
  2. The idea was to increase the employability and acceptability of Indian youth on global platforms.
Skilling India – Skill India Mission,PMKVY, NSDC, etc.

Pradhan Mantri Kaushal Vikas Yojana

  1. News: The Cabinet cleared a Rs 12,000-crore revamped version of the Pradhan Mantri Kaushal Vikas Yojana (PMKVY)
  2. Aim: To impart skills to over 1 crore people in the next 4 years – includes training to 60 lakh youths and certifying 40 lakh informally skilled workers
  3. Includes a mechanism to revive the traditional Guru-Shishya approach to train youth with the help of local craftsmen and trade practitioners
  4. Training centres will be categorised on the basis of their infrastructure and past performance and third party agencies will be deployed to validate their training efforts and placement records
  5. Members of Parliament will also be roped in to mobilise youth for training, monitor the scheme in their constituencies and post-training placement of trainees
Skilling India – Skill India Mission,PMKVY, NSDC, etc.

Google to train 2 mn developers in Android

  1. News: Google launched a program to train 2 million developers in India on Android, its mobile operating system, in the next 3-year period
  2. Aim: Enabling the developers to make innovative mobile applications on the platform and to make India the global leader in mobile app development
  3. Low rank: Google’s Play Store has over 1 million applications, and less than 4% of the top 1000 applications come from India
  4. Trivia: India is expected to have the largest developer population of 4 million by 2018, overtaking the US
Skilling India – Skill India Mission,PMKVY, NSDC, etc.

Scheme for apprenticeship training

  1. News: The Centre approved an outlay of Rs 10,000 crore towards National Apprenticeship Promotion Scheme
  2. Aim: To provide apprenticeship training to 50 lakh youth by 2020
  3. The scheme will provide financial incentives to employers to engage apprentices
  4. The Ministry of Skill Development and Entrepreneurship will share 25% of the total stipend payable to an apprentice with employers
  5. The government will also fund 50% of the total expenditure incurred by the employer in providing basis training to apprentices
Skilling India – Skill India Mission,PMKVY, NSDC, etc.

Skill banks to help India become the HR capital

  1. News: The plan to make India ‘the human resource capital’ of the world will first take off in Uttar Pradesh and Bihar, with setting up of skill banks
  2. The Ministry of Skill Development and Entrepreneurship and the External Affairs Ministry will be co-operating on the vision
  3. Skill banks: To train potential immigrant workers in various job roles as per international standards
  4. Will impart skills across sectors where job opportunities exist or are likely to arise across different countries
  5. Before they emigrate, youth in skill banks would be made familiar with the respective local culture and language of the country they obtain a job
Skilling India – Skill India Mission,PMKVY, NSDC, etc.

Each district to have at least one skill development centre by 2017

Industry pledges commitment to the National Skill Development Mission.

  1. As part of the Skill India Development Mission, the union Ministry of Skill Development & Entrepreneurship has embarked upon a special industry initiative.
  2. To attract leading corporate to set up co-branded Corporate Skill Excellence Centres in PPP mode.
  3. The Government will provide various tax and non-tax incentives for corporates that set up Corporate Skill Excellence Centres as part of their core business or CSR activities.
  4. The CSR funds can be routed through National Skill Development Fund with specific outcomes.
Skilling India – Skill India Mission,PMKVY, NSDC, etc.

Centre to map country’s training infrastructure

  1. The govt is mapping the country’s existing training infrastructure, including thousands of private training institutes.
  2. The capacity created by private investment do not reflect in the official data, though they are doing well.
  3. As part of Skill India Mission NSSO will collect details about training institutions, their capacities for imparting different skill sets and their utilisation by young job market aspirants.
  4. This will help in assessing the shortfall in capacity and a plan for bridging the gap can be formulated and implemented.
Skilling India – Skill India Mission,PMKVY, NSDC, etc.

Singapore eyeing Skill India collaboration during Narendra Modi visit

  1. Singapore plans to hard sell the ITE concept of vocational training, aligning it with Modi’s pet Skill India.
  2. This will resolve one of the paradoxes of India is that it has an educated population but not a skilled one.
  3. The other agenda will be promoting urban planning concepts, enhancing trade and investment, improving connectivity and increasing engagement with the states.
Skilling India – Skill India Mission,PMKVY, NSDC, etc.

Uphill task for Skill India mission

The National Sample Survey Office has released data from its 2011-12 round on education and vocational training.

  1. The NSSO data showed that only 2.4% people had technical degrees, diplomas or certificates in fields like medicine, engineering or agriculture.
  2. Nearly 90% of employable people did not receive any vocational training, which poses a challenge to govt.’s Skill India mission.
  3. More than 70% males cited that supplementing household income was the main reason for not being enrolled in any educational institution.
  4. Domestic chores prevented more than half of the females from studies.
Skilling India – Skill India Mission,PMKVY, NSDC, etc.

National Skill Development Mission & its 3 parts

  1. The National Skill Development Mission, an umbrella body, has 3 institutions under it.
  2. National Council on Skill Development (Chairman = PM) – To give policy direction and review skill development efforts.
  3. National Skill Development Coordination Board (Chairman = Vice Chairman NITI Aayog) – To enumerate strategies to implement the decisions of PM’s council.
  4. National Skill Development Corporation (NSDC) – A non-profit company – to meet the skill training requirements of the labour market including the unorganised sector.
Skilling India – Skill India Mission,PMKVY, NSDC, etc.

PMKVY – Pradhan Mantri Kaushal Vikas Yojana (2/2)

  1. How will the govt. ensure quality? – Skill Development Management System + Grievance redressal system + Biometric system and Video recording.
  2. Further,an online citizen portal will be put in place to disseminate information about the program.
  3. Mobilisation of youth to be done through Skill Melas at the local level.
  4. The efforts in this direction, are being carried on a mission mode.
  5. The National Skill Development Mission, an umbrella body, has 3 institutions under it.
Skilling India – Skill India Mission,PMKVY, NSDC, etc.

PMKVY – Pradhan Mantri Kaushal Vikas Yojana (1/2)

  1. Implementation Agency – Ministry of Skill Development & Entrepreneurship through the National Skill Development Corporation (NSDC) + training partners.
  2. Primary Focus – First time entrants to the labour market (mainly dropouts from Class 10 & 12). Will be a paid training regime.
  3. Workforce will cater to – Flagship programs like Make in India, Digital India, National Solar Mission and Swach Bharat Abhiyan.
  4. A Demand aggregator platform is also being launched.
Skilling India – Skill India Mission,PMKVY, NSDC, etc.

What’s wrong with Skill India and how to fix it?

  1. While outlays on skill development have been increasing, outcomes lag far behind.
  2. Most skill dev. programs offer a crash course module training to rural migrants which lasts 2-3 months. Industry has no stake in this process.
  3. Employers see very little value-addition in such training, and essentially view training companies as manpower sourcing agencies.
  4. In Germany – employers fund the bulk of the programme’s cost through a paid apprenticeship-based model.

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