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Indian geography for IAS Prelims + Mains


Indian Geography

So far as I am able to judge, nothing has been left undone, either by man or nature, to make India the most extraordinary country that the sun visits on his rounds. Nothing seems to have been forgotten, nothing overlooked.”

– Mark Twain in ‘Following the Equator’

India is a vast country with a great diversity of physical features. Certain parts of India are so fertile that they are counted amongst the most fertile regions of the world while other are so unproductive and barren that hardly anything can be grown there. Climates vary from the blazing heat of the plains to freezing point in Himalayan areas. On one hand, areas like Cherapunji in Meghalaya get more than 1000cm of rainfall per year, and on the other hand, Sindh and Rajasthan get less than 10cm of rainfall per year.

In this article series, we make an attempt to understand the geography of this “epitome of the world” along the following lines:

  1. Geography of India: An Introduction
  2. The Geological Structure of India
  3. Physiography
  4. Drainage System
  5. The Climate
  6. Natural Vegetation and Wildlife
  7. Soils
  8. Irrigation
  9. Agriculture
  10. Miscellaneous Topics


Questions, suggestions and comments

  1. Rahul

    how to download pdf format of this articles???

    1. Gautam Mallick


  2. Rajessh Mallela

    Can u release the app on iOS platform

  3. Shalu

    Some topics are mising…

    1. Akash Vishwakarma

      such as?


    The Summer Season
    The Post Monsoon Season/ Autumn (North-East Monsoon Season)
    Part 1 – Formation of Soil
    Part 2 – Factors Responsible for the Formation of Soil, Soil Profile
    Part 3 – Characteristics of Soil, Classification of Indian Soils
    Part 1 – Sources and Methods of Irrigation
    Part 2 – Multipurpose River Valley Projects
    Part 3 – Irrigation Application Methods
    Part 1 – An Introduction
    Part 3 – Important Cash Crops (Sugarcane, Cotton, Jute, Tobacco, and Oilseeds) and Plantation Crops (Tea and Coffee) in India

    These are missing links – page not found. Please upload these sections


    Chapter – 8 (Irrigation) and some parts of Chapter-9 are missing (page not found). Please upload it, otherwise these sections remain untouched.

  6. Jonez Matambuye Michael

    Hi Sir, what are the impacts of the non state actors

    1. vindhya vasini

      1st of all as we know what are non state actors i.e. those organisations which participate in international relations. for example NGO as they are part of civil society, MNC companies which are just for earning profit,
      some violent groups like isis, transnational diaspora communities etc.
      Now see as all are of different feilds so they have different impacts on our society. starting from NGO which helps different kind of helpless people. with the help of these NGOs many people get shelter. Yes they are not part of government but still they are helping government and people of state.
      MNC companies no doubt earn profit but they also provide employment to native states
      Voient groups which are main headache like isis, LeT, JeM etc these groups create terrorism and leads to destruction of infrastructure of many states. Many kind of crimes like hawala transaction, smuggling etc takes place which is obviously not good for any state.
      I think it would help you little bit .

  7. Souradeep Ghosh


  8. Pranav Pandey

    actually other links like drainage system part 3,4,5 etc. also not opening

    1. Er S

      working now.

      1. Pranav Pandey

        thanks but still other links like the summer season, soil part 1,2,3, irrigation part1,2,3 are not working.

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