- The Water Resources Information System (WRIS) database developed by Central Water Commission along with Indian Space Research Organisation includes 15,615 numbers of identified rivers/streams in the country.
- Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB) in association with the State Pollution Control Boards is monitoring the water quality of rivers
- Bio-chemical Oxygen Demand (BOD) level in rivers is a key indicator of organic pollution.
- Programs for river conservation are being implemented under National River Conservation Plan (NRCP) and NGRBA (National Ganga River Basin Authority)
- The PIB article mentions that there is no proposal of this Ministry to bring all rivers under the ambit of NRCP. That means only selected few rivers of India would be entertained
What is BOD?
- Biochemical oxygen demand is a measure of the quantity of oxygen used by microorganisms (e.g., aerobic bacteria) in the oxidation of organic matter.
- Initial DO – Final DO = BOD | DO = Dissolved Oxygen
- Natural sources of organic matter include plant decay and leaf fall.
- The bacteria then begins the process of breaking down this waste.
- When this happens, much of the available dissolved oxygen is consumed by aerobic bacteria, robbing other aquatic organisms of the oxygen they need to live.
Brief history of river conservation in India
- 1985: The river conservation programme in the country was initiated with the launching of the Ganga Action Plan (GAP)
- 1995: The Ganga Action Plan was expanded to cover other rivers under National River Conservation Plan (NRCP)
- NRCP, excluding the GAP-I, GAP-II and National Ganga River Basin Authority (NGRBA) programme presently covers polluted stretches of 40 rivers in 121 towns spread over 19 States
- 2014: The work relating to Ganga and its tributaries had been allotted to Ministry of Water Resources, River Development & Ganga Rejuvenation (MoWR, RD&GR).
- NRCP is under Ministry of Enviro
Various Sources of Pollution in Rivers, Lakes and Wetlands
- 75% from Domestic sources and 25% from Industrial effluents.
- Point sources: These are organized sources of pollution where the pollution load can be measured, e.g. surface drains carrying municipal sewage or industrial effluents
- Non-point sources: These are non-measurable sources of pollution such as run-off from agricultural fields carrying chemicals and fertilizers, run-off from solid waste dumps
Prelims worthy. Make notes of the stakeholders involved in these progs. Note the diff between 2 kinds of sources. Now that you know about BOD, what’s COD?