Poverty Eradication – Definition, Debates, etc.

Make the poor richer without making the rich poorer

Note4Students

From UPSC perspective, the following things are important :

Prelims level: Right to Equality;

Mains level: Poverty Gap; Issues due to inequality;

Why in the News? 

Since the Congress Party released its Election Manifesto ’Nyay Patra’, the word ‘redistribution’ has dominated the election discourse.

Arguments against the redistribution of wealth:

  • Against the fair mean: Wealth redistribution stems from a ‘zero-sum’ thought to reduce economic disparity. However, this approach conflates the process of acquiring wealth with the outcome, potentially penalizing even those who acquired their wealth through fair means.
  • Hindrance to Economic Growth: Implementing confrontational policies to make the rich poorer can hinder investments and trigger capital flight, which is essential for economic growth. Economic growth is necessary for increasing the overall economic pie and improving prosperity for all.

Measures needed to reduce Inequality:

  • On Wealth and Inheritance Taxes: Wealth and inheritance taxes are seen as potentially punitive measures that may not effectively address economic inequality. The government needs to focus on fixing systemic issues rather than penalizing the wealthy.
  • On Policies: Economic growth is emphasized as crucial for addressing inequality. Policies should prioritize investment and avoid hindrances that might deter capital flow.
  • Job Creation and Labour Market Policies: Jobless growth and imbalance in capital-labour relations contribute to inequality. Labor market-focused policy incentives, such as employment-linked schemes and promoting labor-intensive activities, are proposed to rebalance this skew.
  • Overhaul of the taxation structure: The taxation system is criticized for burdening the poor and middle class disproportionately compared to corporations. There’s a call for an overhaul of the taxation structure to ensure fairness and simplicity, with a focus on lowering the tax burden for the common person.
  • Social Welfare Programs: Social welfare programs are deemed essential to provide a safety net for the poor until they can benefit from economic growth. Funding for such programs can come from a combination of faster growth, efficient tax collection, and welfare delivery mechanisms.

Steps taken by the Government:

  • For addressing Social Inequality
      • Deen Dayal Upadhyaya Grameen Kaushalya Yojana (DDU-GKY) and Deendayal Antyodaya Yojana- National Urban Livelihoods Mission (DAY-NULM): These schemes aim to create additional employment opportunities in both rural and urban areas.
      • Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act (MGNREGA): This scheme provides a legal guarantee for 100 days of employment per year to rural households
      • Pradhan Mantri Awas Yojana: This scheme provides affordable housing to the urban and rural poor
  • For improving Financial Inclusion
      • Atal Pension Yojana: This pension scheme targets the unorganized sector and private sector employees without pension benefits
      • Pradhan Mantri Jan Dhan Yojana: This scheme aims to provide universal access to banking facilities for all households
  • For enhancing Access to Basic Necessities
    • Pradhan Mantri Ujjwala Yojana: This scheme provides LPG connections to women from Below Poverty Line (BPL) households
    • Swachh Bharat Mission: This program focuses on providing toilets for every household and cleaning India’s cities and villages

Conclusion: The Indian government implements schemes to reduce inequality. For example targeting financial inclusion, health protection, and economic development to reduce inequality. Beneficiaries include rural and urban poor, low-income families, and women from Below Poverty Line households.

Mains PYQ:

Q Can the vicious cycle of gender inequality, poverty, and malnutrition be broken through the microfinancing of women SHGs? Explain with examples. (UPSC IAS/2021)

Get an IAS/IPS ranker as your 1: 1 personal mentor for UPSC 2024

Attend Now

Defence Sector – DPP, Missions, Schemes, Security Forces, etc.

It is time to operationalize the Indian Defence University (IDU)

Note4Students

From UPSC perspective, the following things are important :

Prelims level: Status of IDU in India;

Mains level: Need for Professional Military Education;

Why in the news? 

  • While the nature of war remains constant, its changing character imposes a premium on Military Education and the Academic preparation required to cope with security challenges.
  • It is reported that Pakistan has created two universities for its armed forces, while China has three but India has no Defence University even though such a university in India was first proposed in 1967.

Need for Professional Military Education:

  • Inadequacy of RRU: Comparing the Rashtriya Raksha University (RRU) to the IDU is seen as flawed because the RRU’s objectives and curriculum do not specifically address military requirements for managing warfare and executing plans.
  • Long Overdue Realization: The establishment of the IDU has been delayed, despite its critical importance for defense preparedness, fostering a strategic culture, and promoting inter-service integration.
  • Rapidly changing the dynamic of Warfare: The dynamic and chaotic nature of warfare, particularly in regions like Europe and West Asia, requires military officers to be able to produce results despite dealing with unclear initial information and rapidly changing circumstances.
  • Empowerment through PME: To tackle these complex challenges, military officers are empowered through a well-constructed PME continuum. This continuum enhances their abilities to adapt to changing assignments and increasing responsibilities over their long careers.
  • Parallels with U.S. Evolution: The evolution of PME in the United States, as exemplified by the Goldwater-Nichols Defense Reorganization Act of 1986 and ‘Ike’ Skelton’s report to the U.S. Congress, serves as an example of the importance of structured military education in enhancing professionalism and preparedness.

Slow Progress in the Establishment of IDU:

  • Historical Context: The idea of establishing a Defence Services University was proposed as early as 1967 by the Chiefs of Staff Committee (COSC). This indicates a long-standing recognition of the need for a broad-based education system in the Indian armed forces.
  • Delays in Implementation: Despite proposals and recommendations dating back to the 1960s and 1980s, significant progress towards establishing the IDU was only made after the Kargil conflict in the late 1990s. Even then, progress remained slow, with ‘in principle’ approval granted in May 2010, several years after the conflict.
  • Committee Formation: Following the Kargil conflict, a committee chaired by Dr K. Subrahmanyam was established to examine the issue of establishing the IDU. Based on its recommendations, in May 2010, ‘in principle’ approval was accorded for the setting up of the IDU in Gurgaon. Despite some optimistic reportage in 2017-18, the progress on setting up of the IDU has been rather slow.

Way Forward:

  • Government Commitment and Funding: The government should prioritize the establishment of the IDU and allocate sufficient funding for its development and infrastructure.
  • Streamlined Administrative Processes: Efforts should be made to streamline bureaucratic processes involved in setting up the IDU, ensuring that administrative hurdles do not impede progress.
  • Stakeholder Collaboration: Collaboration between various stakeholders, including the armed forces, government agencies, academic institutions, and industry partners, should be facilitated to expedite the establishment of the IDU.

Mains PYQ 

Q) Taxila University was one of the oldest universities in the world with which were associated several renowned learned personalities of different disciplines. Its strategic location caused its fame to flourish, but unlike Nalanda, it is not considered a university in the modern sense. Discuss.

Get an IAS/IPS ranker as your 1: 1 personal mentor for UPSC 2024

Attend Now

Foreign Policy Watch: India-Africa

An overview of Sudan’s civil war 

Note4Students

From UPSC perspective, the following things are important :

Prelims level: Bordering countries of Sudan;

Mains level: Important issues in the Global world;

Why in the News? 

The inability of successive governments to articulate a shared vision has resulted in the unfair distribution of wealth and resources in Sudan.

ANKARA, TURKIYE – NOVEMBER 3: An infographic titled ”Sudanese civil war intensifies in the western cities” is created in Ankara, Turkiye on November 3, 2023. Since mid-April, the intensity of the conflicts between the army and the Rapid Support Forces (RSF) in Sudan, which have resulted in nearly 10,000 casualties, shifted from the capital Khartoum and its surroundings to the western cities. (Photo by Yasin Demirci/Anadolu via Getty Images)

Historical background  of Conflict: 

  • In 1956: The government that came to power in 1956 emphasized an Arab and Islamic identity based on Mahdist principles. It was not representative of diverse communities and demanded compliance, leading to widespread resistance.
  • In 1989: In 1989, a new government seized control under the National Islamic Front, an alliance between army officers and the Muslim Brotherhood. Omar al-Bashir came to power, supported by Islamist leader Hassan al-Turabi, aiming to establish an Islamic state.
  • In 1991: The government set up an internal security apparatus, arresting and torturing dissenters. It introduced a new penal code in 1991 to impose an Islamization agenda.
  • In 2003: The al-Bashir (in 2003) regime enlisted Janjaweed militias to quell an insurgency in Darfur. These militias were later designated as the Rapid Support Forces in 2013.
  • In 2018-19: After protests in 2018 and al-Bashir’s removal in 2019, a transitional military government was established. Despite challenges and a failed coup attempt, a power-sharing agreement was reached, but another coup led by Abdel Fattah al-Burhan derailed the democratic transition.

Causes of the present conflict in Sudan:

  • Deep-rooted Crisis in Governance: The conflict reflects a longstanding crisis within Sudan’s governing structure since gaining independence in 1956, characterized by power struggles and frequent coups.
  • Identity Crisis and Rebellion: Sudan has experienced numerous rebellions fueled by an identity crisis, with marginalized populations seeking autonomy and fair representation within the state.
  • Ethnic and Regional Disparities: Sudan comprises of 19 major ethnic groups and about 597 ethnic sub-groups. Since independence, the Sudanese have experienced 35 coups and attempted coups, more than any other African country.
  • Religious and Political Ideologies: Shifts in government ideologies, such as the establishment of an Islamic state in 1989, have exacerbated tensions and led to further marginalization of certain groups.
  • Role of Militias: The emergence of paramilitary forces, such as the Rapid Support Forces, has complicated the conflict dynamics, with militias vying for power and control over resources.
  • Other country’s involvement: External influences, including support from foreign entities like Russia, have played a role in shaping the conflict landscape, particularly in resource-rich regions like Darfur.
  • Economic Interests: Economic factors, such as control over lucrative industries like gold mining, have contributed to the entrenchment of certain groups in power and fueled conflict dynamics.

Way Forward:

  • Establish a Civilian-Led Government: Sudan needs to prioritize the establishment of a transparent, civilian-led government that represents the diverse Sudanese populace. This government should ensure inclusivity and participation in decision-making processes.
  • Disarm and Demobilize Militias: Urgent action is needed to disarm and demobilize militias like the Rapid Support Forces. This will prevent militia dominance over the state and reduce the risk of armed confrontations and conflicts.
  • International Support for Reconstruction: Sudan requires collaborative efforts from the international community to aid in post-conflict reconstruction. This support can include financial assistance, capacity-building programs, and technical expertise to rebuild infrastructure, institutions, and communities affected by conflict.

Mains PYQ 

Q Africa was chopped into states artificially created by accident of European competition. Analyse. (UPSC IAS/2013)

Get an IAS/IPS ranker as your 1: 1 personal mentor for UPSC 2024

Attend Now

Minority Issues – SC, ST, Dalits, OBC, Reservations, etc.

National Commission for Backward Classes (NCBC) and the Dynamics of OBC Inclusion

Note4Students

From UPSC perspective, the following things are important :

Prelims level: NCBC, OBC List

Mains level: NA

Why in the news?

  • The National Commission for Backward Classes (NCBC) has begun a comprehensive review of State OBC Lists to reassess the inclusion of communities benefiting from prolonged advantages.
  • The NCBC’s scrutiny has led to questioning the overrepresentation of Muslim communities in State OBC lists, particularly in Karnataka and West Bengal.

NCBC’s contention over Over-representation:

  • Despite repeated requests, states like West Bengal and Karnataka lack current socio-economic data on OBCs, hindering the NCBC’s assessment.
  • The absence of data complicates the task of justifying continued inclusion in OBC lists.
  • The NCBC plans to extend its review to Kerala, Odisha, Bihar, Maharashtra, and other states to ensure maximum OBC reservation within the 50% limit.

Who are the Other Backward Classes (OBCs)?

  • Other Backward Class is a collective term used to classify castes which are educationally or socially disadvantaged. 
  • It is one of several official classifications of the population of India, along with General Class, Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes (SCs and STs).
  • The OBCs were found to comprise 55% of the country’s population by the Mandal Commission report of 1980, and were determined to be 41% in 2006.

About National Commission for Backward Classes (NCBC)

Established Constitution Amendment Act, 2018 (also known as 102nd Amendment Act, 2018) under Article 338B of the Indian Constitution
Jurisdiction Ministry of Social Justice and Empowerment, Government of India
Purpose
  • Active participation and advisory role in the socio-economic development of socially backward classes (OBCs).
  • Evaluating the progress of their development.
Statutory Backing The outcome of the Indra Sawhney & Others v. Union of India case (16.11.1992)
Composition
  • Chairperson (MoSJ), Vice-Chairperson, and three other members appointed by the President.
  • Conditions of service and tenure determined by the President.
Functions and Powers
  • Inclusions and exclusions in the lists of backward communities for job reservations.
  • Providing advice to the Central Government.
  • Investigating and monitoring safeguards for backward classes.
  • Inquiring into specific complaints related to their rights and safeguards.
  • Participating in socio-economic development and evaluating progress.
Reports and Recommendations
  • Annual reports to the President and recommendations for effective implementation of safeguards.
  • Recommendations for measures to protect, welfare, and socio-economic development of backward classes.
Other Functions Discharging functions specified by the President and subject to parliamentary laws
Constitutional Amendment 102nd Constitutional Amendment Act (2018) empowered NCBC to address grievances of Other Backward Classes

 

PYQ:

[2022] Discuss the role of the National Commission for Backward Classes in the wake of its transformation from a statutory body to a constitutional body.

[2016] Why are the tribals in India referred to as ‘the Scheduled Tribes’? Indicate the major provisions enshrined in the Constitution of India for their upliftment.

Get an IAS/IPS ranker as your 1: 1 personal mentor for UPSC 2024

Attend Now

Women Safety Issues – Marital Rape, Domestic Violence, Swadhar, Nirbhaya Fund, etc.

A look at how Article 361 provides immunity.

Note4Students

From UPSC perspective, the following things are important :

Prelims level: Artile 361

Mains level: What are the provisions related to the Governor in the Indian Constitution?

Why in the News? 

Even as a complaint alleging sexual harassment has been filed in Kolkata against West Bengal Governor C V Ananda Bose, Constitutional immunity bars the police from naming the Governor as an accused or even investigating the case.

What is Article 361? 

Article 361 of the Constitution that deals with immunity to the President and the Governors states that they “shall not be answerable to any court for the exercise and performance of the powers and duties of his office or for any act done or purporting to be done by him in the exercise and performance of those powers and duties”.

The provision also has two crucial sub-clauses: 

(1) that no criminal proceedings whatsoever shall be initiated or continued against the President, or the Governor of a State, in any court during the term of his office.

(2) No process for the arrest or imprisonment of the President, or the Governor of a State, shall issue from any court during his term of office.

Immunity power of the Governor:

  • Ceases to be in office: The police can act only after the Governor ceases to be in office, which is when either the Governor resigns or no longer enjoys the confidence of the President.” 
  • Rameshwar Prasad v Union of India: In the landmark 2006 ruling in Rameshwar Prasad v Union of India, that outlined the immunity enjoyed by the Governor “even on allegation of personal malafides,” the Supreme Court held that “the position in law, is that the Governor enjoys complete immunity.”
  • In 2017, criminal conspiracy in the 1992 demolition of the Babri Masjid case: The trial did not take place for former UP Chief Minister Kalyan Singh since he was then the Governor of Rajasthan.

Constitutional Provisions:

  • Appointment: The Governor is appointed by the President of India and holds office during the pleasure of the President (Article 155).
  • Qualifications: The Governor must be a citizen of India, must be at least 35 years old, and must not hold any office of profit (Article 157).
  • Powers and Functions: The Governor is the constitutional head of a state and performs various functions including:
    • Executive Functions: The Governor appoints the Chief Minister and other Council of Ministers, and allocates portfolios among them (Article 164).
    • Legislative Functions: The Governor summons and prorogues the state legislature, addresses it, and lays down its policy. He/she also has the power to dissolve the Legislative Assembly (Article 174).
    • Financial Functions: The Governor causes to be laid before the State Legislature the Annual Financial Statement (budget) and has powers related to money bills (Article 202).
  • Discretionary Powers: The Governor has discretionary powers in certain matters, such as appointing the Chief Minister when no party has a clear majority after elections (Article 164).
  • Relation with the Union: The Governor is appointed by the President and acts as a link between the state and the Union. He/she can send reports to the President regarding the administration of the state (Article 356).
  • Oath or Affirmation: Before entering office, the Governor must take an oath or affirmation according to the form set out in the Third Schedule of the Constitution (Article 159).

Conclusion: 

Article 361 of the Indian Constitution provides immunity to the President and Governors from court proceedings and arrest during their term. Police action against a Governor can only occur after they cease office.

Mains PYQ 

Q Discuss the essential conditions for exercise of the legislative powers by the Governor. Discuss the legality of re-promulgation of ordinances by the Governor without placing them before the Legislature.

Get an IAS/IPS ranker as your 1: 1 personal mentor for UPSC 2024

Attend Now

Economic Indicators and Various Reports On It- GDP, FD, EODB, WIR etc

This is the year to get the Sustainable Development Goals back on track

Note4Students

From UPSC perspective, the following things are important :

Prelims level: SDGs

Mains level: Why the world is not on track to achieve most SDGs by 2030?

Why in the News? 

2024 is an election year across the world and newly elected governments need to focus on the all-important sustainability issue. Year 2024 is an election year across the world.

  • At least 64 countries, both developed and developing, accounting for 49% of the world population, will go to the polls.

Causes of Global Slow Progress: 

  • Impact of Global Crises: The outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic and other global crises virtually halted progress towards the SDGs. These crises have diverted attention and resources away from sustainable development efforts.
  • Neglect of Environmental Goals: There has been little to no attention towards goals related to the environment and biodiversity, including responsible consumption and production, climate action, life below water, and life on land.
  • Defiance of Integrated Nature of SDGs: The current practice of pursuing SDGs is criticized for defying the integrated and indivisible nature of the goals. This lack of integration hampers efforts to achieve sustainable development outcomes comprehensively.
  • Risk of Environmental Degradation: The slow progress and neglect of environmental goals pose a significant risk of accelerated environmental degradation. This threatens the overarching target of balancing human well-being and a healthy environment.

Why the world is not on track to achieve most SDGs by 2030?

  • Insufficient Progress: Despite reaffirmations of commitment by world leaders, progress towards achieving the SDGs remains slow. The world is only on track to meet 15% of the 169 targets that comprise the 17 goals.
  • Investment Gap: There is a significant gap in investment for SDGs, particularly in developing countries. The estimated investment gap exceeds $4 trillion, with nearly $2 trillion needed for the energy transition alone.
  • Lack of Synergistic Action: There is a lack of synergistic action in addressing SDGs, despite the integrated nature of the goals. Few studies and empirical evidence exist on the synergies and trade-offs among SDGs, hindering progress.
  • Barriers to Synergies: Various barriers, including knowledge gaps, political and institutional barriers, and economic issues, impede synergistic action.Inadequate data collection, and an inability to attribute co-benefits to specific actions hinder progress.
  • Misaligned Policies: Policies may be misaligned, leading to barriers for meeting greater targets. For example, ambitious renewable energy targets may not align with smaller-scale of steps taken to achieve SDG goal.
  • Limited Understanding of Cost Estimation: Exploiting resources without considering climate change impacts and synergistic opportunities can be detrimental to national and global efforts.

Way forward:

  • Call for Action: There is a call for action to strengthen the environment for synergistic action, transparently identify opportunities and limits to synergies, and develop reporting frameworks to assess the value created from specific SDG interventions.
  • Urgent Action Areas Identified: The UN SDG Report, 2023 identified five key areas for urgent action, including commitments of governments, concrete policies to eradicate poverty and reduce inequality, strengthening of national and subnational capacity, recommitment of the international community, and strengthening of the UN development system.
  • Global Reaffirmation and Commitment: World leaders acknowledged the situation and reaffirmed their commitments to delivering the SDGs by 2030. However, the effectiveness of these global pronouncements at the ground level remains uncertain.

Mains PYQ 

Q National Education Policy 2020 isin conformity with the Sustainable Development Goal-4 (2030). It intends to restructure and reorient education system in India. Critically examine the statement. (2020)

Get an IAS/IPS ranker as your 1: 1 personal mentor for UPSC 2024

Attend Now

Ministry of External Affairs : Important Updates

How Diplomatic Passports, visa regimes work?

Note4Students

From UPSC perspective, the following things are important :

Prelims level: Diplomatic Passport

Mains level: Operational Visa Exemption Agreements

Why in the news? 

After allegations of sexual abuse by Janata Dal (Secular) MP Prajwal Revanna came to light, the politician fled to Germany on a Diplomatic Passport.

What is a Diplomatic Passport? 

  • The normal passports, which have dark blue covers and are valid for 10 years (for adults) while the diplomatic passports have maroon covers, and are valid for five years or less.
  • Holders of such passports are entitled to certain privileges and immunities as per international law, including immunity from arrest, detention, and certain legal proceedings in the host country.

Who can get a Diplomatic Passport?

  • Diplomatic Status: Individuals with diplomatic status, such as diplomats representing the country abroad, are eligible for diplomatic passports.
  • Government-Appointed Officials: Government-appointed individuals travelling abroad for official business can receive diplomatic passports.
  • Officers of Indian Foreign Service (IFS): Officers working under branches A and B of the Indian Foreign Service (IFS), typically at the rank of Joint Secretary and above, are entitled to diplomatic passports.
  • Relatives of IFS and MEA Officers: Relatives and immediate family members of officers employed in the Indian Foreign Service (IFS) and Ministry of External Affairs (MEA) are eligible for diplomatic passports.
  • Authorized Individuals for Official Travel: Select individuals authorized to undertake official travel on behalf of the government, such as union ministers and Members of Parliament (MPs), may receive diplomatic passports. The validity of these passports is concurrent with the term of the MP.

Surrender of Diplomatic Passport by MPs: 

  • Individuals who are disqualified from their positions, such as MPs, are required to surrender their diplomatic passports. For example, Congress leader Rahul Gandhi surrendered his diplomatic passport after being disqualified as an MP.

Why did Prajwal Revanna not need a visa to travel to Germany?

  • Operational Visa Exemption Agreements: India has operational visa exemption agreements with certain countries, including Germany, for holders of diplomatic passports. These agreements allow diplomatic passport holders to travel to these countries without requiring a visa, provided their stay does not exceed 90 days.
  • Reciprocal Deal with Germany: A reciprocal deal signed in 2011 between India and Germany exempts holders of Indian diplomatic passports from obtaining a visa for travel to Germany.
    •  India has similar agreements with other countries, such as France, Austria, Afghanistan, Czech Republic, Italy, Greece, Iran, and Switzerland, where diplomatic passport holders are exempted from visa requirements.
  • Operational Visa Exemption for Other Passport Holders: India also has agreements with 99 other countries where not only diplomatic passport holders but also those holding service and official passports can avail of operational visa exemption for stays up to 90 days.
    • Countries in this list include Bahrain, Brazil, Egypt, Hong Kong, Oman, Singapore, and the United Arab Emirates.
  • Despite not needing a visa, Prajwal Revanna should have applied for prior political clearance for his private visit to Germany. Members using a diplomatic passport are required to apply for political clearance directly to the Ministry of External Affairs (MEA) before proceeding abroad.

Who can revoke a Diplomatic Passport?

  • Court Order Requirement: The government can revoke a diplomatic passport only after a court order to that effect. The relevant provisions of the Passport Act 1967 stipulate that revocation of a diplomatic passport may occur upon orders from a court during proceedings concerning an offence allegedly carried out by the passport holder before a criminal court.
  • Passport Authority’s Discretion: The Passport Act empowers the passport authority to impound or revoke a passport under various circumstances. These include instances where the holder is in wrongful possession of the passport or obtained it by suppressing material information or in the interests of India’s sovereignty and integrity or friendly relations with foreign countries.
  • Conviction by Indian Court: A diplomatic passport can be revoked if the holder has been convicted by a court in India and sentenced to imprisonment for not less than two years.

What is the Henley Passport Index?

  • The Henley Passport Index is a renowned ranking system that assesses the strength of passports based on the number of destinations their holders can access without a prior visa.
  • It utilizes data from the International Air Transport Association (IATA) and is enhanced by Henley & Partners’ research team.
  • In the latest 2024 ranking, India’s rank has slipped one place to 85th, despite the number of visa-free destinations increasing to 62 countries

Way forward

  • Enhanced Oversight and Accountability: Implement stricter oversight mechanisms to monitor the issuance and use of diplomatic passports. Regular audits and reviews can help identify any discrepancies or misuse.
  • Strict Enforcement of Surrender Rules: Enforce existing rules mandating the surrender of diplomatic passports by individuals who are disqualified from their positions, such as Members of Parliament.

 

Mains PYQ 

Q Analyse the circumstances that led to the Tashkent Agreement in 1966. Discuss the highlights of the agreement.

Get an IAS/IPS ranker as your 1: 1 personal mentor for UPSC 2024

Attend Now

Innovations in Sciences, IT, Computers, Robotics and Nanotechnology

Why are Indian spices facing the heat? | Explained

Note4Students

From UPSC perspective, the following things are important :

Prelims level: Ethylene Oxide (ETO)

Mains level: Health concerns related to ETO

Why in the News?

Many have announced an investigation into possible contamination of spice mixes sold by top Indian brands like MDH and Everest Masalas.

  • Delhi-based think tank Global Trade Research Initiative (GTRI) in a recent note held, “With nearly $700 million worth of exports to critical markets at stake.”

What is Ethylene Oxide (ETO)?

  • Ethylene oxide is a flammable, colorless gas at temperature above 51.3 F (10.7 C). When used directly in the gaseous form or in non-explosive gaseous mixtures with nitrogen or carbon dioxide, ETO serves as a disinfectant, fumigant, sterilizing agent, and insecticide.
  • ETO has also been reported to be produced from natural sources. In certain plants, ethylene (a natural plant growth regulator) is degraded to ethylene oxide. ETO ia also generated from water – logged soil, manure and sewage sludge.

What are the health concerns?

  • ETO Usage and Contamination: ETO is a prohibited pesticide that is used as a sterilizing agent in the food industry, including spices.
  • Toxicity and Carcinogenicity: Residues of ETO can lead to the formation of toxic and carcinogenic compounds, such as ethylene glycol. Long-term exposure to ethylene oxide is associated with various health risks, including cancers like lymphoma and leukemia.
  • Previous Incidents: Indian-made products, including cough syrups, have been linked to incidents where ethylene glycol contamination resulted in fatalities, particularly among children in countries like Cameroon, Gambia, Indonesia, and Uzbekistan.
  • Regulatory Response: The European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) has banned the use of ETO and has flagged contamination issues in Indian spices in the past. A recent EFSA report highlighted carcinogenic chemicals found in numerous products linked to India.

Which countries have flagged safety of Indian spices?

  • Hong Kong: Suspended the sale of three MDH spice blends and Everest fish curry masala due to high levels of ethylene oxide (ETO).
  • Singapore: Ordered a recall of Everest spice mix, stating that ethylene oxide makes the spices unfit for human consumption and poses a cancer risk.
  • United States: The FDA is aware of the reports and is gathering additional information about the situation.
  • Maldives: The Maldives FDA has suspended the sale of spices produced by Everest and MDH.
  • Australia: Food Standards of Australia and New Zealand is working with international counterparts to understand the issue and determine if further action is required.
  • Bangladesh: Gathering information on companies importing possibly contaminated products and plans to carry out examinations if necessary.

What are the operational challenges faced by the Indian government?

  • Lack of Standardized Protocol System: India’s diverse food landscape, the lack of standardised monitoring and intentional food fraud may prevent manufacturers from efficiently tracing ingredients and assessing potential risks.
  • Lack of Database: Many companies struggle to trace ingredients, especially raw agricultural commodities, due to the lack of standardised recordkeeping and intentional food fraud. This prevents manufacturers from assessing potential risks, compromising the safety of the entire food supply chain.
  • Traceability is particularly challenging for small and medium sized businesses with limited resources.

What steps is Food and Drug Administration (FDA) taking to improve the safety of spices?

  • Food Safety Modernization Act (FSMA): The FSMA rules address both domestically produced and imported foods.
    • For example, the preventive controls rule requires food facilities, including those that manufacture spices, to conduct a hazard analysis, identify hazards reasonably likely to occur, and establish preventive controls for such hazards.
  • Spices Board and its Measures: The Spices Board announced mandatory testing of consignments shipped to Singapore and Hong Kong, and gathering technical details and analytical reports from relevant food and drug agencies.
  • Issuance of Guidelines: A circular dated April 30 contains guidelines to exporters on preventing ETO contamination, developed after discussions with the Indian spice industry.
    • Measures include voluntary testing of ETO during raw and final stages, storing ETO treated products separately, and incorporating critical control points in hazard analysis.

Way forward:

  • Enhanced Regulatory Oversight: Strengthen regulatory bodies such as the Food Safety and Standards Authority of India (FSSAI) to ensure strict adherence to food safety standards and regulations. Implement regular inspections, audits, and enforcement actions to monitor compliance with safety guidelines.
  • Improved Traceability Systems: Develop and implement robust traceability systems across the food supply chain to track the origin and movement of ingredients and products. Utilize technology such as blockchain and RFID tagging to enhance transparency and accountability.

Mains question for practice 

Q Explain the health risks associated with ethylene oxide (ETO) contamination in spices.

Mains PYQ

Q Elaborate the policy taken by the Government of India to meet the challenges of the food processing sector. (UPSC IAS/2019)

Get an IAS/IPS ranker as your 1: 1 personal mentor for UPSC 2024

Attend Now

Health Sector – UHC, National Health Policy, Family Planning, Health Insurance, etc.

A computer science conundrum that could transform healthcare

Note4Students

From UPSC perspective, the following things are important :

Prelims level: P versus NP Problem

Mains level: Application of Science and Technology for Healthcare;

Why in the News? 

Indian Health Care system faces a new set of complex problems that seem to be harder to solve because of their inherent complexity and the constraints they threaten to impose on resources.

Quick Problems versus Complex Problems in Health Care:

  • Healthcare is filled with complex problems. Consider scheduling in a hospital: assigning doctors and nurses to shifts, booking operating theatres for surgeries, and organizing patient appointments.
  • It is an intricate puzzle that requires considering various factors — staff availability, urgency of medical cases, etc. — and potential changes such as emergency cases and cancellations.
  • The Quick Problems vs Complex Problems in Health Care question is this: there can be a shortcut to solve ‘Complex Problems’ problems as quickly as ‘Quick Problems’ problems.
  • The implication is that if Quick Problems equals Complex Problems, we could quickly find the optimal solution to these scheduling problems, thus significantly improving patient care.

Implications for the Healthcare System:

  • Impact on Antibiotic Resistance: Quick analysis of bacterial genomes and prediction of resistance patterns could lead to more effective antibiotic prescriptions, improving patient outcomes and combating antibiotic resistance.
  • Advancement in Cancer Treatment: Swift identification of the optimal treatment for individual cancer patients could save lives by effectively tackling the complexity of cancer mutations and treatment options.
  • Optimization of Insurance Decision-Making: Insurance companies grappling with ‘NP’ problems in determining premiums and packages could benefit from a shortcut provided by solving the P versus NP problem. This could lead to fairer and more accurate premiums and conditions for customers.
  • Better utilization of Government health sector funding: Efficiently solving complex problems could lead to better utilization of government spending on healthcare, minimizing leakage and contributing to achieving universal health coverage.
  • Resource Constraint Reduction and Improved Health Outcomes: By solving complex healthcare problems more efficiently, there is the potential to dramatically reduce resource constraints and improve health outcomes broadly.

Way Forward: Governments can enact policies and regulations that promote the responsible use of technology in healthcare and incentivize the adoption of evidence-based practices. This includes establishing standards for data privacy and security, fostering transparency in algorithmic decision-making, and ensuring equitable access to healthcare services.

Mains PYQ 

Q Public health system has limitation in providing universal health coverage. Do you think that private sector can help in bridging the gap? What other viable alternatives do you suggest? (UPSC IAS/2015)

Get an IAS/IPS ranker as your 1: 1 personal mentor for UPSC 2024

Attend Now

Women empowerment issues – Jobs,Reservation and education

Recognize ‘this leave’ as a woman’s right

Note4Students

From UPSC perspective, the following things are important :

Prelims level: NA

Mains level: Significance of recognizing menstrual leave as a fundamental right for women

Why in the news?

The DMK’s 2024 election manifesto in Tamil Nadu pledges to advocate for a law mandating menstrual leave for women, promoting gender equality and women’s welfare.

Tracking Regional Progress:

  • Indian States:
      • The Kerala Sahitya Academy published work, Kerala in 19th Century, mentions that Kerala was the first (in the Cochin State) to recognize the need for “ period leave” for students and allowed it during examinations in 1912.
      • Kerala, in January 2023, introduced menstrual and maternity leave to all students above the age of 18.
      • Bihar, in 1992, allowed government employees two-day menstrual leave.
  • Asian Countries: 
    • Japan introduced menstrual leave in 1947, Indonesia in 1948, and South Korea. Taiwan and Vietnam have also implemented paid leave. But concerning the Asian countries, the progress made by the western world, except in Sweden and Spain, is still abysmal.

Global Scenario:

  • International Labour Organisation report, in 2003, asked nations to recognise menstrual leave.
  • The World Health Organization recognised a non-governmental organisation driven World Menstrual Hygiene Day on May 28 from 2014.
  • India’s new code on Social Security, 2020, passed by Parliament, which consolidated existing labour laws (yet to be notified), has not included the aspect of menstrual leave in its code.

Evidence related to impact:

Women laborers in the sugarcane fields of Maharashtra and agricultural laborers in Telangana have been documented to have hysterectomies as menstrual-related absences could endanger their livelihoods.

Legal Initiatives in India:

  • Bill in Tamil Nadu: In December 2021, S. Jothimani, Congress Member of Parliament (MP) from Tamil Nadu, had introduced a Private Member Bill named, ‘Right to Menstrual Hygiene and Paid Leave Bill, 2019’, which sought to bring menstrual leave into the ambit of the rights of a woman.
  • Bill in Arunachal Pradesh: Congress MP from Arunachal Pradesh, introduced a private member Bill on menstrual leave in 2017 (the Menstruation Benefit Bill, 2017).
  • Bill in Kerala: Shashi Tharoor, Congress MP from Kerala, introducing a similar Bill named The Women’s Sexual, Reproductive and Menstrual Rights Bill, 2018.
  • The Supreme Court of India, early in 2023, refused to entertain a public interest litigation in Shailendra Mani Tripathi vs Union of India which sought direction to the state on menstrual leave; it thought that it is in the policy domain of the government. 

Way Forward: 

  • Legislation and Policy Implementation: Advocate for the passage of bills at both the state and national levels that mandate menstrual leave for women. Additionally, ensure effective implementation and enforcement of these policies to guarantee that women can avail themselves of their entitled leave without fear of discrimination or repercussions.
  • Awareness and Education: Launch comprehensive awareness campaigns to remove shame of menstruation and promote understanding of its biological, social, and cultural aspects.

Mains PYQ 

Q Women empowerment in India needs gender budgeting. What are requirements and status of gender budgeting in the Indian context?

Get an IAS/IPS ranker as your 1: 1 personal mentor for UPSC 2024

Attend Now

[pib] National Anti-Doping Agency (NADA)

Note4Students

From UPSC perspective, the following things are important :

Prelims level: NADA and its Functions, Therapeutic Use Exemptions, WADA

Mains level: NA

Why in the news?

  • The National Anti-Doping Agency (NADA), India, recently concluded its #PlayTrue Campaign, commemorating WADA’s Play True Day.
  • The campaign aimed to raise awareness about clean sport and anti-doping practices across India.

National Anti-Doping Agency (NADA):

  • Established in November 2005 by the Government of India with the objective of ensuring dope-free sports.
  • Formed as a registered society under the Societies Registration Act of 1860.
  • Functions as an autonomous body under the Ministry of Youth Affairs and Sports.
  • It follows the World Anti-Doping Code (WADC) and the Prohibited List published annually by the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA).
  • Primary functions include:
  1. Conducting In-Competition and Out-of-Competition dope testing of athletes across various sports disciplines.
  2. Educating athletes, coaches, and support personnel about the dangers of doping and the importance of clean sports through awareness programs and workshops.
  3. Implementing a robust anti-doping policy framework in line with international standards.
  4. Investigating and prosecuting anti-doping rule violations in accordance with the WADA Code.
  5. Collaborating with international anti-doping organizations and agencies to ensure harmonization of anti-doping efforts globally.
  6. Providing support and guidance to National Sports Federations (NSFs), State Sports Associations (SSAs), and other stakeholders to develop and implement effective anti-doping measures.

Key Function: Dope Testing

  • NADA conducts both in-competition and out-of-competition dope testing of athletes participating in various national and international sports events.
  • NADA employs trained Doping Control Officers (DCOs) who are responsible for conducting dope testing at sports events and collecting samples from athletes.
  • These officers are trained to adhere to international standards and protocols during sample collection.
  • NADA works towards ensuring compliance with the WADA Code and the National Anti-Doping Rules by all stakeholders involved in Indian sports, including athletes, coaches, NSFs, and SSAs.

Allowed Substances and Methods:

  • Therapeutic Use Exemptions (TUEs): Athletes can apply for TUEs to use otherwise prohibited substances for legitimate medical reasons. TUEs are granted based on the assessment of medical documentation by anti-doping authorities.
  • Specified Substances: Some substances, such as certain beta-2 agonists and glucocorticoids, are permitted in specific dosages or routes of administration and may require a TUE depending on the circumstances.
  • PROHIBITED:  Prohibited substances and methods include anabolic agents, peptide hormones, beta-2 agonists, hormone and metabolic modulators, diuretics, stimulants, narcotics, cannabinoids, glucocorticoids, beta blockers, blood doping, and gene doping.

Back2Basics: World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA)

  • WADA was established in 1999 and is headquartered in Montreal, Canada.
  • It was set up as a foundation under the International Olympic Committee (IOC).
  • It was formed pursuant to the terms of the Lausanne Declaration (1999), which provided for the creation of an independent international anti-doping
  • WADA is responsible for the World Anti-Doping Code, adopted by more than 650 sports organizations, including international sports federations, national anti-doping organizations, the IOC, and the International Paralympic Committee

 

PYQ:

[2021] Consider the following statements in respect of the Laureus World Sports Award which was instituted in the year 2000:​

1. American golfer Tiger Woods was the first winner of this award.​

2. The award was received mostly by ‘Formula One’ players so far.​

3. Roger Federer received this award maximum number of times compared to others.​

Which of the above statements are correct?

(a) 1 and 2 only

(b) 2 and 3 only

(c) 1 and 3 only

(d) 1, 2 and 3

Get an IAS/IPS ranker as your 1: 1 personal mentor for UPSC 2024

Attend Now

Labour, Jobs and Employment – Harmonization of labour laws, gender gap, unemployment, etc.

Analyzing labor on a warming planet

Note4Students

From UPSC perspective, the following things are important :

Prelims level: Ensuring safety and health at work in a changing climate report

Mains level: The ILO has identified six key impacts of climate change

Why in the News?

The International Labour Organization’s (ILO) latest report, Ensuring safety and health at work in a changing climate’, is an urgent call to ensure the future of labour is climate proofed and to address the constantly evolving work environment as the planet warms.

What are the Emerging Hazards? (The ILO has identified six key impacts of climate change)

  • Solar Ultraviolet Radiation: Increased exposure to solar ultraviolet radiation due to climate change can have adverse effects on outdoor workers, potentially leading to skin damage and cancer.
  • Extreme Weather Events: Climate change is contributing to the frequency and intensity of extreme weather events such as hurricanes, floods, and wildfires, which pose significant risks to workers in various sectors.
  • Workplace Air Pollution: Climate change can exacerbate air pollution in workplaces, particularly in industrial settings, leading to respiratory illnesses and other health problems among workers.
  • Vector-Borne Diseases: Changing climate patterns can influence the distribution and prevalence of vector-borne diseases such as malaria, dengue fever, and Zika virus, posing risks to workers in affected regions.
  • Agrochemicals: Agricultural workers may face increased exposure to agrochemicals due to changes in pest and disease patterns resulting from climate change, potentially leading to health issues such as pesticide poisoning.
  • Gig Economy Workers: The rise of gig employment, particularly in heat-susceptible sectors such as transportation and delivery services, exposes workers to additional risks related to heat stress and other climate-related hazards.

Most affected Sectors of the Economy:

  • Agriculture: Despite a decline in the proportion of the workforce engaged in agriculture over the past few decades, it remains the most heat-susceptible sector, particularly in the developing world like India.
    • The NSSO data of July 2018-June 2019 reveal that almost 90% of Indian farmers own less than two hectares of land, and earn an average monthly income of a little over ₹10,000
  • Micro, Small, and Medium Enterprises (MSMEs): India’s vast MSME sector, employing over 123 million workers, contributes significantly to the country’s economy. However, the sector’s informalization poses challenges in ensuring worker safety and health.
    • Lack of oversight by state Occupational Safety and Health (OSH) departments makes workers highly vulnerable to heat hazards, despite the sector’s substantial contribution to exports and manufacturing output.
  • Building and Construction: With approximately 70 million workers, the construction sector in India faces the urban heat island effect, especially in rapidly growing cities. Workers in this sector are exposed to physical injuries and health hazards such as asthma due to air pollution, as many Indian cities rank among the most polluted globally as per World Air Quality Report 2023 by IQAir.

About Occupational Safety, Health and Working Conditions Code, 2020 (OSH Code, 2020): 

  • This is a comprehensive law, enacted in September 2020.
  • It consolidates and amends more than 13 central laws related to workplace safety, including the Factories Act, 1948, the Workmen Compensation Act, 1923, the Building and Other Construction Workers Act, 1996, the Plantations Labour Act, 1951, the Mines Act, 1952, and the Inter-State Migrant Workmen Act, 1979.
  • However, the enforcement of this law is yet to be officially notified by the Union government.

 

Way forward:

  • Enhanced Regulations and Enforcement: Implement and enforce the Occupational Safety, Health, and Working Conditions Code, 2020 to ensure comprehensive protection for workers across all sectors. This includes setting clear standards for workplace safety, regular inspections, and penalties for non-compliance.
  • Heat Stress Management: Implement measures to manage heat stress in workplaces, especially in heat-susceptible sectors like agriculture and construction. This can include providing access to shaded rest areas, increasing hydration facilities, adjusting work schedules to avoid peak heat hours.
  • Healthcare Access: Ensure access to healthcare services for workers, including regular health check-ups and treatment for heat-related illnesses and other occupational health issues. This may involve setting up medical facilities near worksites or providing transportation to nearby healthcare facilities.

Mains PYQ 

Q ‘Climate change’ is a global problem. How India will be affected by climate change? How Himalayan and coastal states of India will be affected by climate change? (UPSC IAS/2017)

Get an IAS/IPS ranker as your 1: 1 personal mentor for UPSC 2024

Attend Now

Animal Husbandry, Dairy & Fisheries Sector – Pashudhan Sanjivani, E- Pashudhan Haat, etc

An Animal Protection Bill that must be moved in June

Note4Students

From UPSC perspective, the following things are important :

Prelims level: NA

Mains level: Issues in PCA 1960

Why in the News? 

Presently, Croatia has imposed stricter penalties for acts of cruelty, especially the abandonment of domestic pets. Countries across the world are reforming their animal cruelty laws and enhancing punishments for animal cruelty.

On punishment theories:

  • Inadequacies in the PCA Act (1960): The Prevention of Cruelty to Animals Act (PCA Act) is the primary legislation criminalizing various forms of cruelty towards animals in India.
  • Failure to Achieve Objectives: Despite being in place for several decades, the PCA Act has failed to achieve its main objective of preventing cruelty to animals effectively.

Theories of punishment suggest that punishment serves three main goals:

  • Retribution: Retribution refers to punishment imposed to avenge the crime committed.In the context of animal cruelty, retribution could involve imposing punishment on perpetrators to seek justice for the harm inflicted on animals.
  • Deterrence: It aims to prevent future crimes by imposing punishment that dissuades both the perpetrator and the general public from engaging in similar behavior.
  • Reformation or Rehabilitation: It focuses on reforming the behavior of the perpetrator to prevent future offenses.

Issues in PCA 1960 : 

  • Bail and Non-Cognisable Offences: Many offences under the PCA Act are bailable and non-cognisable, allowing accused individuals to seek bail easily and preventing immediate police action without court permission. This delays justice and hampers effective enforcement.
  • Inadequate Fines: The fines prescribed under the PCA Act have remained unchanged for over 130 years, rendering them insignificant and failing to act as a deterrent against animal cruelty. In many cases, fines are as low as ₹10, which does not reflect the seriousness of the offenses.
  • Discretionary Sentencing: The law grants courts discretion to choose between imposing imprisonment or a fine on offenders, even for severe cases of animal cruelty. This leniency allows perpetrators to evade appropriate punishment, undermining the deterrent effect of the law.
  • Lack of Rehabilitation Measures: The PCA Act lacks provisions for alternative forms of punishment such as community service, which could help reform perpetrators and address the root causes of animal cruelty.

Steps taken by Government:

  • In November 2022, the Draft PCA (Amendment) Bill, 2022 was published by the Department of Animal Husbandry and Dairying for public comments. Despite widespread public support for the Draft Bill, it was not tabled in Parliament.
  • The Draft Bill includes significant amendments to the 1960 Act such as the inclusion of the five fundamental freedoms for animals, enhancement of the punishments and the amounts of money to be paid as fines for various offences, and addition of new cognisable offences.

Way forward 

  • Legislative Reforms: Need to table the Draft PCA (Amendment) Bill, 2022 in Parliament for consideration and enactment.Enhance penalties and fines for animal cruelty to reflect the seriousness of the offenses and act as a deterrent.
  • Promotion of Public Awareness: Launch campaigns and awareness programs to educate the public about animal welfare and the consequences of cruelty.

Mains PYQ 

Q Discuss the significance of the lion and bull figures in Indian mythology, art and architecture. (UPSC IAS/2022)

Get an IAS/IPS ranker as your 1: 1 personal mentor for UPSC 2024

Attend Now

Government Budgets

Budgets and Bills passed with little deliberation

Note4Students

From UPSC perspective, the following things are important :

Prelims level: Public Accounts Committee

Mains level: Key points related to report on the performance of State legislatures in India in 2023

Why in the news? 

  • Madhya Pradesh passed 85% of its Budget without discussion in 2023 followed by Kerala and Jharkhand.
  • These observations are based on repot of PRS Legislative Research’s Annual Review of State Laws 2023.The report analyses the performance of State legislatures in various key functions.

BACK2BASICS: 

What is Public Accounts Committee (PAC)? 

  • The inception of the Public Accounts Committee dates back to 1921 following its initial reference in the Government of India Act, 1919, commonly known as the Montford Reforms.
  • Currently, the formation of the Public Accounts Committee is an annual occurrence as per Rule 308 of the Rules of Procedure and Conduct of Business in the Lok Sabha.
  • The primary objective of the Public Accounts Committee (PAC) is to examine and scrutinize the government’s financial transactions and expenditures to ensure transparency, accountability, and proper utilization of public funds.

 

Key points related to report on the performance of State legislatures in India in 2023:

  • Budget Passing Without Discussion: Nearly 40% of the ₹18.5 lakh crore budget presented by 10 States was passed without discussion. In some States like Madhya Pradesh, Kerala, Jharkhand, and West Bengal, a significant portion of the budget was passed without debate.
  • Public Accounts Committee (PAC) Inactivity: In five States, including Bihar, Delhi, Goa, Maharashtra, and Odisha, the PAC did not table any reports in 2023. Maharashtra’s PAC neither met nor released a report during the year.
  • Fast-Track Passage of Bills: A significant number of bills were passed quickly with minimal debate, with 44% passed either on the same day they were introduced or the next day. This trend was consistent with previous years, indicating a pattern of swift legislative activity.
  • Promulgation of Ordinances: 84 ordinances were promulgated in 20 States, covering various subjects such as new universities, public examinations, and ownership of apartments. Uttar Pradesh, Andhra Pradesh, and Maharashtra accounted for the highest number of ordinances.
  • Regional Disparities: There were regional disparities in legislative activity, with states like Tamil Nadu and Himachal Pradesh tabling a significant number of PAC reports, while others like Maharashtra and Bihar saw inactivity. Similarly, some states passed bills quickly, while others took more time for deliberation.

Negative implication

  • Lack of Transparency: Budgets being passed without discussion indicate a lack of transparency and accountability in the budgetary process, potentially leading to decisions being made without proper scrutiny or public input.
  • Ineffective Oversight: The inactivity of Public Accounts Committees (PACs) in some states suggests a failure of oversight mechanisms, undermining the scrutiny of government expenditure and accountability for public funds.
  • Quality of  Legislation: The fast-track passage of bills with minimal debate raises concerns about the quality of legislation and the thoroughness of deliberation, potentially resulting in hastily drafted or poorly scrutinized laws.
  • Overuse of Ordinances: The high number of ordinances promulgated signifies a reliance on executive orders to bypass the legislative process, which can undermine democratic principles and the role of the legislature in lawmaking.

Way forward 

  • Enhancing Transparency and Accountability: Mandate thorough discussions and debates on budgets before passage to ensure transparency and accountability in financial decision-making.Establish mechanisms for public participation and input in the budgetary process to increase transparency and foster citizen engagement.
  • Reforming Oversight Mechanisms: Strengthen the functioning of Public Accounts Committees (PACs) by ensuring regular meetings and timely submission of reports.Empower PACs with adequate resources, authority, and independence to effectively scrutinize government expenditure and promote accountability.

Mains PYQ 

Q Discuss the role of Public Accounts Committee in establishing accountability of the government to the people. (UPSC IAS/2017) 

Get an IAS/IPS ranker as your 1: 1 personal mentor for UPSC 2024

Attend Now

Electoral Reforms In India

EC’s Model Code of Conduct (MCC) Need Reforms

Note4Students

From UPSC perspective, the following things are important :

Prelims level: Model Code of Conduct (MCC)

Mains level: features and concerns related MCC

Why in the news?

The Election Commission of India (ECI) has issued notifications regarding complaints of violations of the Model Code of Conduct (MCC) against prominent leaders in India.

Model Code of Conduct (MCC)

  • Set of guidelines : The Model Code of Conduct (MCC) is a set of guidelines issued by the Election Commission of India (EC) for political parties and candidates.
  • Aim: It aims to establish standards of conduct during election campaigns and polling.The MCC includes provisions for lodging complaints with EC observers and dictates the conduct of ministers from ruling parties during the MCC period.
  • In 2019, an addition was made concerning election manifestos, prohibiting promises contrary to constitutional ideals.
  • The MCC is not legally binding as it is not a statutory document enacted by Parliament.
  • While violating many MCC guidelines may not result in punitive action, certain actions are categorized as electoral offenses and corrupt practices under the Indian Penal Code and the Representation of the People Act, 1951.
  • Violators of these laws will face appropriate punishment.

Evolution of MCC:

  • Origin: The Model Code of Conduct (MCC) originated as a small set of guidelines for the Assembly election in Kerala in 1960.
  • Initially, it covered various aspects such as the conduct of election meetings, processions, speeches, slogans, posters, and placards.
  • Expansion of MCC: Under Chief Election Commissioner (CEC) K V K Sundaram in 1968, the EC consulted with political parties and expanded the MCC to ensure minimum standards of behavior for free and fair elections.
  • Standard practice: By 1979, it became a standard practice for the EC to circulate the MCC before every General Election.
  • Consolidation of MCC: Over time, the MCC evolved further with consultations between the EC and political parties. In 1991, it was consolidated and re-issued with additional sections, including restrictions on the “party in power” to prevent the misuse of authority for unfair advantages.

Features of MCC: 

  • Activation of MCC: The Model Code of Conduct (MCC) is activated immediately upon the announcement of the election schedule by the Election Commission and remains in effect until the completion of the election process, including the announcement of results.
  • Applicable on all election: It applies to all elections to the Lok Sabha, State Assemblies, State Legislative Council elections from Local Bodies, and Graduates’ and Teachers’ Constituencies.
  • Across all India: During General elections, the MCC is enforced across India, while during Legislative Assembly elections, it is enforced in the specific state going to polls.
  • Funded to adhere with MCC: All organizations, committees, corporations, and commissions funded wholly or partially by the Central or State governments are obligated to adhere to the MCC.
  • List of Political parties: In addition to listed political parties and candidates, non-political organizations conducting campaigns in support of a political party or candidate are also required to follow specific guidelines outlined by the Election Commission.

Issues related to MCC: 

  • The political environment in the country has become more intense, leading to a decrease in the effectiveness of the Model Code of Conduct (MCC).
  • Instances of violations of the MCC are increasing rapidly and are becoming widespread and aggressive.
  • Political leaders are using their influence, resources, and persuasive tactics more aggressively than ever, often exploiting loopholes between the literal and intended meanings of the MCC.
  • Money power has become more prominent than physical strength, and advancements in technology have provided new ways to circumvent regulations.
  • The MCC lacks clarity on the consequences of violations, which weakens its ability to deter misconduct.
  • Delayed responses to violations reduce the impact of penalties and erode public trust in the Election Commission’s credibility.

Way Forward

  • Strengthen Enforcement: Enhance the enforcement mechanisms to ensure strict adherence to the MCC guidelines. 
  • Technological Solutions: Leverage technology to improve monitoring and enforcement of MCC compliance. Implement tools such as social media monitoring, data analytics, and surveillance technology to detect and deter violations effectively.
  • Swift and Transparent Action: Ensure timely and transparent action against MCC violations. Establish clear protocols for investigating complaints and imposing penalties on violators. Swift action will enhance the deterrent effect of the MCC.

Mains PYQ:

Q ‘Simultaneous election to the Lok Sabha and the State Assemblies will limit the amount of time and money spent in electioneering but it will reduce the government’s accountability to the people’ Discuss. [2017]

Get an IAS/IPS ranker as your 1: 1 personal mentor for UPSC 2024

Attend Now

Economic Indicators and Various Reports On It- GDP, FD, EODB, WIR etc

[PREMIUM] Views on inflation: A matter of interest

Note4Students

From UPSC perspective, the following things are important :

Prelims level: CPI and WPI

Mains level: Challenges and measures related to inflation

Why in the News? 

AAZData released showed that Retail Inflation had edged marginally upward last month.

What is Inflation?

  • Inflation, as per the definition provided by the International Monetary Fund, represents the pace at which prices rise within a specified timeframe, covering a comprehensive assessment of general price escalations or those about particular goods and services. To measure the inflation there are different types of inflation index.
  • An Inflation Index is a statistical measure used to track changes in the overall price level of goods and services in an economy over a specific period. It quantifies the rate of inflation by comparing the current prices of a selected basket of goods and services to their prices in a base period.

In India, there are primarily two types of inflation indices used to measure price changes:

  • Consumer Price Index (CPI): The CPI measures changes in the prices paid by urban and rural consumers for a basket of goods and services. It provides insights into inflation experienced by households and is divided into various sub-indices based on categories such as food, fuel, clothing, housing, transportation, medical care, recreation, and education. The Government of India releases multiple CPI indices, including:
  1. CPI for Industrial Workers (CPI-IW)
  2. CPI for Agricultural Labourers (CPI-AL)
  3. CPI for Rural Labourers (CPI-RL)
  4. CPI for Urban Non-Manual Employees (CPI-UNME)
  5. CPI for Rural (CPI-R)
  6. CPI for Urban (CPI-U)
  • Wholesale Price Index (WPI): The WPI tracks changes in the prices of goods at the wholesale level. It includes the prices of commodities traded in bulk such as agricultural products, minerals, crude oil, manufactured products, and electricity. The Office of the Economic Adviser, under the Department for Promotion of Industry and Internal Trade (DPIIT), releases the WPI every month.

What is Retail Inflation? 

  • Retail inflation, also known as Consumer Price Index (CPI) inflation, tracks the change in retail prices of goods and services that households purchase for their daily consumption. CPI is calculated for a fixed basket of goods and services that may or may not be altered by the government from time to time.
  • How it is Calculated?
    • A representative basket of goods and services is selected to represent the typical consumption patterns of households
    • The cost of the basket of goods and services is calculated for a base period.
    • The CPI is calculated by dividing the cost of the basket in the current period by the cost of the basket in the base period and multiplying by 100.
    • The inflation rate is calculated by comparing the CPI of the current period with the CPI of the base period.

Key points as per AAZData released by the National Statistical Office:

  • Retail Inflation Data: The National Statistical Office reported that retail inflation in India increased marginally, rising to 5.69% in December from 5.55% in November, primarily driven by higher food inflation
  • Cause of inflation: RBI Governor Shaktikanta Das had anticipated the rise in inflation due to risks in food prices, cautioning about potential second-round effects
  • Food Inflation: The Consumer Food Price Index surged to 9.53% in December, up from 8.7% in November, with notable inflation in cereals, vegetables, pulses, sugar, and spices
  • Industrial Production: The index of industrial production slowed to 2.4% in November, partly due to the base effect, with a 6.4% increase in industrial output for the first eight months of the year (April-November)
  • Monetary Policy Committee (MPC) Actions: The MPC maintained the status quo on rates and stance in the last meeting, focusing on withdrawing accommodation to align inflation with the target of 4%
  • Future Monetary Policy: There are discussions within the MPC about the necessity of an interest rate cut to prevent excessive real interest rates, especially as inflation is projected to moderate in the coming quarters

Way Forward

  • Monetary Policy Adjustment: The Reserve Bank of India (RBI) could consider implementing a cautious monetary policy stance, possibly by tightening monetary policy through measures such as raising the repo rate. This would help curb inflationary pressures by reducing liquidity in the economy and making borrowing more expensive.
  • Supply-Side Interventions: The government could focus on addressing supply-side constraints in the agricultural sector to mitigate food price inflation. This might involve measures such as improving infrastructure, increasing agricultural productivity, reducing post-harvest losses, and enhancing market efficiency through better distribution networks.
  • Fiscal Policy Support: The government could also provide fiscal support to sectors facing supply-side disruptions or demand constraints, which could help stabilize prices and support economic growth. Targeted fiscal measures, such as subsidies for essential commodities or infrastructure investments, could be considered to address specific challenges contributing to inflation.

Mains PYQ 

Q Besides the welfare schemes, India needs deft management of inflation and unemployment to serve the poor and the underprivileged sections of the society. Discuss. (UPSC IAS/2022)

Q Do you agree with the view that steady GDP growth and low inflation have left the Indian economy in good shape? Give reasons in support of your arguments. (UPSC IAS/2019)

Prelims PYQ 

Consider the following statements:(UPSC IAS/2020)

1) The weightage of food in Consumer Price Index (CPI) is higher than that in Wholesale Price Index (WPI).

2) The WPI does not capture changes in the prices of services, which CPI does.

3) Reserve Bank of India has now adopted WPI as its key measure of inflation and to decide on changing the key policy rates.

Which of the statements give above is/are correct?

a) 1 and 2 only

b) 2 only

c) 3 only

d) 1, 2 and 3

Get an IAS/IPS ranker as your 1: 1 personal mentor for UPSC 2024

Attend Now

Industrial Sector Updates – Industrial Policy, Ease of Doing Business, etc.

Implementing the Street Vendors Act

Note4Students

From UPSC perspective, the following things are important :

Prelims level: The Street Vendors (Protection of Livelihood and Regulation of Street Vending) Act, 2014

Mains level: Challenges related to Act implementation

Why in the News? 

The Street Vendors Act was celebrated as a progressive legislation, but the law now faces numerous challenges in its implementation.

The Street Vendors (Protection of Livelihood and Regulation of Street Vending) Act, 2014:

Details
Introduction and Objective
  • Introduced in Lok Sabha on 6 September 2012 by Kumari Selja, Union Minister of Housing and Urban Poverty Alleviation.
  • Objective: Regulate street vendors and protect their livelihoods.
Enactment and Implementation
  • Came into force on 1 May 2014.
  • Aims to legalize vending rights and establish mechanisms for protection and regulation.
  • State-level rules and schemes are developed for execution.
Roles and Responsibilities
  • Delineates roles of street vendors and government.
  • Commits to accommodating existing vendors in vending zones and issuing vending certificates.
Participatory Governance
  • Establishes Town Vending Committees (TVCs).
  • Representation: 40% of TVC members, with 33% for women SVs.
  • TVCs tasked with including all existing vendors in zones.
Grievance Redressal
  • Mechanisms for addressing grievances and
  • Establishes Grievance Redressal Committee chaired by civil judge or judicial magistrate.
Survey and Identification States/ULBs conduct surveys to identify vendors at least once every five years.
Certificate of Vending
  • Granted to vendors above 14 years.
  • Can be transferred to family members.
  • Can be cancelled

Significance of street vendors 

  • Role of Street Vendors: Street vendors constitute about 2.5% of any city’s population and play multifaceted roles in city life, providing essential services, modest income for migrants and the urban poor, and affordable goods for others.
  • Integral to Urban Life: Street vendors are essential for maintaining affordability and accessibility to food, nutrition, and goods distribution, and they are integral to the cultural fabric of cities like Mumbai and Chennai.

Challenges faced during the implementation:

  • Administrative Challenges: Increase in harassment and evictions of street vendors despite the Act’s emphasis on protection and regulation.Outdated bureaucratic mindset viewing vendors as illegal entities.
    • Lack of awareness and sensitization about the Act among state authorities, the public, and vendors.
    • Limited influence of street vendor representatives in Town Vending Committees (TVCs), often remaining under the control of local city authorities.Tokenistic representation of women vendors in TVCs.
  • Governance Challenges: Weak existing urban governance mechanisms.
    • Lack of integration of the Act with the framework established by the 74th Constitutional Amendment Act for urban governance.
    • Insufficient powers and capacities of ULBs.
    • Focus on top-down policies like the Smart Cities Mission on infrastructure development, ignoring provisions for the inclusion of street vendors in city planning.
  • Societal Challenges: The prevailing image of the ‘world-class city’ tends to be exclusionary.Marginalization and stigmatization of street vendors as obstacles to urban development rather than legitimate contributors to the urban economy.
    • Reflection of these challenges in city designs, urban policies, and public perceptions of neighborhoods.

Way forward 

  • Decentralization of Interventions: There’s a need to decentralize interventions and enhance the capacities of Urban Local Bodies (ULBs) to plan for street vending in cities.
  • Shift from Department-led Actions to Deliberative Processes: Moving away from high-handed department-led actions towards actual deliberative processes at the Town Vending Committee (TVC) level is crucial.
  • Amendments to Urban Schemes and Policies: Urban schemes, city planning guidelines, and policies need to be amended to include provisions for street vending.
  • Need-based Welfare Provisions: Broad welfare provisions of the Act should be used creatively to meet the emerging needs of street vendors, such as addressing the impact of climate change, competition from e-commerce, and reduced incomes.
  • Adaptation in National Urban Livelihood Mission: The sub-component of street vendors in the National Urban Livelihood Mission should acknowledge changed realities and facilitate innovative measures to address needs.

Mains PYQ

Q To what extent, in your opinion, has the decentralisation of power in India changed the governance landscape at the grassroots?

Get an IAS/IPS ranker as your 1: 1 personal mentor for UPSC 2024

Attend Now

Economic Indicators and Various Reports On It- GDP, FD, EODB, WIR etc

Constitution and the Redistribution of wealth

Note4Students

From UPSC perspective, the following things are important :

Prelims level: FR and DPSP

Mains level: Current debate surrounding economic policies and inequality in India due to shift from Socialistic to Market-Driven Economy

Why in the news? 

The debate surrounding the redistribution of wealth has piqued interest during the ongoing election campaigns.

What does the Constitution provide?

  • Preamble to the Constitution: It outlines the objectives of the Constitution, including securing social, and economic justice, liberty, and equality for all citizens.
  • Part III and IV:  These are principles that the central and State governments should follow to achieve social and economic justice in our country. Unlike the fundamental rights in Part III, the DPSP is not enforceable in court.
  •  Article 39(b) and 39 (c): Article 39(b) emphasizes the distribution of ownership and control of material resources to serve the common good. Article 39(c) aims to prevent the concentration of wealth in a manner detrimental to the common good.

The history of the ‘Right to Property’ in the Indian Constitution:

  • Original Guarantee: The Constitution initially guaranteed the right to property as a fundamental right under Article 19(1)(f). It provided that individuals have the right to acquire, hold, and dispose of property.
  • Compensation Requirement: Article 31 of the Constitution mandated that the state must provide compensation in case of the acquisition of private property for public purposes.
  • Land Reforms and Public Welfare: The government, facing challenges such as land reforms and the need for public infrastructure development, found the original provisions restrictive due to inadequate resources. This led to amendments aimed at providing more flexibility in acquiring land for public welfare.
  • Constitutional Amendments: Notable amendments such as Articles 31A, 31B, and 31C were introduced to curtail the right to property and facilitate land acquisition for public welfare projects.
  • Judicial Interpretation of Constitution ammendment: The Supreme Court interpreted the relationship between fundamental rights and Directive Principles of State Policy (DPSP) in various cases. In the Golak Nath case (1967), the Court held that fundamental rights cannot be diluted to implement DPSP. However, in the Kesavananda Bharati case (1973), the Court upheld the validity of Article 31C, subject to judicial review.
  • Harmonious Balance: In the Minerva Mills case (1980), the Supreme Court emphasized the need for a harmonious balance between fundamental rights and DPSP in the Constitution.
  • 44th Amendment Act: In 1978, the property right was removed as a fundamental right through the 44th Amendment Act, making it a constitutional right under Article 300A. This aimed to reduce excessive litigation and protect public welfare projects.

Impacts due to the shift from a Socialistic to a Market-Driven Economy:

  • Impact of Economic Policies: The socialistic policies of the early decades after independence focused on land reforms, nationalization of industries, high taxation rates, and regulations on private enterprise. These policies aimed to reduce inequality and redistribute wealth but were criticized for stifling growth and leading to inefficiencies.
  • Changes in Taxation: Over the years, there have been significant changes in taxation policies, including the abolition of estate duty in 1985 and wealth tax in 2016. Income tax rates were also reduced considerably, reflecting a shift towards a more business-friendly environment.
  • Growing Inequality: Despite economic growth, there has been a growing concern about inequality. Reports, such as the one by the World Inequality Lab, highlight the widening wealth and income gap, with a significant portion of the wealth concentrated among the top 10% of the population.
  • Opposition Criticism: The ruling party and its supporters have criticized the Opposition, alleging that their proposed measures, such as the reintroduction of inheritance tax, would burden even the poorer sections of society.
  • Legal Interpretation: The Supreme Court’s involvement in the debate is highlighted by its decision to constitute a nine-judge Bench to interpret whether Article 39(b) of the Constitution, which pertains to the distribution of material resources for the common good, includes private resources.
  • Central Question of the debate: The central question in the current debate revolves around the balance between economic policies that promote growth and efficiency versus those aimed at reducing inequality and ensuring social justice.

Way forward: 

  • Inclusive Growth: While promoting innovation and growth, it’s essential to ensure that the benefits are distributed equitably across all sections of society, especially the marginalized. Policies should aim for inclusive growth where the benefits reach those who need them the most.
  • Debate and Adaptation: Economic policies should be framed after adequate debate and consideration, taking into account current economic models and global best practices. There should be a continuous process of adaptation and refinement to address emerging challenges and opportunities.
  • Empowerment of Marginalized: Special attention should be given to empowering marginalized communities through targeted interventions such as education, skill development, access to resources, and opportunities for economic participation.

Mains PYQ: 

Q Critically discuss the objectives of Bhoodan and Gramdan movements initiated by Acharya Vinoba Bhave and their success. (UPSC IAS/2013)

Get an IAS/IPS ranker as your 1: 1 personal mentor for UPSC 2024

Attend Now

Labour, Jobs and Employment – Harmonization of labour laws, gender gap, unemployment, etc.

The need for the use of labour statistics

Note4Students

From UPSC perspective, the following things are important :

Prelims level: Trade union

Mains level: Issues related to labour statistics

Why in the news? 

Trade unions can play a pivotal role in producing labour statistics

Issues related to labour statistics

  • Lack of Rigorous Labour Statistics: Labour statistics are not as robust as economic and industrial data. While institutions like the Annual Survey of Industries (ASI) and the National Sample Survey Office (NSSO) provide valuable information.
  • Voluntary Reporting of Work Stoppages: Data collection on work stoppages relies on voluntary reporting, which may lead to underreporting or incomplete information. This lack of comprehensive data on strikes and other work stoppages affects the accuracy and reliability of labour statistics.
  • Limited Use of Evidence in Social Dialogue:Lack of evidence-based arguments in these dialogues undermines their effectiveness, leading to a perception of the ILC as a mere “talking shop.”
  • Class-Based Opinions without Data Support: Stakeholders often advocate for labour reforms based on “class-based opinions” rather than credible data or empirical evidence.

The role of trade unions in producing labour statistics:

  • Data Collection on Labour Inspection: Trade unions can gather information and statistics on labour inspection practices, including the number of sanctioned and employed inspectors, inspection frequency, and coverage. This data can highlight deficiencies in inspection systems and advocate for their strengthening.
  • Monitoring Retrenchment and Closure Applications: Trade unions can track retrenchment and closure applications submitted to labour departments, along with permissions granted or refused. This data can provide insights into the prevalence of denials and the impact of labour regulations on job security.
  • Analysis of Strikes and Lockouts: Trade unions can utilize data on strikes and lockouts published by agencies like the Labour Bureau to analyze trends and patterns. This analysis can inform discussions on labour laws and industrial relations, challenging the need for harsher clauses on strikes.
  • Evidence-based arguments: Trade unions can use objective data and empirical studies to contest labour reforms in policy debates. By presenting evidence-based arguments, trade unions can influence decision-making processes and advocate for policies that promote workers’ rights and well-being.

Conclusion:  

Implement more robust and standardized data collection methods for labour statistics to ensure accuracy and consistency across different sources. This may involve leveraging technology, such as digital reporting systems, to streamline data collection processes.

Mains PYQ 

Q Account for the failure of manufacturing sector in achieving the goal of labour-intensive exports. Suggest measures for more labour-intensive rather than capital-intensive exports.

Get an IAS/IPS ranker as your 1: 1 personal mentor for UPSC 2024

Attend Now

Forest Conservation Efforts – NFP, Western Ghats, etc.

Chunk of India’s forests ‘missing’ after 27-year-delay to file reports | Analysis

Note4Students

From UPSC perspective, the following things are important :

Prelims level: Unclassed forests;

Mains level: Forest coverage in India; Issues related to identification and protection of unclassed forests;

Why in the news?

SC ordered MoEFCC to upload State Expert Committee reports on unclassed forests due to concerns over the Forest (Conservation) Act Amendment 2023 constitutionality, impacting protection and potential diversion of these forests.

What are unclassed forests?

  • Unclassed forests, also known as deemed forests, are forest areas that may belong to various entities such as government bodies (forests, revenue departments, railways), communities, or private owners. However, these forest areas have not been officially notified as forests.
  • The State Expert Committees (SECs) were tasked with identifying all such unclassed forests across the country (referring to Forest Working Plans and Land Revenue Records).
  • Additionally, SECs were required to physically identify any land patches that exhibit characteristics of forests, as per the dictionary meaning of forests, irrespective of their ownership status.

What are the present issues?

  1. The missing forests in SECs 
  • Undermined the previous judgment: MoEFCC informed a Parliamentary Committee that SECs had identified unclassed forests, aligning with the proposed Forest (Conservation) Act Amendment, despite earlier criticism that the law undermined the Godavarman judgment.
    • However, an RTI application revealed that MoEFCC claimed not to have the SEC reports, raising questions about its assurance to the Parliamentary Committee.
  • Lack of verified data: Following a Supreme Court order, MoEFCC uploaded the SEC reports, but they showed a lack of verifiable data on the identification, status, and location of unclassed forests.
  • States not constituted SECs: Seven states and Union Territories, including Goa, Haryana, and Tamil Nadu, hadn’t constituted SECs, while others hadn’t fully complied with Supreme Court directives.
  • Non-traceable Forest: Ladakh formed an SEC only after the dissolution of Jammu & Kashmir, and Puducherry’s report was declared “not traceable”, further highlighting inconsistencies in the process.
  1. Disagreement with FSI data 
  • Insufficient timeline: Many states argue that the one-month timeline provided by the Supreme Court was insufficient for comprehensive work due to the voluminous nature of the task.
  • Relied on Existing data: Instead of conducting ground-truthing, physical cadastral surveys, and demarcation of unclassed forest lands, most states relied on existing data from forest and revenue departments. Some states, like Manipur and Sikkim, simply quoted figures from the Forest Survey of India (FSI).
  • Question on Data: The reliability of data is questioned, with Haryana’s report lacking clarity on data sources and creation dates. Only nine states provided the extent of unclassed forests, while others focused on different types of forest areas specified in the order.
  1. Lack of clarity in the Reports:
  • Failed to specify the geographic locations: Most states and UTs failed to specify the geographic locations of forests in their SEC reports, rendering the information provided largely unhelpful for accurate identification and protection.
    • But Tripura was an exception, providing Khaitan numbers for forest areas beyond those officially recorded, but the classification of land remained unclear.
  • Lack of on-ground verification: SEC is lagging that on-ground verification may have led to the widespread destruction of forests that should have been identified and protected nearly three decades ago.
    • Instances like Kerala’s SEC excluding ecologically significant areas like Pallivasal unreserve and Chinnakanal unreserve, critical for wildlife corridors and conservation, showcase the lack of diligence in identifying and protecting vital forest areas.

Suggested Measures:

  • Extended Timeline: Provide states with a more realistic timeline to conduct comprehensive surveys and data verification, considering the voluminous nature of the task and the need for accuracy.
  • Ground Truthing and Surveys: Mandate states to conduct ground-truthing, physical cadastral surveys, and demarcation of unclassed forest lands to ensure accurate identification and mapping of forest areas.
  • Data Verification: Implement mechanisms for verifying and cross-referencing data obtained from various sources, such as forest and revenue departments and the Forest Survey of India, to ensure reliability and consistency.

Main PYQ: 

Q Examine the status of forest resources of India and its resultant impact on climate change.(UPSC IAS/2020)

Get an IAS/IPS ranker as your 1: 1 personal mentor for UPSC 2024

Attend Now

JOIN THE COMMUNITY

Join us across Social Media platforms.

💥Mentorship New Batch Launch
💥Mentorship New Batch Launch