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Indian geography for IAS Prelims + Mains


Indian Geography

So far as I am able to judge, nothing has been left undone, either by man or nature, to make India the most extraordinary country that the sun visits on his rounds. Nothing seems to have been forgotten, nothing overlooked.”

– Mark Twain in ‘Following the Equator’

India is a vast country with a great diversity of physical features. Certain parts of India are so fertile that they are counted amongst the most fertile regions of the world while other are so unproductive and barren that hardly anything can be grown there. Climates vary from the blazing heat of the plains to freezing point in Himalayan areas. On one hand, areas like Cherapunji in Meghalaya get more than 1000cm of rainfall per year, and on the other hand, Sindh and Rajasthan get less than 10cm of rainfall per year.

In this article series, we make an attempt to understand the geography of this “epitome of the world” along the following lines:

  1. Geography of India: An Introduction
  2. The Geological Structure of India
  3. Physiography
  4. Drainage System
  5. The Climate
  6. Natural Vegetation and Wildlife
  7. Soils
  8. Irrigation
  9. Agriculture
  10. Miscellaneous Topics


Questions, suggestions and comments

  1. sneha nair

    its available of freeupscmaterials website..

  2. Amit Kumar

    If anyone have its pdf, then please mail me at theofficialamitk@gmail.com

  3. Ankush Bansal

    If anyone have its pdf, then please mail me at bansalprateek49@gmail.com

  4. Santhosh Kumar

    if anyone had received the pdf requested pls do forward it to my mail sksanthoshkumar69@gmail.com
    thanks in advance.

  5. Vinod amarmoorthy

    can someone mail me the pdf vinodamarmoorthy.r@gmail.com

  6. BindassBakchod

    PDF at whatsapp 9407165955

  7. Vijay Kumar

    Please send me pdf to vijay45dora@gmail.com sir…..

  8. mohammed saifudeen

    great effort thanks
    send pdf mohdsaifudeen@gmail.com

  9. Arjun Payyan

    Please send me pdf ,, payyan.arjun@gmail.com

  10. himanshu nn

    mail me also at himinsights@gmail.com

  11. raymond indwar

    what geographical features makes rayalaseema region of Andhra Pradesh a drought prone region?

  12. Nancy Raj P

    mail me also.. please.. emailnancy9999@gmail.com

  13. kushagra chauhan
  14. Pardhu Pardhu

    Plz send PDF file sir pardhuaplus66@gmail.com

  15. Vijay Kumar

    Please mail these at vijay45dora@gmail.com sir….

  16. viplav kumar

    Please mail these pdf at viplav6738@gmail.com
    Thank you

  17. Bhàt Maria

    Please koi PDF send karo at mariyambhat61@gmail.com…please🙏

  18. Bhàt Maria

    Thank you very much civils daily team…u r actually doing a gr8 job itx helping me a lot…thanks again
    N I request u sir plxxx send me the PDF links of Indian geography at mariyambhat61@gmail.com

  19. M Rajiv
  20. Kushal Gupta

    Please mail the pdf@

  21. Deepak Rawat

    please send me the link of the pdf formate of indain geography at deepaksinghrr@gmail.com

  22. Kulvir Singh

    Thank you very much for all you hard work CD team !
    Please forward .pdf of Indian Geography to kulvirsinghfourteen@gmail.com

  23. Sushil wattal

    please send me pdf on my email sushilwattal@gmail.com

  24. pranav upadhyay

    Please mail the pdf..



  25. Soumya Prakash

    sir please mail me the pdf of these links at sp.soumyaprakash73@gmail.com


    Bhai mujhe bhi PDF mail kardo
    Pls, sibuna.0925@gmail.com

  27. Pradeep Singh

    Bhai muje BHI mail kr do plzzz…….pradeepsurajsingh@gmail.com

  28. guru patil

    Friends anyone plz mail these notes gurunath333@gmail.com

  29. Pravin Kokane

    Will you please mail notes on kokanepp2010@gmail.com

  30. Anadi Choudhary

    please mail me at ana.choudhary10@gmail.com

  31. Rahul

    how to download pdf format of this articles???

    1. Sahir Dar

      Give me your email id, I’ll forward .pdf of these links

      1. Shreekant Naragunda

        please send me at marichike371@gmail.com

      2. ramesh koppadi

        Sir, Please kindly send me the pdf ramesh09ie230@gmail.com

      3. robin singh

        Please kind sir, email me the pdf – robinrs09@gmail.com

      4. Utkarsh Yadav

        can you mail me pdf of these links on namit98765@gmail.com

      5. Soumya Prakash

        sir please send me pdf at sp.soumyaprakash73@gmail.com

      6. Bhàt Maria

        Please mail me PDF at Mariyambhat61@gmail.com

      7. Dev Khare

        bro, can you please mail these geography notes to my email at dev.khare007@gmail.com
        Thanks in advance.

      8. Tushar Ghorpade

        Please mail these pdf links
        Thank you

      9. Pravin Kokane

        Please mail PDF on kokanepp2010@gmail.com

      10. Anadi Choudhary

        sir, please mail me at ana.choudhary10@gmail.com

      11. Chandra Prakash Singh

        sir plz mail at, csingh669@gmail.com

      12. civils prelims

        Please mail at prelimscivils@gmail.com

    2. Gautam Mallick


  32. Rajessh Mallela

    Can u release the app on iOS platform

  33. Shalu

    Some topics are mising…

    1. Akash Vishwakarma

      such as?


    The Summer Season
    The Post Monsoon Season/ Autumn (North-East Monsoon Season)
    Part 1 – Formation of Soil
    Part 2 – Factors Responsible for the Formation of Soil, Soil Profile
    Part 3 – Characteristics of Soil, Classification of Indian Soils
    Part 1 – Sources and Methods of Irrigation
    Part 2 – Multipurpose River Valley Projects
    Part 3 – Irrigation Application Methods
    Part 1 – An Introduction
    Part 3 – Important Cash Crops (Sugarcane, Cotton, Jute, Tobacco, and Oilseeds) and Plantation Crops (Tea and Coffee) in India

    These are missing links – page not found. Please upload these sections


    Chapter – 8 (Irrigation) and some parts of Chapter-9 are missing (page not found). Please upload it, otherwise these sections remain untouched.

  36. Jonez Matambuye Michael

    Hi Sir, what are the impacts of the non state actors

    1. vindhya vasini

      1st of all as we know what are non state actors i.e. those organisations which participate in international relations. for example NGO as they are part of civil society, MNC companies which are just for earning profit,
      some violent groups like isis, transnational diaspora communities etc.
      Now see as all are of different feilds so they have different impacts on our society. starting from NGO which helps different kind of helpless people. with the help of these NGOs many people get shelter. Yes they are not part of government but still they are helping government and people of state.
      MNC companies no doubt earn profit but they also provide employment to native states
      Voient groups which are main headache like isis, LeT, JeM etc these groups create terrorism and leads to destruction of infrastructure of many states. Many kind of crimes like hawala transaction, smuggling etc takes place which is obviously not good for any state.
      I think it would help you little bit .

  37. Souradeep Ghosh


  38. Pranav Pandey

    actually other links like drainage system part 3,4,5 etc. also not opening

    1. Er S

      working now.

      1. Pranav Pandey

        thanks but still other links like the summer season, soil part 1,2,3, irrigation part1,2,3 are not working.

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