January 2020
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[pib] Good Governance Index (GGI)PIB


From UPSC perspective, the following things are important :

Prelims level : About the Index

Mains level : Various good governance initiatives

The Ministry of Personnel, Public Grievances & Pensions has launched the ‘Good Governance Index’.

Good Governance Index (GGI)

  • The GGI is a uniform tool across States to assess the Status of Governance and impact of various interventions taken up by the State Government and UTs.
  • The objectives of GGI are to provide quantifiable data to compare the state of governance in all states and UTs, enable states and UTs to formulate and implement suitable strategies for improving governance and shift to result oriented approaches and administration.
  • Various principles have been kept in mind while selecting the indicators, i.e. it should be easy to understand & calculate, citizen-centric & result driven, leading to improved results and applicable to all states and UTs, among others.
  • Various consultation meetings were held with the stakeholders, including consultations with sector experts, ministries, states & UTs.

Sectors accounted under GGI

  • These ten Governance Sectors are measured on total 50 indicators:
  1. Agriculture and Allied Sectors,
  2. Commerce & Industries,
  3. Human Resource Development,
  4. Public Health,
  5. Public Infrastructure & Utilities,
  6. Economic Governance,
  7. Social Welfare & Development,
  8. Judicial & Public Security,
  9. Environment and
  10. Citizen-Centric Governance
  • The states and UTs are divided into three groups: a). Big States, b). North-East & Hill States and c). UTs.
  • The states and UTs are ranked on all indicators separately, at the same time composite ranking is also calculated for these states and UTs under their respective groups based upon these indicators.
Water Management – Institutional Reforms, Conservation Efforts, etc.

[pib] Atal Bhujal Yojana (Atal Jal)PIB


From UPSC perspective, the following things are important :

Prelims level : Atal Jal

Mains level : Significance of the scheme

PM Modi has formally launched Atal Bhujal Yojana (ATAL JAL).

Atal Bhujal Yojana

  • Type: Central Sector Scheme
  • Related Ministry/Department: Ministry of Jal Shakti
  • Period: The scheme is to be implemented over a period of 5 years from 2018-19 to 2022-23, with World Bank assistance.

Aims and objective

  • The scheme aims to improve groundwater management in priority areas in the country through community participation.
  • The priority areas identified under the scheme fall in the states of  Gujarat, Haryana, Karnataka, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Rajasthan and Uttar Pradesh.
  • These States represent about 25% of the total number of over-exploited, critical and semi-critical blocks in terms of groundwater in India.
  • They also cover two major types of groundwater systems found in India – alluvial and hard rock aquifers- and have varying degrees of institutional readiness and experience in groundwater management.


  • Central Ground Water Authority (CGWA) is regulating groundwater development in 23 States/UTs.
  • For enforcement of the regulatory measures in these areas, concerned Deputy Commissioners/ District Magistrates have been directed under Section 5 of Environment (Protection) Act, 1986to take necessary action in case of violations of directives of CGWA.

Community Participation

  • The scheme envisages active participation of the communities in various activities such as formation of Water User Associations, monitoring and disseminating ground water data, water budgeting etc.
  • Preparation and implementation of Gram-Panchayat wise water security plans and IEC activities related to sustainable ground water management is also to be carried out.
Indian Army Updates

[pib] Chief of Defence StaffPIB


From UPSC perspective, the following things are important :

Prelims level : Office of CDS

Mains level : Need for CDS

In a landmark decision with tremendous reform in higher defence management in the country, the Union Cabinet has approved to create the post of Chief of Defence Staff.

Chief of Defence Staff (CDS)

  • The CDS will be in the rank of a four-star General with salary and perquisites equivalent to a Service Chief.
  • He will also head the Department of Military Affairs (DMA), to be created within the Ministry of Defence and function as its Secretary.
  • The Chief of Defence Staff, apart from being the head of the Department of Military Affairs, will also be the Permanent Chairman of the Chiefs of Staff Committee.
  • He will act as the Principal Military Adviser to Raksha Mantri on all tri-Services matters.
  • The three Chiefs will continue to advise RM on matters exclusively concerning their respective Services.
  • CDS will not exercise any military command, including over the three Service Chiefs, so as to be able to provide impartial advice to the political leadership.

Areas to be dealt

The following areas will be dealt by the Department of Military Affairs headed by CDS:

  • The Armed Forces of the Union, namely, the Army, the Navy and the Air Force.
  • Integrated Headquarters of the Ministry of Defence comprising Army Headquarters, Naval Headquarters, Air Headquarters and Defence Staff Headquarters.
  • The Territorial Army.
  • Works relating to the Army, the Navy and the Air Force.
  • Procurement exclusive to the Services except capital acquisitions, as per prevalent rules and procedures.


As the Permanent Chairman of Chiefs of Staff Committee, CDS will perform the following functions:

  • CDS will administer tri-services organisations. Tri-service agencies/organisations/commands related to Cyber and Space will be under the command of the CDS.
  • CDS will be member of Defence Acquisition Council chaired by Raksha Mantri and Defence Planning Committee chaired by NSA.
  • Function as the Military Adviser to the Nuclear Command Authority.
  • Bring about jointness in operation, logistics, transport, training, support services, communications, repairs and maintenance, etc of the three Services, within three years of the first CDS assuming office.
  • Ensure optimal utilisation of infrastructure and rationalise it through jointness among the services.
  • Implement Five-Year Defence Capital Acquisition Plan (DCAP), and Two-Year roll-on Annual Acquisition Plans (AAP), as a follow up of Integrated Capability Development Plan (ICDP).
  • Assign inter-Services prioritisation to capital acquisition proposals based on the anticipated budget.
  • Bring about reforms in the functioning of three Services aimed at augmenting combat capabilities of the Armed Forces by reducing wasteful expenditure.


Explained: The post of Chief of Defence Staff (CDS)

Electric and Hybrid Cars – FAME, National Electric Mobility Mission, etc.

[pib] Automotive Industry Standards (AIS)-155PIB


From UPSC perspective, the following things are important :

Prelims level : AIS 155, Microdots

Mains level : Application of Microdots

The Union Ministry of Road Transport & Highways (MoRTH) has notified regarding to Automotive Industry Standards (AIS)-155 in respect of Microdot identifiers affixed  on  the motor vehicles.

What is AIS-155?

  • AIS-155 is an Indian standard for Microdot identifiers which are affixed on the motor vehicles and their parts, components, assemblies, sub-assemblies through amendment in Rule 92 of the Central Motor vehicles.
  • The Central Motor vehicles (Fourteenth Amendment) Rules, 2019 comes into force on the date of publication in the Official Gazette.

Microdots Technology

  • The Ministry of Road Transport and Highways issued a draft notification on amending the Central Motor Vehicles Rules, 1989, and allowing motor vehicles and their parts, components, assemblies, sub-assemblies to be affixed with permanent and nearly invisible microdots.
  • These microdots can be read physically with a microscope and identified with ultraviolet light.
  • Microdots are a globally proven technology to ensure originality in spare parts of machines and components, including in the automobile sector.
  • The government has envisaged that with microdots becoming a permanent feature in vehicles, identifying them would become easier in case they are stolen.

How it works?

  • The microdots and adhesive are to become a permanent fixture/affixation which cannot be removed without damaging the asset itself.
  • The microdots are to comply with AIS 155 requirements, if affixed.
  • The technology involves spraying thousands of microscopic dots onto vehicles or other assets to form a unique identification.
  • Each microdot carries this identification which is registered to the owner, but is not visible to the naked eye.
Railway Reforms

[pib] Modern Train Control SystemPIB


From UPSC perspective, the following things are important :

Prelims level : Components of Modern Train Control system

Mains level : High speed railway connectivity in India: Prospects and Challenges

Indian Railways has decided to modernize its Signalling system on its entire network by implementing Modern Train Control system.

Modern Train Control system

  • The RailTel Enterprises Ltd. (REL), a 100% subsidiary of RailTel Corporation of India Ltd. has been given the responsibility to implement these four pilot projects on behalf of Indian Railway.
  • The MTCS includes provision of:
  1. Automatic Train Protection (ATP) System
  2. Electronic Interlocking System
  3. Remote Diagnostic & Predictive Maintenance System
  4. Long Term Evolution (LTE) based Mobile Train Radio Communication (MTRC) System
  5. Centralized Traffic Control System (CTC) /Train Management System (TMS)


  • This is one of the most ambitious modernization projects of Indian Railways, which envisages upgradation of signaling system for improving safety, Line Capacity and to run trains at higher speed.
Climate Change Impact on India and World – International Reports, Key Observations, etc.

[pib] Ecoclub ProgrammePIB


From UPSC perspective, the following things are important :

Prelims level : Ecoclub Programme

Mains level : Sensitization measures for environment protection

The annual meet of the National Green Corps ‘Ecoclub’ programme of the MoEF&CC was recently organized.

Ecoclub programme

  • Environment Education Awareness and Training (EEAT) is an established central sector scheme of the Environment ministry continuing since 1983-84.
  • It aims to promote environmental awareness and mobilize student’s participation for environment conservation.
  • Under the scheme, National Green Corps (NGC) ‘Ecoclub’ programme was initiated in 2001-2002 with the objective to impart knowledge to school children through hands on experience, about their immediate environment, interactions within it and the problems therein.
  • The programme aims to inculcate proper attitude towards environment and sensitize children on issues related to environment and development.
  • The scheme is continuing to build young cadres of students and trigger their sensitivity towards environment protection and conservation.
  • It is envisaged that number of Ecoclubs shall be enhanced from about 1.5 lakh at present to 2 lakh in the ensuing year 2020-21.
Civil Services Reforms

[pib] Nagpur Resolution for empowering citizensPIB


From UPSC perspective, the following things are important :

Prelims level : Nagpur Resolution

Mains level : Various good governance initiatives

The ‘Nagpur Resolution- A holistic approach for empowering citizens’ was adopted during a Conference on ‘Improving Public Service Delivery – Role of Governments’, in Nagpur, Maharashtra.

Nagpur Resolution

The Conference resolved that Government stakeholders shall collaborate to:

  • To empower the citizens by policy interventions for better service delivery through timely updation of citizens charters, implementation of enactments and benchmarking standards for continuous improvement;
  • To empower citizens by adopting a bottom-up approach to bring massive improvements in quality of grievance redressal and reduction in timelines of grievance redressal;
  • To adopt a holistic approach of systemic public grievance reforms through improved mapping, formulation of monitoring matrix, data collection and evaluation in quality of grievance redressal;
  • To provide an enabling environment for States and Ministries/ Departments of the Government of India for creating web portals and to adopt a holistic approach for improved service delivery through digital platforms;
  • To focus on dynamic policy making and strategic decisions, monitoring of implementation, appointment of key personnel, coordination and evaluation;
  • To achieve a sense of common identity by exchange of technical expertise in the areas of Improved Service Delivery between the paired States under the Ek Bharat – Shresht Bharat Program;
  • To work towards long-term engagements in the areas of Improved Service Delivery for Empowering Citizens through greater cooperation between the DARPG and the participating States and,
  • To ensure timely publication of Good Governance Index to identify the quality of governance in 10 sectors especially those pertaining to welfare and infrastructure at the Union, State and District levels.
Higher Education – RUSA, NIRF, HEFA, etc.

[pib] EChO NetworkPIB


From UPSC perspective, the following things are important :

Prelims level : EChO Network

Mains level : Need for inter-disciplinary approach

EChO network to catalyze cross-disciplinary leadership in India has been recently launched.

EChO Network

  • It is a national program to provide a template for cross-disciplinary leadership in India with the specific focus of increasing research, knowledge, and awareness of Indian ecology and the environment has been launched.
  • The purpose of this Network is to bring all those together to share knowledge and synergize efforts under the umbrella of science.
  • It aims to train a new generation of educators and students who can identify and solve problems in an interdisciplinary manner to tackle real-world problems in medicine, agriculture, ecology, and technology.

Whose initiative?

The initiative has drawn in partners from Government, industry and academia, with the Office of the Principal Scientific Adviser to the Govt. of India steering the program under the guidance of Prof. Shannon Olsson, Director, EChO Network.


  • India faces unprecedented threats to its human environmental and ecosystems, solving which requires a confluence of India’s strong technological expertise and knowledge of the natural world itself.
  • EChO Network would develop a national network to catalyse a new generation of Indians who can synthesize interdisciplinary concepts and tackle real-world problems in medicine, agriculture, ecology, and technology.
  • With no precedent for such a network anywhere in the world, EChO Network establishes a new platform to change how science is embedded in our modern society.
Pharma Sector – Drug Pricing, NPPA, FDC, Generics, etc.

Indian Pharmacopoeia (IP)PIB


From UPSC perspective, the following things are important :

Prelims level : Indian Pharmacopoeia (IP)

Mains level : Not Much

The Indian Pharmacopoeia (IP) has been recognised officially by the National Department of Regulation of Medicines and Health Products of the Ministry of Public Health of Republic of Afghanistan.

Significance of the move

  • With this, a new beginning has been made and Afghanistan has become the first country to recognize IP pursuant to the efforts of Department of Commerce and Ministry of Health and Family Welfare.

Indian Pharmacopoeia (IP)

  • The quality, efficacy and safety of the medicines are important from healthcare perspective.
  • In order to ensure the quality of medicinal products, the legal and scientific standards are provided by Indian Pharmacopoeia Commission (IPC) in the form of Indian Pharmacopoeia (IP).
  • IP is an officially recognized book of standards as per the Drugs and Cosmetics Act, 1940 and Rules 1945 thereunder.
  • As per, the Second Schedule of the Drugs and Cosmetics Act, IP is designated as the official book of standards for drugs imported and/or manufactured for sale, stock or exhibition for sale or distribution in India.
  • Standards prescribed in the IP are authoritative in nature and are enforced by the regulatory authorities for quality control of medicines in India.

What is IP Commission?

  • The IP Commission’s mission is to promote public and animal health in India by bringing out authoritative and officially accepted standards for quality of drugs.
  • It includes active pharmaceutical ingredients, excipients and dosage forms, used by health professionals, patients and consumers.
  • This is achieved by developing the standards for medicines and supporting their implementation.
  • In addition, IPC also develops IP Reference Substances (IPRS) that act as fingerprint for identification of an article under test and its purity as prescribed in the IP monographs.

[pib] NITI Aayog to draft roadmap for achieving population stabilizationPIB


From UPSC perspective, the following things are important :

Prelims level : Not Much

Mains level : Population control initiatives in India

NITI Aayog is organising a National Consultation titled “Realizing the vision of population stabilization: leaving no one behind”.

About the draft

  • The working paper is expected to address key gaps in India’s family planning programmes.
  • It will offer constructive recommendations to address regional disparities in outcomes by focusing on adolescents and youths, inter-departmental convergence, demand generation, access to contraceptive services and quality of care.
  • The recommendations from the consultation will contribute to a NITI Aayog working paper to help achieve India’s vision of attaining population stabilization.

Key recommendations expected to emerge from the meeting are as follows:

  • Increasing the basket of contraceptive choices, with greater focus on spacing methods and helping women make informed choices about delaying pregnancy and spacing between children.
  • Addressing social determinants of health such as age at marriage and sex-selective practices.
  • Strengthening quality of care, including counseling services, managing side effects and family planning support.
  • Increasing budgetary allocations for family planning, to align with the unmet needs of India’s young people who constitute nearly 30 per cent of our population.
  • Addressing existing socio-cultural barriers towards contraception by investing extensively in innovative behaviour-change communication strategies.
  • Treating population stabilization and family planning as a national priority, fostering inter-departmental convergence and ensuring multisectoral participation and integration.

Why such move?

  • India, with a current population size of 1.37 billion, has the second largest population in the world.
  • Family planning is considered universally as the smartest development investment.
  • For India to realize its sustainable development goals and economic aspirations, it is important to ensure that people have informed access to contraception and quality family planning services.
  • India is also at a stage where birth rates are falling but the population continues to grow due to the fact that more than30 % of the population is young and in the reproductive age group.
  • Nearly30 million currently married women in the age group of 15-49 years within this critical cohort have unmet needs in family planning.
  • This limits their ability to delay or avoid pregnancy by not having access or the agency to use contraception.
Indian Navy Updates

[pib] Exercise ‘Apharan’PIB


From UPSC perspective, the following things are important :

Prelims level : Exercise ‘Apharan’

Mains level : Security of the Indian mercantile coasts

The Indian Navy, in collaboration with Indian Coast Guard conducted a large scale Anti Hijacking Exercise off the Port of Kochi.

Exercise ‘Apharan’

  • The Exercise code named “Apharan” saw participation of multiple agencies, including more than 12 ships and helicopters of the Indian Navy, Indian Coast Guard and Cochin Port Trust.
  • This was the first time that such a large scale exercise involving all stake holders has been conducted in Kerala.
  • It was aimed at streamlining the response mechanism/ preparedness to thwart any attempt to hijack a merchant vessel or attempt forced entry of a rogue/commandeered merchant vessel into Indian harbour.
Water Management – Institutional Reforms, Conservation Efforts, etc.

[pib] National Ganga CouncilPIB


From UPSC perspective, the following things are important :

Prelims level : National Ganga Council

Mains level : National Ganga Council and its mandate

The first meeting of the National Council for Rejuvenation, Protection and Management of River Ganga (or the National Ganga Council) was recently held in Kanpur.

 National Ganga Council

  • The National Ganga Council (NGC) is an authority created in October 2016 under the River Ganga (Rejuvenation, Protection and Management) Authorities Order, 2016, dissolving the National Ganga River Basin Authority.
  • In this backdrop, NGC has been established as an authority and National Mission for Clean Ganga has been also converted into an authority.
  • The Council has been given overall responsibility for the superintendence of pollution prevention and rejuvenation of River Ganga Basin, including Ganga and its tributaries.


  • The Prime Minister is the ex-officio Chairperson for the NGC
  • Union Minister for Water Resources, River Development and Ganga Rejuvenation will be the ex-officio Vice-Chairperson.
  • The other ex-officio members of the council are from various ministries and CMs of the corresponding states among other stakeholders.

Jurisdiction of the NGC

  • The jurisdiction of the NGC shall extend to the States comprising River Ganga Basin, namely, Himachal Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, Uttarakhand, Madhya Pradesh, Chhattisgarh, Rajasthan, West Bengal, Jharkhand, Haryana, and the NCR of Delhi and such other States, having major tributaries of the River Ganga.
Mother and Child Health – Immunization Program, BPBB, PMJSY, PMMSY, etc.

[pib] Comprehensive Lactation Management CentresPIB


From UPSC perspective, the following things are important :

Prelims level : Comprehensive Lactation Management Centres

Mains level : Breastfeeding and its significance


Breast Milk Banks in India are known as Comprehensive Lactation Management Centres (CLMC) and Lactation Management Unit (LMU) depending on the level of health facilities where these units are established.

Comprehensive Lactation Management Centres (CLMC)

  • CLMC works as per the National Guidelines on Establishment of Lactation Management Centres in Public Health Facilities.
  • The foremost endeavour of the health care providers in a health centre is to conserve the natural act of breastfeeding.
  • Lactation Management Centres are in no way intended to lessen the importance of mother’s own milk or the practice of breastfeeding.
  • If mother’s own milk is insufficient or not available for any unavoidable reason, Donor Human Milk (DHM) is the next best alternative to bridge the gap.
  • The Government has set a target of ensuring 70 per cent infants to have access to breast milk by the year 2025. Target will subsequently be increased to 100 per cent.

Why need such banks?

  • It is universally accepted that breast milk is the optimum exclusive source of nutrition for the first six months of life, and may remain part of the healthy infant diet for the first two years of life and beyond.
  • Despite advances in infant formulas, human breast milk provides a bioactive matrix of benefits that cannot be replicated by any other source of nutrition.
  • When the mother’s own milk is unavailable for the sick, hospitalized newborn, pasteurized human donor breast milk should be made available as an alternative feeding choice followed by commercial formula.
  • There is a limited supply of donor breast milk in India and it should be prioritized to sick, hospitalized neonates who are the most vulnerable and most likely to benefit from exclusive human milk feeding.

Related facts

  • Asia’s first milk bank was established in 1989 at Sion Hospital, Mumbai.
  • In 2017, the first public milk bank, called the Vatsalya — Maatri Amrit Kosh, was established at Lady Hardinge Medical College.
  • It was established in collaboration with the Norwegian government and the Oslo University as part of the Norway–India Partnership Initiative (NIPI).
Innovations in Sciences, IT, Computers, Robotics and Nanotechnology

[pib] New System for Measurement of WeightPIBPrelims Only


From UPSC perspective, the following things are important :

Prelims level : Kibble Balance, Kilogram and its definiton

Mains level : Not Much

The prototype of one kilogram (NPK-57) is now available in India and placed at the National Physical Laboratory, New Delhi. The new definition of kilogram which has come into effect from May 2019 and few countries have developed the system of realization of unit of mass ‘kg’.

How much is a kilogram?

  • Over the centuries, it has been defined and redefined, with a standard in place since 1889.
  • Called Le Grand K, a cylinder of platinum-iridium is locked up in a jar at the International Bureau of Weights and Measures (BIPM) in Paris.
  • For nearly 130 years, the mass of this cylinder has been the international standard for the kilogram.

Redefining what constitutes 1 Kg

  • Representatives from 57 countries will vote in Versailles, France, to redefine SI, or the International System of Units.
  • The kilogram’s definition will be based on a concept of physics called the Planck constant.
  • Reports worldwide suggest that the new definition is set to be voted in.

Using a Kibble Balance

  • Kibble balance is a self-calibrating electromechanical balance and provides the measurements of mass, traceable in terms of electrical parameters and provides linkage of macroscopic mass to the Planck constant (h).
  • The advantages of Kibble balance would be that the NPK need not to be sent to BIPM for calibrations and the accuracy and stability of Kibble balance is very high.
  • This is very important where low weights with high accuracies are essential, for example in pharmaceuticals and biotechnologies.
Trade Sector Updates – Falling Exports, TIES, MEIS, Foreign Trade Policy, etc.

[pib] Duty-Free Import Authorisation (DFIA) schemePIBPrelims Only


From UPSC perspective, the following things are important :

Prelims level : Duty-Free Import Authorisation (DFIA)

Mains level : Not Much

The Union Minister of Commerce and Industry has informed about the scheme.

Duty-Free Import Authorisation (DFIA)

  • DFIA is issued to allow duty free import of inputs, fuel, oil, energy sources, a catalyst which are required for production of export product.
  • The Directorate General of Foreign Trade, an agency under the Ministry of Commerce and Industry, by means of Public Notice, may exclude any product(s) from purview of DFIA.
  • Under the scheme, authorization is issued to allow duty free import of inputs.
Agricultural Marketing Reforms – eNAM, Model APMC Act, Eco Survey Reco, etc.

[pib] Antibiotics in CropsPIB


From UPSC perspective, the following things are important :

Prelims level : Read the attached story

Mains level : Not Much

The Union Minister of Agriculture and Farmers Welfare has informed about certain registered pesticides/antibiotics.

Registered Antibiotics in Crops

  • Aureofungin, Kasugamycin, Validamycin and Streptomycin+ Tetracycline combination are antibiotics which are registered under the Insecticide Act 1968 for use as pesticides to combat certain fungal and bacterial diseases in plants.
  • Use of the above pesticides is regulated under the Insecticide Act 1968 and the rules framed thereunder.
  • While registering the pesticide, the label and leaflets are also approved which contains the details of crop, disease/pest against which it is recommended, dose rate, directions about use, chemical composition, toxicity triangle, precautions to use and packaging specifications.
  • They are registered for use in the country by the Registration Committee only after satisfying about their efficacy and safety to human health, animal and environment.
Indian Navy Updates



From UPSC perspective, the following things are important :

Prelims level : NAVARMS-19

Mains level : Indian naval arsenal and its significance

The fourth edition of International Seminar cum Exhibition on Naval Weapon Systems ‘NAVARMS-19’ with the theme Make in India is set to be held.


  • NAVARMS is the only international seminar and exhibition on Naval Weapon Systems conducted in the country to invite all the stakeholders in life cycle management of Naval Weapons and provide a common platform to share their views and concerns.
  • The event provides opportunity for exchange of ideas, create awareness and identify emerging prospects for Indian/International defence industry in domain of Naval Weapon Systems.


  • India’s quintessential maritime character and vital geo-strategic location are twin factors that have defined her growth as a nation and evolution as a civilization.
  • The Indian Navy today remains the principal manifestation of India’s maritime power and plays a central role in safeguarding and prompting her security and national interests in the maritime domain.
  • The Navy’s roles and responsibilities have also expanded significantly over the years in response to changing geo-economic and geo-strategic circumstances.
  • These roles necessitate a wide inventory of weapon systems that cater for India’s security-cum-threat calculus.
Water Management – Institutional Reforms, Conservation Efforts, etc.

[pib] Per Capita availability of WaterPIB


From UPSC perspective, the following things are important :

Prelims level : Jal Jeevan Mission (JJM)

Mains level : Ensuring safe drinking water for all

The per capita availability of water in India is reducing due to the increase in population.

Water availability per person

  • The average annual per capita water availability in the years 2001 and 2011 was assessed as 1816 cubic meters and 1545 cubic meters
  • It may further reduce to 1486 cubic meters in the year 2021.

About Jal Jeevan Mission (JJM)

  • The govt. has launched Jal Jeevan Mission (JJM), which aims at providing functional household tap connections to every rural household by 2024 at the service level of 55 litre per capita per day.
  • This mission will focus on integrated demand and supply side management of water at the local level, including creation of local infrastructure for source sustainability like rainwater harvesting, groundwater recharge and management of household wastewater for reuse in agriculture.
Water Management – Institutional Reforms, Conservation Efforts, etc.

[pib] National Aquifer Mapping and Management Programme (NAQUIM)PIB


From UPSC perspective, the following things are important :

Prelims level : NAQUIM

Mains level : Acquifer mapping in India

Central Ground Water Board (CGWB) is implementing ‘National Aquifer Mapping and Management Programme’ (NAQUIM) for aquifer mapping in the country.


  • Water being a State subject, initiatives on water management including conservation and artificial recharge to ground water in the Country is primarily States’ responsibility.
  • The NAQUIM is one such initiative of the Ministry of Jal Shakti for mapping and managing the entire aquifer systems in the country.
  • The vision is to identify and map aquifers at the micro level, to quantify the available groundwater resources, and to propose plans appropriate to the scale of demand and aquifer characteristics, and institutional arrangements for participatory management.

Highlights of the mapping

  • Out of the total mappable area of nearly 25 lakh sq km, so far aquifer maps and management plans have been prepared for an area of nearly 11.24 lakh sq km spread over various parts of the country.
  • As per the ground water resource assessment carried out jointly by CGWB and State ground water departments, 1186 assessment units in the country have been categorized as over-exploited, of which aquifer mapping has been completed in nearly 75% Units.
Digital India Initiatives

[pib] RailWire Wi-FiPIB


From UPSC perspective, the following things are important :

Prelims level : RailWire

Mains level : Various Digital India initiatives

Indian Railways has successfully completed the work of providing free public Wi-Fi at 5500 stations across the country.  This is a unique initiative as this Wi-Fi network is one of the largest Wi-Fi networks in the world.


  • To transform the Railway stations into the hub of Digital inclusion, Indian Railways mandated RailTel, a Miniratna PSU under Ministry of Railways, to provide free high-speed Wi-Fi at the Railway stations.
  • The journey started in January 2016 from the financial capital of India – Mumbai Central station and in a span of 46 months Railways has successfully provided Wi-Fi at 5500 stations across the country.
  • The mission is to provide Wi-Fi at all Railway stations (except the halt ones).
  • The Wi-Fi is being provided under the brand name of RailWire.