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February 2020

Issues related to Economic growth

Is RBI raising systemic risks by pushing retail credit?


From UPSC perspective, the following things are important :

Prelims level : Not much.

Mains level : Paper 3-Is RBI raising systemic risks by pushing retail credit?


Credit driven growth may not lead to sustainable growth.

Credit driven economic boom

  • RBI and govt. acting in line: Both the government and Reserve Bank of India (RBI) have acted in line with their stated commitment towards the defined fiscal and monetary stability framework.
    • Given the pressures of a dwindling growth rate and limited fiscal and monetary elbow room, this is commendable.
  • Growth without increasing systemic risk: It is critical that the decisions taken to revive growth have a high likelihood of success without increasing systemic risk in the medium to long run.
    • Recent push may add to systemic risk: In this context, it may be argued that RBI’s recent push for retail credit growth would add to systemic risk, while the benefits for India’s gross domestic product growth (GDP) may be limited.
    • Credit-driven economic booms always end in economic misery.
  • Credit is a necessary evil: To pump-prime an economy, very few tools exist other than credit.
    • Thus there is all the more reason to handle it with care. In current economic growth frameworks, economic growth requires
    • Quite often, credit creation is the ultimate source of capital.
    • If the government spends by increasing its fiscal deficit, government debt increases. If the private sector borrows to invest and kick-start growth, its leverage increases.
    • What could be the best source of credit? The best use of credit is when it is used to finance real assets in the economy.
    • Creation of financial asset: When credit does not create real assets, it inevitably creates financial assets such as bonds held by investors, loans held by banks, or accounts receivables held by firms.
    • The precursor to a crisis: An overabundance of financial assets created by credit is a precursor to a crisis.

How types of loans matters for growth and risk of the system

  • How money is used matters for reviving sustainable growth: Taking a consumer loan to splurge on a vacation or celebratory dinner does very little to support long-term growth. It creates economic activity only in the immediate period.
    • Which sector should be pushed to ramp up credit and how that money is used become important if reviving sustainable growth is the objective.
  • In a paper titled Who Gets The Credit And Does It Matter, Thorsten Beck et al studied the growth dynamics of 45 countries for the period from 1994 to 2005.
    • Only loans to firms contribute to growth: The paper concluded that only loans to firms are linked to GDP growth, the argument being that firms use credit to increase their capital stock, and thus, real assets.
    • Loans to households do not add substantially to growth: Loans to households, while having desirable social outcomes in terms of boosting consumption and allowing households to tide over short-term cash flow mismatches, do not add to sustainable GDP growth.
    • It is debatable whether consumer loans need a push at all.
  • Retail and household debt growth
    • Retail loan growth, while currently below its 2016 peak of 20%, has been managing to grow at around 15%.
    • Household debt: In December 2019, RBI cautioned lenders on household debt levels and the associated risk on retail loans.
    • Relation with banking crisis: Higher growth in household debt is associated with higher chances of a banking crisis (Household Debt And Monetary Stability, IMF, 2017).
  • Consumer loans not always add to capital stocks: Another kind of consumer loan, the home loan, need not always add to incremental capital stock. Given how slowly the supply of homes responds to demand in the short term, excess credit supply is known to add to the risk.
    • Of course, consumer loans such as education loans, which upgrade human resources, are a notable exception.
    • In fact, mortgage booms have played key roles in most credit blow-ups.
  • Surprising steps by the RBI
    • Risk weight of consumer loans lowered: Surprisingly, RBI reduced the risk weight for consumer loans other than credit card debt from 125% to 100% in September 2019.
    • Waiver to CRR requirement: Recently, RBI decided to waive lenders’ cash reserve requirement against new exposure to home, auto and Micro, Small and Medium Enterprises (MSME) loans.
  • Futile attempts to revive commercial lending:
    • Home loan growth was hovering around 15% for the last two years.
    • Commercial credit growth falling: Growth of commercial credit (loans to industry and services as per RBI), which last exhibited 20%-plus growth in June 2012, has been falling.
    • Since 2016, its annual growth averaged around 6%, with a strong downward trend observed since March 2019.
    • Efforts to revive commercial lending have not borne fruit.
    • Misplaced belief needs to be relooked: This misplaced belief—“if not commercial, let retail loans revive the economy”—needs to be re-looked.
    • The simplistic understanding that any credit uptick can revive the economy needs to change.
  • What retails at best can achieve? India’s retail credit push, if successful, may at best check the downward trend in GDP growth.
    • The argument that it will revive growth is based on optimism.
    • The assumption here being that consumption will drive the current capacity utilization of 69% to somewhere above 85%, which will trigger capital expenditure.
    • This assumes that the consumer loan boom, already a decade old, will continue for another 3-4 years.
  • Chances of household balance sheet weakening: In an environment of low job growth, it is difficult to see how household leverage will not increase.
    • If capacity utilization does not pick up sufficiently to revive growth, then along with banking and corporate balance sheets, household balance sheets will also be weakened.
    • Over the next 3-5 years, the downside of RBI’s retail push appears at least as significant as the upside.


  • Polity stability needed: The government and RBI must make more determined efforts to revive corporate activity. Policy stability and confidence in the business environment may push commercial credit better than mere interest rate cuts.
  • Need to increase government spending: Among the options available, using good old government spending to stimulate infrastructure spending, and eventually, the economy, appears to be a wiser option.


Tax Reforms

No gains for taxpayers


From UPSC perspective, the following things are important :

Prelims level : DDT-What is dividend distribution tax?

Mains level : Paper 3- What are the steps taken in the budget in order to simplify the taxation in India.


Loss expected from lower tax rates may be countered by gains from the settlement of cases, higher dividend taxes on top incomes, and the wider scope for taxing international incomes.

Simplification and providing ease to the taxpayers

  • Fiscal constraints leaving no room for a lower rate: Ahead of The Union budget, taxpayers had anticipated a wide range of measures that they hoped would stoke demand.
    • These ranged from lower tax rates to a more even tax structure on income from various sources.
    • As the former was less feasible given the fiscal constraints, the budget proposals focused on simplification and providing ease to the taxpayer.
  • Simplification in personal tax: The recalibration of personal income tax slabs was suggested as a step towards simplification.
    • However, its uptake is contingent on the preference for new slabs.
    • Who will not opt for a new slab? Switching over to the new slab rates is not beneficial to-
    • An individual currently claiming full exemptions.
    • An individual with incomes comprising largely of capital gains.
    • It is possible, however, that individuals do not claim such exemptions or deductions.
  • How switching to new slab impact revenue? An analysis of data published by the Central Board of Direct Taxes suggests that for the assessment year 2018-19, it suggest improvement in the collection.
    • 1% improvement: If individuals do switch over to the new regime, it may translate to a 1 per cent improvement in tax collections, rather than a loss.
  • Limited takers of the new slab: It can be inferred that this option may be exercised by few individuals, if at all, since the potential gains from foregoing exemptions and the intended simplification is expected to be limited.

Tax disputes

  • The new scheme proposed: A common concern among taxpayers is protracted disputes. To reduce litigation, a new scheme has been proposed.
  • Importance of precedence in disputes: 39 per cent of the cases made a reference to a similar case in the previous year. This underscores the importance of precedence.
  • In such cases, the settlement is not a superior option as the waiver of the penalty and interest does not offer any advantage against a decision that would impact future assessment.
  • Success rates of disputes: The success rate of the tax department is 27 per cent at the Income Tax Appellate Tribunal (ITAT) and the Supreme Court and 12 per cent in appeals filed in high courts.
    • Given the odds of success, an assessee may thus be tempted to pursue litigation.
  • Incentivising the settlement: Taxpayers may choose to settle for the waiver of interest and penalty in cases where it is one time and does not set a precedent for future transactions.

Dividend Distribution Tax (DDT)

  • What is DDT?  It is one of the significant change is in the taxation of dividends.
    • The dividend distribution tax is a unique levy on distributed profits and is payable by the distributing company.
    • What is the shortcoming in DDT? The shortcoming of such tax is that foreign investors can’t claim the credit.
    • Additional 10 % of DDT: In an effort to make the tax progressive, an additional dividend tax of 10 per cent was introduced for domestic investors receiving dividend in excess of Rs 10 lakh.
  • Dividend pay-out decreased after DDT: Changes in DDT were accompanied by a decline in dividend pay-out – the proportion of profits paid as dividends declined from 30 per cent in early 2000s to 22 per cent in 2019 (BSE 500 companies).
    • Chance of improvement in pay-outs: It is expected that the reversion to the classical system may improve dividends pay-outs.
    • However, this will benefit individual taxpayers with incomes below Rs 5 lakh as the slab rate applicable is less than the existing rate.

Taxing cross-border income

  • In the international arena, India is determined to tax cross-border incomes.
  • Taxing digital companies: The addition of explanation 3A to the Income Tax Act reinforces India’s commitment to taxing digital companies.
  • What comprises the business with nexus to India: The proposed amendment clarifies that incomes related to the advertisement, sale of data of a person residing in India and sale of goods and services based on the data of a person residing in India, may be attributed to a business with nexus in India.
  • Taxing citizen not taxable anywhere: To tax Indian citizens that are not taxable in any other jurisdiction, the Act will now deem such individuals as resident taxable in India.
    • While the application of the law may be challenged giving rise to disputes, it is a step forward.

The proposal of Citizen’s charter

  • Charter on rights and obligations: The finance minister also referred to introducing a citizen’s charter that incorporates taxpayer’s rights and obligations.
    • Limits of charters: International experience shows that charters have limited enforceability unless adopted in primary legislation.
  • Supporting charters with legislation: Introducing charter to the statutes may, therefore, prove to be a positive initiative.
    • Faith can be built through enforcement of the charter.
    • However, the penal provisions must be well-thought-out so as to avoid adding another contentious element.


  • Lack of uniformity: The budget proposals aimed to provide simplicity, yet much remains to be done, given the lack of uniformity in the taxation of incomes such as capital gains.
  • Limited revenue implications: The success of schemes proposed is contingent on the traction they gain. As for the revenue implications, the impact of these measures may, in fact, be limited.
  • Countering loss through gains from settlements: Loss expected from lower tax rates may be countered by gains from the settlement of cases, higher dividend taxes on top incomes, and the wider scope for taxing international incomes.

Aadhaar Card Issues

Aadhaar, no standout performer in welfare delivery


From UPSC perspective, the following things are important :

Prelims level : Not much.

Mains level : Paper 2- Aadhaar- how it has fared so far?


Aadhaar-based biometric authentication did not reduce PDS leakages, finds Jharkhand-based empirical study

What was the rationale behind Aadhaar?

  • What did the UIDAI’s report say? Aadhaar has curtailed leakages of government subsidies. Through Aadhaar, savings worth ₹90,000 crores have accrued to the government– UIDAI’s2017-18 annual report.
  • Plugging the leakages in the schemes: When Aadhaar was conceived a decade ago, the rationale postulated was: India spends nearly three trillion rupees a year across several core welfare programmes such as Public Distribution System (PDS), LPG, Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act etc.
    • Huge leakage due to duplications: Roughly 30-40% of this three trillion is lost in leakages.
    • Leakages are largely due to ‘ghost’ and ‘duplicate’ beneficiaries using fake identities to avail these benefits; a unique identity biometric scheme can eliminate these leakages and vastly improve efficiency in welfare delivery.
  • Improve welfare delivery efficiency: In fact, the former Union Minister, Arun Jaitley, even renamed the Aadhaar Bill to ‘Targeted Delivery of Financial and other Subsidies, Benefits and Services’ Bill, making it amply clear that Aadhaar’s primary, if not sole purpose, was to improve welfare delivery efficiency.

What are the findings of study?

  • How was the study carried out?
    • Use of RCT and sample of 15 million people: They conducted a scientifically designed study of the PDS system in Jharkhand covering 15 million beneficiaries using the technique of randomised control trials (RCT).
    • In the study, one set of beneficiaries went through the Aadhaar-based biometric authentication while the other group used the old system of procuring their ration.
  • The results were then compared to see if Aadhaar-based biometric authentication had any impact in reducing leakages.
  • What were the findings of the study?
  • No measurable benefit: The study concluded that Aadhaar-based biometric authentication had no measurable benefit.
    • No reduction in leakages: Aadhaar-based biometric authentication did not reduce leakages due to elimination of ghosts and duplicates, as widely perceived.
  • Increase in transaction costs for beneficiary: On the other hand, they found that Aadhaar-based biometric authentication increased transaction costs for beneficiaries.
    • 17% extra cost: That is, to claim ration worth ₹40, beneficiaries in the Aadhaar system incurred an additional ₹7 of costs than those in the old system, because of multiple trips to authenticate themselves and the opportunity cost of time spent.
    • This is a whopping 17% extra cost burden of the value of the benefit they were entitled to receive.
  • Type 1 error of exclusion: To make matters worse, Aadhaar-based biometric authentication also introduced what empirical scientists call Type I error of exclusion.
    • Aadhaar authentication falsely rejected genuine PDS beneficiaries who were then denied their ration supplies.
    • The study finds that nearly 10% of legitimate beneficiaries were denied their ration either because they did not have their Aadhaar linked to their ration card or due to an exclusion error.
  • Summary of the finding: In summary, the study states that there was-
    • No direct impact of Aadhaar in reducing leakages.
    • 2. It denied ration to 10% of genuine beneficiaries and increased costs by 17% to those that were forced to get their ration using Aadhaar.
    • Pain with no gain: They conclude that Aadhaar authentication for PDS in Jharkhand caused “some pain with no gain”.

What premises were wrong about Addhaar?

  • No testing of empirical belief: There was a widespread belief among the policy elite that ghosts and duplicates were the scourge of India’s welfare delivery and that Aadhaar would eliminate this.
    • But this belief was never empirically tested.
    • Based on this belief, an entire story was concocted about improving welfare efficiency by eliminating ghosts and duplicates with Aadhaar and a whole new law was enacted to this effect.
  • The pilot project not carried out: Many studies now establish that ghosts and duplicates are not the significant cause of leakages.
    • It would have been better to have undertaken a robust pilot project of scale to test the belief about ghosts and duplicates, before embarking on it nationwide.


In a sociologist’s world and in a liberal society, a policy that could run the risk of denying welfare to just a few people, putting their lives at risk, is not worth implementing regardless of how many millions it benefits.





Industrial Sector Updates – Industrial Policy, Ease of Doing Business, etc.

Explained: Central Consumer Protection Authority (CCPA)


From UPSC perspective, the following things are important :

Prelims level : Terms of References for the office of CCPA

Mains level : CCPA, New Consumer Protection Laws, 2019



Recently the Union Ministry of Consumer Affairs has announced that a Central Consumer Protection Authority (CCPA) will be established by the first week of April.

What is the Central Consumer Protection Authority?

  • The authority is being constituted under Section 10(1) of The Consumer Protection Act, 2019.
  • The Act replaced The Consumer Protection Act, 1986, and seeks to widen its scope in addressing consumer concerns.
  • The CCPA, introduced in the new Act, aims to protect the rights of the consumer by cracking down on unfair trade practices, and false and misleading advertisements that are detrimental to the interests of the public and consumers.

Why need CCPA?

  • The new Act recognizes offences such as providing false information regarding the quality or quantity of a good or service, and misleading advertisements.
  • It also specifies action to be taken if goods and services are found “dangerous, hazardous or unsafe”.
  • The CCPA will have the powers to inquire or investigate into matters relating to violations of consumer rights or unfair trade practices suo motu, or on a complaint received, or on a direction from the central government.

What can the possible structure of CCPA be?

  • The proposed authority will be a lean body with a Chief Commissioner as head, and only two other commissioners as members — one of whom will deal with matters relating to goods while the other will look into cases relating to services.
  • It will be headquartered in the NCR of Delhi but the central government may set up regional offices in other parts of the country.
  • The CCPA will have an Investigation Wing that will be headed by a Director General.
  • District Collectors too, will have the power to investigate complaints of violations of consumer rights, unfair trade practices, and false or misleading advertisements.

What kind of goods and food items in particular, can be classified as “dangerous, hazardous or unsafe”?

  • This is not specified in the notification of the Act.
  • Regarding food, an official said the CCPA will ensure that all standards on packaged food items set by regulators such as the FSSAI are being followed.

What will the CCPA do if any goods or services are found not meeting these standards?

Under Section 20 of The Consumer Protection Act, the proposed authority will have powers to:

  1. recall goods or withdrawal of services that are “dangerous, hazardous or unsafe;
  2. pass an order for refund the prices of goods or services so recalled to purchasers of such goods or services and
  3. discontinuation of practices which are unfair and prejudicial to consumer’s interest


For manufacture, selling, storage, distribution, or import of adulterated products, the penalties are:

  1. If injury is not caused to a consumer, fine up to Rs 1 lakh with imprisonment up to six months;
  2. If injury is caused, fine up to Rs 3 lakh with imprisonment up to one year;
  3. If grievous hurt is caused, fine up to Rs 5 lakh with imprisonment up to 7 years;
  4. In case of death, fine of Rs 10 lakh or more with a minimum imprisonment of 7 years, extendable to imprisonment for life.

How will it deal with false or misleading advertisements?

  • Section 21 of the new Act defines the powers given to the CCPA to crack down on false or misleading advertisements.
  • The CCPA may order investigation that any advertisement is false or misleading and is harmful to the interest of any consumer, or is in contravention of consumer rights.
  • If dissatisfied, the CCPA may issue directions to the trader, manufacturer, endorser, advertiser, or publisher to discontinue such an advertisement, or modify it in a manner specified by the authority, within a given time.


  1. The authority may also impose a penalty up to Rs 10 lakh, with imprisonment up to two years, on the manufacturer or endorser of false and misleading advertisements.
  2. The penalty may go up to Rs 50 lakh, with imprisonment up to five years, for every subsequent offence committed by the same manufacturer or endorser.
  3. CCPA may ban the endorser of a false or misleading advertisement from making endorsement of any products or services in the future, for a period that may extend to one year.
  4. The ban may extend up to three years in every subsequent violation of the Act.

What other powers will the CCPA have?

  • While conducting an investigation after preliminary inquiry, officers of the CCPA’s Investigation Wing will have the powers to enter any premise and search for any document or article, and to seize these.
  • For search and seizure, the CCPA will have similar powers given under the provisions of The Code of Criminal Procedure, 1973.
  • The CCPA can file complaints of violation of consumer rights or unfair trade practices before the District, State, and the National Consumer Disputes Redressal Commission.
  • It will issue safety notices to alert consumers against dangerous or hazardous or unsafe goods or services.

Also read:

Five new rights you get as a consumer

International Space Agencies – Missions and Discoveries

2020 CD3: A mini-moon


From UPSC perspective, the following things are important :

Prelims level : 2020 CD3, Temporarily Captured Object (TCO)

Mains level : Not Much



Astronomers have observed a small object orbiting Earth, which they have dubbed a “mini-moon” or the planet’s “second moon”.

2020 CD3

  • The mini-moon was discovered by some astronomers at NASA-funded Catalina Sky Survey (CSS) in Arizona.
  • It is actually an asteroid, about the size of a car; its diameter is about 1.9-3.5 m.
  • And unlike our permanent Moon, the mini-moon is temporary; it will eventually break free of Earth’s orbit and go off on its own way.
  • Orbit integrations indicate that this object is temporarily bound to the Earth.
  • 2020 CD3 was captured into Earth’s orbit over three years ago.
  • For CSS, it is only the second such discovery. It previously discovered 2006 RH120, which orbited Earth for some time that year, before it escaped in 2007.

Where do such moons come from?

  • When an asteroid’s orbit crosses Earth’s orbit, it can sometimes be captured into the latter orbit. This is what happened with 2020 CD3.
  • It is now orbiting at a distance farther from Earth. Such an asteroid is called a Temporarily Captured Object (TCO).
  • The orbit of such objects is unstable. They have to contend with the gravitational influence of our permanent Moon as well as that of the Sun.
  • Once caught in Earth’s orbit, such objects usually remain for a few years before they break free and go into independent orbit around the Sun.

Banking Sector Reforms

Enhanced Access and Service Excellence (EASE) 3.0


From UPSC perspective, the following things are important :

Prelims level : EASE 3.0

Mains level : Ease and data-driven PSBs



Union Finance minister has released Enhanced Access and Service Excellence (EASE) 3.0, the new reform agenda for tech-enabled banking.

EASE 3.0

  • EASE 3.0 aims at providing smart, tech-enabled public sector banking experience for aspiring India, by establishing paperless and digitally-enabled banking at places where people visit the most such as malls, stations etc.
  • With EASE 3.0, the government is trying to enhance the customer experience with the introduction of features like Dial-a-loan, credit at a click, alternate-data-based lending or other analytics-based credit offers.

Various features

  • Palm Banking for “End-to-end digital delivery of financial service
  • “Banking on Go” via EASE banking outlets at frequently visited spots like malls, stations, complexes, and campuses
  • Digitalizing the experience at public sector bank branches

Food Processing Industry: Issues and Developments

Market Intelligence and Early Warning System (MIEWS)


From UPSC perspective, the following things are important :

Prelims level : MIEWS, TOP

Mains level : Ensuring fair prices for TOP produce



The Union Food Processing Ministry has launched a new Market Intelligence and Early Warning System (MIEWS) portal to monitor the prices of TOP crops – Tomato, Onion and Potato.


  • MIEWS portal is the first-of-its-kind platform for ‘real-time monitoring’ of prices of tomato, onion and potato.
  • The system has been designed to provide advisories to farmers to avoid cyclical production and issue early warnings in situations of gluts.
  • It will simultaneously generate alerts for price intervention under the terms of Operation Greens (OG) scheme.
  • It will generate early alerts in case there is going to be a major change in the prices of these crops.
  • This will help in planning and timely intervention for price stabilization. The portal can be accessed at this link-

Utility of MIEWS

The MIEWS would:

  • Monitor the supply situation for timely market intervention,
  • Assist in rapid response during times of glut to move the produce from glut regions to regions with deficit supply.
  • Provide inputs for export/import decision making.


Operation Greens

  • In the budget speech of Union Budget 2018-19, a new Scheme “Operation Greens” was announced on the line of “Operation Flood” to promote Farmer Producers Organizations (FPOs #), agri-logistics, processing facilities and professional management.
  • Accordingly, the Ministry has formulated a scheme for integrated development of Tomato, Onion and Potato (TOP) value chain.
  • Under the OG Scheme, during a glut situation, the evacuation of surplus production from producing areas to consumption centres will be undertaken in the following cases:
  1. When the price falls below the average market price at the time of harvest in the preceding 3 years.
  2. When the price falls more than 50 percent in comparison to the previous year’s market price at the time of harvest.
  3. When the price falls below the benchmark, if any, fixed by either the state or central government for a stipulated period.

For additional readings, navigate to:

Climate Change Impact on India and World – International Reports, Key Observations, etc.

[pib] Indian National Centre for Ocean Information Services (INCOIS)


From UPSC perspective, the following things are important :

Prelims level : Various initiaitives mentioned in the newscard

Mains level : Not Much



The INCOIS Hyderabad has launched a trio of products for users in the marine realm.


  • The institute is an autonomous organisation under the Ministry of Earth Sciences.
  • INCOIS prioritises requests for specific services from its diverse user community that ranges right from fishermen to offshore oil exploration industries.

Products launched:

Small Vessel Advisory and Forecast Services System (SVAS)  

The SVAS is an innovative impact-based advisory and forecast service system for small vessels operating in Indian coastal waters.

  • The SVA system warns users about potential zones where vessel overturning can take place, ten days in advance.
  • The advisories are valid for small vessels of beam width up to 7 m.
  • This limit covers the entire range of beam widths of the fishing vessels used in all the 9 coastal states and union territories of India.
  • The warning system is based on the  ‘Boat Safety Index’ (BSI) derived from wave model forecast outputs such as significant wave height, wave steepness, directional spread and the rapid development of wind at sea which is boat-specific.

Swell Surge Forecast System (SSFS)

SSFS is an innovative system designed for the prediction of Kallakkadal/Swell Surge that occurs along the Indian coast, particularly the west coast.

  • Kallakadal/Swell surge are flash-flood events that take place without any noticeable advance change in local winds or any other apparent signature in the coastal environment.
  • Hence the local population remains totally unaware of these flooding events until they actually occur. Such events are intermittent throughout the year.
  • Kallakkadal is a colloquial term used by Kerala fishermen to refer to the freaky flooding episodes and in 2012 UNESCO formally accepted this term for scientific use.
  • Kallakkadal are caused by meteorological conditions in the Southern Ocean, south of 30°S.
  • These swells once generated, travel northward and reach the Indian coasts in 3-5 days time, creating havoc in the coastal areas.
  • The system will now predict Kallakkadal and warnings will be given to concerned authorities at least 2-3 days in advance, which will help the local authorities for contingency plans and to reduce damage.

Algal Bloom Information Service (ABIS)

  • The increasing frequency of algal blooms is a major concern due to its ill effects on the fishery, marine life and water quality.
  • INCOIS has developed a service for “Detection and Monitoring of Bloom in the Indian Seas”.
  • The target users are fishermen, marine fishery resource managers, researchers, ecologists and environmentalists.
  • The service also complements INCOIS’ marine fishing advisories i.e. Potential Fishing Zone advisories.
  • INCOIS-ABIS will provide near-real-time information on spatio-temporal occurrence and spread of phytoplankton blooms over the North Indian Ocean.
  • In addition, four regions have been identified as bloom hotspots viz.

a) North Eastern Arabian Sea

b) coastal waters off Kerala

c) Gulf of Mannar and

d) coastal waters of Gopalpur

Water Management – Institutional Reforms, Conservation Efforts, etc.

[pib] ‘1000 Springs’ Initiative


From UPSC perspective, the following things are important :

Prelims level : ‘1000 Springs’ Initiative

Mains level : Conservation of aquifers



Union Tribal Affairs Ministry has launched “1000 Spring Initiatives” and an online portal on GIS-based Spring Atlas with hydrological and chemical properties of the Springs on the occasion.

‘1000 Springs’ Initiative

  • The ‘1000 Springs Initiative’ aims at improving access to safe and adequate water for the tribal communities living in a difficult and inaccessible part of rural areas in the country.
  • It is an integrated solution around natural springs.
  • It includes the provision of infrastructure for piped water supply for drinking; provision of water for irrigation; community-led total sanitation initiatives; and provision for water for backyard nutrition gardens, generating sustainable livelihood opportunities for the tribal people.
  • It will help in harnessing the potential of perennial springs’ water to address the natural scarcity of water in tribal areas.

Spring Atlas

  • Springs are natural sources of groundwater discharge and have been used extensively in the mountainous regions across the world, including India.
  • However, in the central and eastern Indian belt with more than 75% tribal population, it remains largely unrecognized and under-utilized.
  • An online portal on GIS-based Spring Atlas has been developed to make these data easily accessible from an online platform.
  • Presently, data of more than 170 springs have been uploaded on the Spring Atlas.

Innovations in Sciences, IT, Computers, Robotics and Nanotechnology

[pib] Responsible AI for Social Empowerment (RAISE) 2020


From UPSC perspective, the following things are important :

Prelims level : RAISE 20202

Mains level : Creating a roadmap to harness AI



The Govt. has announced the mega event, RAISE 2020- ‘Responsible AI for Social Empowerment 2020,’ to be held in April in New Delhi.

RAISE 2020

  • RAISE 2020 is a first of its kind, a global meeting of minds on Artificial Intelligence to drive India’s vision and roadmap for social empowerment, inclusion and transformation through responsible AI.
  • It is India’s first Artificial Intelligence summit to be organized by the Government in partnership with Industry & Academia.
  • The summit will be a global meeting of minds to exchange ideas and charter a course to use AI for social empowerment, inclusion and transformation in key areas like Healthcare, Agriculture, Education and Smart Mobility amongst other sectors.
  • It will facilitate an exchange of ideas to further create a mass awareness about the need to ethically develop and practice AI in the digital era.

Innovations in Biotechnology and Medical Sciences

Species in news: Henneguya Salminicola


From UPSC perspective, the following things are important :

Prelims level : Henneguya Salminicola

Mains level : NA



Researchers at Tel Aviv University have discovered a non-oxygen breathing animal, which significantly changes one of science’s assumptions about the animal world — that all animals use aerobic respiration and therefore, oxygen.

Henneguya Salminicola

  • The organism is Henneguya salminicola, a fewer-than-10-celled microscopic parasite that lives in salmon muscle.
  • It relies on anaerobic respiration (through which cells extract energy without using oxygen).
  • In the case of this non-oxygen breathing organism, evolution turned it into a simpler organism that shed “unnecessary genes” responsible for aerobic respiration.
  • Other organisms such as fungi and amoebas that are found in anaerobic environments lost the ability to breathe over time.
  • The new study shows that the same can happen in the case of animals, too.

What is Aerobic respiration?

  • Animals, including humans, need energy to perform the various tasks that are essential for survival.
  • Aerobic respiration is one such chemical reaction through which organisms take in oxygen and release carbon dioxide into the atmosphere.
  • Through this mechanism, energy is transferred to cells, which can use it for multiple purposes — for instance, to burn food.
  • Mitochondria is the “powerhouse” of the cell, which captures oxygen to make energy — its absence in the H. salminicola genome indicates that the parasite does not breathe oxygen.